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What was it which, out of those few small classes of raw lads, developed a Grant, a Lee, a Sherman, a Meade, a Jackson, a Thomas, the two Johnstons, a Hancock, a Reno, a Reynolds and a Sheridan, not to mention scores of others who "waxed valiant in fight” and commanded divisions and corps with a skill and address which have excited the admiration of the professional soldiers of Europe ? Doubtless in some part it was the romance and the highly stimulating influences of the military career. Doubtless in part also it was the special inspiration of the tremendous occasion, fraught as that was with the destinies of a continent. But I believe it, in still greater part, to have been the perfectly natural effect of the application of perhaps not extraordinary powers to the thorough, patient, unremitting study of scientific principles, directed straight upon a worthy profession, under the tuition and guidance of renowned masters of that art, and under the constant infinence of professional ideas, professional sentiments and great professional examples.
A great deal more might be said in comparison of the influence of scientific teaching as carried on in the schools of applied science and technology with the influence of the traditional, or of the more modern, modified curriculum of the classical colleges; but perhaps enough has been said to justify the assertion that the former class of institutions are just as truly educational as the latter. Here I am content to rest my case. This conceded, let the youth of the land seek the one or the other kind of school, according to their individual tastes, predilections and plans for life. I am far from being so bigoted as to suggest that there is not room enough in the educational system of the future for all the institutions of the elder type which have achieved for themselves a name in letters and philosophy; which have, with pains inexpressible, wrought out their own problems and created their own constituencies; and each of which has a host of cager, devoted alumni ever turning gratefully to the halls in which they were nurtured and delighting to give to the old college the fruit of their labors and the fruit of their loins. But I confidently look to see a largely disproportionate number of the new institutions wbich shall from time to time come into being built essentially upon the plan which has achieved such prodigious successes during the quarter century now closing. Donbtless the present general scheme of the schools of technology will itself undergo considerable modification, alike froin the results of added experience, from larger means and from the infusion of a wiser and more generous spirit. Doubtless more of economic, historical and philosophical studies will be
Internet to plant, ly their liberalizing tendencies, the work utite promet illi fooking their pupils exact and strong. Possibly het attenta fure for institutions of the higher learning may yet til, le sall embody much of both the modern school of being and of the old fashioned collogo with, perhaps, someHansthouse neither, but originating in the larger, fuller, riper
country; but the great tract that lies between them receives comparatively little. While the state gives so nobly to the public school system, while individuals give such enormous sums for advanced education, we hear of very little given to the high school, to the academy, to the intermediate college. In fact it is very much like a tree, we will say, in which the roots are strong and in which there is great growth at the top, but in which the connecting trunk is likely to grow more and more attenuated. The question is, how shall the various parts of this system be so coordinated, be so arranged that the results shall be what is desired ? That the results are not quite what they ought to be I think we shall all agree.
Those of us who are connected with universities are often called upon to wonder, when young men come to us at 18 years or over, what in the world they have been doing all these years; for even though the entrance examination be an examination purely for a technical course, we find that too often the simple English branches in all these years have not received anything like the attention which a really well-ordered system of intermediate education demands. I would not for a moment cast any slur on those engaged in intermediate education; no men are held by me in higher respect, but they labor under enormous difficulties. Their high schools, their academies are generally carried on with small funds, funds doled out to them so that they are totally unable to command or to retain the sort of men they ought to have. There is no opportunity to hold the students in those small sections which are not generally required in university instruction, but which are so necessary in intermediate training. There is the problem that confronts us. I have certain ideas, if there were time to express them, as to what could be done. What I would propose would be more in the nature of evolution than of revolution, for there is a very inarked process of evolution, especially in the higher education of this country now going on. You have only to look at the last reports of the various colleges and universities of the United States to see what that is. For instance, look at the last report of the Bureau of Education. It gives us in round numbers about 400 colleges and universities. If you begin to study these you discover the most enormous discrepancies between those institutions which, if you look at their catalogues and registers, you would never dream of. For example, all their catalogues will tell you that they teach physics, that they teach chemistry, that they teach the classics, that they teach natural sciences, that they have libraries ; but, in the first place, if you add their endowments, yon will see an immense difference in the plan and mode of carrying on the instruction. Harvard college is now rapidly approaching $1,000,000 income each year: Columbia college is not likely to be long behind; Cornell and Johns Hopkins are beyond the half million limit. You go to the other extreme and you find various degrees of instruction in institutions which claim to he teaching the same things, with a total expenditure of $5,000, $10,000 and $15,000 a year, sums which these other institutions put into a single piece of apparatus, sums which they put into the carrying on of their library alone. It costs Corneil university to-day to carry on its library more than the endowment of the great majority of American colleges. I speak of that ease because I know it, but there are many others of the same sort. How is there to be any proper coordination between all these colleyes, whether called universities or not, in teaching the things which they propose.
Now, Mr Chancellor, I will indicate very briety that point in this process of development which it seems to me we ought to do our best to secelerate. It is clear that these institutions for higher instruction are growing apart. Take for example, the department of philosophy; two endowments were given the other day to the aniversity with which I am connected of $260,000 for the department of psychology. These endowments involve not merely professors, lecturers and all the rest of it, but a library for psychical research. The same is true of library work of varions sorts, of laboratory work of the various sorts, and of economy. And now to my point, which I should like to see discussed specially by those who come after me. What I would propose is that, while as much as possible be done to develop higher university instraetion, attention should be called in all ways possible to the needs of intermediate instruction. I think we may well call on the state of New York, now that so much has been done for universities, for common schools, for technical schools, to do something for this link, which is almost the missing link.
Then I wonld suggest another thing and I trust that my suggestion will not be misconstrued. The question is often asked, and I understand that symposiums are sometimes held in some of our colleges on the question, What is to become of the small college ? The smaler colleges of this country have a most noble record. Everyone must feel deep indebtedness to them; but it is a question what is to become of the small college with small endowments, between the publie school system and the university system of the United States. Now what I would suggest is that these colleges frankly accept the situation and become intermediate colleges in a system properly coordinated from the public schools to the universities. They would supply, and supply nobly, the missing link.
As to the universities, I would go on with the progress in eliminating the two lower classes of the university. I would give those to the colleges. I would get rid of the enormons freshman and sophomore classes, who are really preparing for advanced instruction. I. would give them to the colleges and I would devote the universities to a higher general and professional instruction and nothing else, that is to instruction and to research. There is a special reason for this. To do it however involves one thing which will at first probably create opposition. I think that the colleges in order to do that should revise their requirements and begin earlier than they do now, with a modicum of mathematics and with very little, if any, classics. I mean by that, that they should begin at the beginning of classical instruction, at any rate end with what the universities of this country require at the beginning of their schedule. Then I would have them continue their four years course as now, and the great thing which would be gained is that the training would be vastly better than it can be now. We could give this training in smaller classes to smaller bodies of men.
What is the trouble now with the graduation of men from our higher institutions of learning! We have all felt it. The age of admission to our universities has been advanced until it now reaches 184 to almost 19 years in some cases. It is well over 18 at Cornell, at the average. That means graduation at 22. I believe that by such a system as I have indicated you would diminish this age. There is no reason why, with our public schools what they should be, young men should not enter interinediate colleges as men nsed to do at 12 or 13 years of age. There is no reason why men should not be graduated from our universities at 20, for I would include in the university study, as optional, a certain amount of professional study. I would do what the great universities of the old world are doing, I would give opportunities for advanced instruction through the entire university course. I would also have courses in which the last two or three years should be devoted to professional instruction, mingled with a certain amount of general and disciplinary instruction.
I am well aware that there will be objections made to this. It will be said that it will embarrass and create opposition on the part of