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CONTENTS

Object of the work—Prehistoric inhabitants of Britain—The Welsh bards on the

first settlement–The ancient Fauna of the island-Commencement of authentic

history—The Hyperborean legends—The travels of Pytheas in Britain-Fragments

of his writings—Marseilles in the age of Alexander the Great—Her commerce-

Rivalry with Carthage-Mineral riches of Spain-Extensive deposits of tin-Manu-

facture of bronze—The Phænician commerce—The visit of Scipio to Marseilles-

Plans for interfering with trade of Carthage-Voyage of discovery proposed— The

scientific discoveries of Pytheas—He is chosen as leader of an expedition-His

writings—Course of the expedition-Gadeira – The Tagus-Erroneous notions of

Spanish geography-Havens of the Artabri—Situation of the Cassiterides on

Spanish coast-Description of the inhabitants—Visit of Publius Crassus—Theory

that the Cassiterides were the Scilly Islands discussed— Carthagenian discoveries-

The voyages of Hanno and Himilco—Course of Himilco's voyage—The tin-

districts—The Sargasso Sea–Teneriffe-Pytheas at Finisterre-Religious rites

of natives—The Pyrenees—The Ligurian shore-The Loire and Island of Amnis

- Barbarous ritual — The Morbihan and Celtic Islands, The College of Druidesses

– Voyage to Britain-Albion and lerne-Pytheas travels in Britain-His obser-

vations—Erroneous measurements—Ancient ideas of the extent of the world—

State of Kent and Southern Britain- Wheat-cultivation—Metheglin and beer-

Agriculture-Mode of dressing corn-Pytheas did not visit Ireland, or the West

of Britain— Traditions of Stonehenge-British trade in tin-British coins from

Greek models-Districts where tin is found-The Island of Mictis or Ictis-Its

situation-Probably to be identified with Thanet—Visit of Posidonius–Descrip-

tion of tin-works--Portus Itius—Thanet formerly an island-S Michael's Mount

formerly situaied inland

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THE GAULS IN BRITAIN.

Invasion by the King of Soissons-Older settlements—Kingdoms of Kent-

Forest of Anderida—The Trinobantes-Extent of their dominions-The Iceni-

The Catuvellaunian Confederacy-Civilization of the Gaulish settlers—Physical

appearance -- Dress–Ornaments - Equipments in peace and in war-Scythed

chariots-Agricultural knowledge-Cattle-Domestic life

page 105

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Relgion of the British tribes—Its influence on the literature of romance-

Theores about Druidism-The Welsh Triads—Their date and authority-Legend

of High the Mighty-Mythological poems of the bards—Taliesin-Nature of the

poems written under his name—Religion of the Gauls—Its nature—The greater

gods-Dis Pater— The mode of reckoning by nights--The Gaulish Mercury and

Minera- The worship of Belenus--Adoration of plants - Esus - Teutates-

Camuus— Taranis-Goddesses and helpmates of gods, Local deities—The Mothers

- Gimts-Inserior gods-Origin of Druidism-Druidism in Britain-Scottish and

Irish Druids—The nature of their ceremonies—Their magic-Position of the Druids

in Gul— Their philosophy-Human sacrifices-Relics of the practice-Its traces

in Eritain and Ireland-Slaughter of hostages-Sacrifices for stability of buildings

- Doctrines of the Druids—Their astronomy-Metempsychosis—Disappearance of

Druidism--From the Roman provinces—From Ireland and Scotland --Other

remains of British religions—How preserved-In legends of saints-In romance-

General character of the religion-Nature of the idols-Superstitions about natural

phenomena ---Mirage-Sunset -- Mineral springs-Laughing wells - Worship of

elements—The Irish gods- The Digda-Moon-worship-Degradation of British

gods—Their appearance as kings and chiefs—In the fabulous history-- In the heroic

songs—Principal families of gods—Children of Don-of Nudd-of Lir-Legends

of Cordelia-Bran the Blessed-Manannan Mac Lir--Ritual-Relics of Sun.

worship--Of fire-worship-Rustic sacrifices-Offerings of animals to saints—Sacred

animals— Prohibition of certain kinds of food-Connected with claims of descent

from animals-Origin of these superstitions

...page 248
CHAPTER X I.

Character of the Roman Conquest — The century of peace after Cæsar's invasion

- Increase of commerce with Gaul-Fresh settlements of Gauls in Britain-The

Artrebates—The Belgæ– The Parisii — Prosperity of the native states— Metallurgy-

List of exports-End of the peace—The capture of Camulodunum-The triumph

of Claudius–Massacre of the captives—Enrolment of British regiments-Conquest

of the Southern Districts—The colony of Camulodunum — Tyrannical ineasures-

Revolt of the Iceni-Victory of Paullinus — The province constituted— Agricola's

beneficial government—The visit of Hadrian-The four legions—Description of

Caerleon-Growth of towns-Hadrian's Wall-Description of its remains—The

Wall of Antoninus-Tablets erected by the soldiers— Their worship and superstitions

- The expedition of rerus-Death of the Emperor at York—The revolt of

Carausius-Influence of the Franks--Diocletian's scheme of government-Reigns

of Constantius and Constantine the Great-A new system of administration—The

military roads--Whether identical with the mediæval highways-Course of Watling

Street—The Roman system of communications—Three lines from north to south-

Transverse routes in the North-Connections with roads in the South and West-

The district of the Saxon Shore-Course of the Ikenild Way-The routes in the

Antonine Itinerary—The Peutingerian Table—The effect on Britain of the new

constitution—Increase of taxation-Establishment of Christianity in Briain-

Gradual decay of paganism-Pantheistic religions--State of the frontiers - The

Picts and Scots—The Franks and Saxons - Victories of Theodosius—The Revolt

of Maximus—The successes of Stilicho-Usurpation of Constantine—The treason

of Gerontius-The independence of Britain

..page 302

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Troubles of the independent Britons-Fresh invasions of Picts and Scots—The

Saxon Pirates—The Halleluia Victory – The appeal to Aetius-Beginnings of the

English Conquest-Character of the authorities—Early Welsh poems-Nennius-

Romances of Arthur—The history of Gildas-Its dramatic nature—Its imitation of the

Vulgate—The story of Vortigern-His war with the mercenaries — The victory of

Ambrosius— The Mons Badonicus-English accounts of the Conquest—The Anglo-

Saxon Chronicle-Influence of ancient ballads-Description of the invasion—The

three kindreds—Their continental home-Relative positions of Saxons Angles and

Jutes—Theories as to other invading tribes—The Frisians—Argument from local

names—The Conquest of Kent-Welsh traditions-Horsa's Tomb- Legends of

Hengist—The Conquest of Sussex—Destruction of Anderida-Fate of the Roman

towns—Rise of the House of Cerdic-Conquest of Wessex-–Victories of Cerdic

and Cynric – The fate of Ceaulin-Genealogies of the Kings - The Conquest of

Northumbria—Reign of Ida--Welsh traditions—Reign of Ælle-Of Edwin-Of

Æthelfrith-General description of the conquest-Ancient poems—The sea-kings

described by Sidonius—Their ships and crews-- The lord and his companions-

Gradual degradation of the peasantry, Life in free townships-Co-operative hus-

bandry--Cominunity of ownership-Village customs-Heathen survivals— Festivals

-Sacrifices—Character of English paganism—The gradual conversion of the English

kingdoms.

..page 358

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