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placed in family homes, and the social forces around them urge them on to achieve what careers they can. No institution, reformatory, or orphanage has met with anything like the success of the Children's Aid Society, and yet the institutional plan costs ten times as much and more.

"With little or no endowment, and at a cost of but three-fourths of a million dollars, we have rescued and placed in family homes 22,528 orphan or abandoned children, provided situations at wages in the country for 24,864 older boys and girls, and restored 5,207 runaway children to parents. Of those placed in family homes in the West, the vast majority have become farmers or farmers' wives. Of the others, we know that one became Governor of a State, and one of a territory, two have been members of Congress, two sheriffs, three district attorneys, three county commissioners, and several have been members of State legislatures. In the business world twenty-six became bankers, four hundred and fifty-one are in business, thirty-four are lawyers, twenty-two are merchants, seventeen are physicians, eight are postmasters, thirtynine are railroad men, several being high officials, ten are real estate agents, fifteen are journalists, eighty-five are teachers, several being high school principals, and one a city superintendent of schools, one a civil engineer; over one thousand entered the army and navy, and twenty-one are clergymen.

"What a record is this! No other method of caring for dependent children compares with this, either in results accomplished or money saved. It is no new gospel. It is a living witness to the old social order-family life, parental love and influence, the training of each day's common experience. How infinitely better is this plan than the custom forced upon New York by unwise laws under which our busy magistrates commit children to institutions in such numbers that, at this time, twenty thousand chil-. dren are in confinement at enormous expense to the taxpayers and to little purpose.”

WHATEVER THE DRAWBACKS of New York in other respects, it has beaten the record in the matter of letter delivery.

A letter was recently sent from Paris to New York with the following address upon the envelope written in French:

“To a gentleman, now living in New York, formerly a general in the Mexican army, who was traveling in France three months ago. He has a very dark face and green eyes. He speaks French fluently and is very polite."

Was this vaguely addressed missive packed off at once to the Dead Letter Office? Not at all. It passed through the hands of one carrier after another, until it fell into the hands of one who knew that a gentleman answering to the description lived upon his route. The "green eyes” item was a pointer. He remembered that the gentleman's eyes were, to say the least, "peculiar." He delivered the letter within three weeks after his arrival, and earned a proud distinction among his mates.

DEGREES IN THE SCIENCE OF PUBLIC HEALTH. Glasgow University has been empowered recently to confer two new degrees—Bachelor of Science of Public Health and Doctor of Science of Public Health. The former degree will be conferred upon those who, after graduating in medicine, have received practical instruction in bacteriology and the pathology of the diseases of animals transmissible to man, and have been for five consecutive months in the public health laboratory of a university, and later have studied practical sanitary work under a medical officer of health. The second degree will be open to those who have held the lesser degree for five years, and one of the conditions is that each candidate shall present a thesis or published memoir or work to be approved by the senate.

VACCINATION ANTAGONIZING WHOOPING COUGH. Dr. Dietrich, of Algeria, and also several leading Italian physicians, after extended observations with results enumerated, have reached the conclusion that vaccination not only has a marked curative effect on whooping cough, but also confers a degree of immunity against that disease.

A like conclusion, with regard to measles and scarlet fever, we had occasion to cite forty years ago-Essay on Vaccination, New York State Medical Society, 1864 (SANITARIAN, Vol. x, 161)—as recorded in “MacCulloch's Statistical Account of the British Empire Three-quarters of a Century Ago.”

PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY AND VEGETARIANISM. HERBERT SPENCER, having tried vegetarianism, is now said to be poking fun at it, greatly to the surprise of its votaries, who prematurely claimed him as one of their own. After a year's trial he is reported to have said recently: "I went over all I had written during the year I practised vegetarianism, and consigned

it to the fire.” And since then he has been saying some facetious things about the devotees of the truck garden," as he now calls the vegetarians.

POISONED OYSTERS AND TYPHOID FEVER. An epidemic of typhoid fever appeared about the middle of December at Portsmouth, Southampton, and other towns on the southern coast of England, traceable to oysters taken from oyster beds at Emsworth, poisoned for the culpability of the civil authorities, since it appears that as long ago as 1895 an inspector to the Local Government Board reported that the oyster bed in question could not escape pollution by sewage. It is said that some attempt to intercept the sewage was then made, but it seems to have been no one's duty to see that this was properly done, and it was not. So now another outbreak has occurred, and the Local Government Board has again taken it up. Meanwhile, Mr. T. D. Foster, an oyster merchant, has taken action for £15,000 damages against the town, owing to his loss of business in consequence, as he alleged, of the contamination of his oysters by the town sewage.

The statement of his solicitors was that Mr. Foster's fleet of eleven steam and sailing smacks, with 100 men, were lying idle, and as the trade had fallen off, owing to the reports before the public, he had been compelled to employ the men in removing his oysters to a place of absolute safety at Hayling Island. The council, after an animated debate, decided to reply that instead of the council taking any contamination to the oysters, Mr. Foster had brought his oysters to the drains, which were there before the oyster beds. They denied responsibility, and expressed their determination to resist any demand for compensation. It was stated that if Mr. Foster recovered the damages claimed it would impose upon the town a rate of 255. in the £I.

It was, however, decided to take steps for the improvement of the drainage scheme of the district.

UNCHRISTIAN SCIENCE. The Supreme Court of Georgia has handed down a decision which the advocates of “Christian Science” regard as a victory for them. The decision holds that parents are not compelled to give medicine to their minor children when they become ill, and that failure or refusal to give medicine to these children is not a violation of the laws of the State. A christian scientist, named Jus

tice, refused to give medicine to one of his children when it became ill and refused to allow a physician to attend the child. After an illness of several days the child died. The neighbors of Justice swore out a warrant for him charging him with failure to provide the necessary sustenance to the child, a crime under the laws of the State of Georgia. This was the only charge upon which they could prosecute. The case was tried in the City Court of Dublin, where the man lived, and he was fined $300. He appealed the case from one court to another until it reached the Supreme Court, which reversed the decision of the lower courts.

MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY REPORTS AND

REVIEWS.

New YORK.—Monthly Bulletin of the State Department of Health for November reports the percentage of deaths under five years of age in the districts into which the State is divided, severally, was, for the Maritime District, 28.3; Hudson Valley, 16.0; Adirondack and Northern, 14.7; Mohawk Valley, 20.7; Southern Tier, 12.4; East Central, 12.6; West Central, 12.5; Lake Ontario and Western, 13.0; entire State, 14.7.

The death rates, respectively, were: Maritime District, 16.0; Hudson Valley, 18.4; Adirondack and Northern, 12.0; Mohawk Valley, 19.4; Southern Tier, 13.0; East Central, 12.6; West Central, 16.5; Lake Ontario and Western, 14.0. Total number of deaths from all causes, 9,010. Death rate, 16.0.

The lowest death rates were: Elmira, 12.0; Syracuse, 13.0; Buffalo, 13.6; Oswego, 14.3; Rochester, 14.7. The highest, Amsterdam, 27.5; Albany and Troy, each, 20.0; Poughkeepsie, 18.7; Yonkers, 18.5; Utica and Lockport, each, 17.0.

During the three fall months just past the actual mortality has been less than the average for the past five years by about 250 deaths, and relatively to the population, the death rate has been considerably less, or about 15.5 per thousand living, against 16.5. There has been a saving in deaths of early life, which is notable, 600 fewer deaths having occurred under the age of five years than the normal. There were likewise somewhat fewer deaths at the other extreme of age, past seventy years. There has also this year, as compared with recent years, been a saving during the autumn months in the mortality from the ten or more common infectious diseases, which are below the average numerically by the decrease in the total number of deaths, 250. All of these diseases caused fewer deaths than the average, except scarlet fever, whooping cough and smallpox. Consumption, which is attended with a pretty uniform mortality, caused 2,900 deaths in the three fall months, 200 less than the average.

Smallpox.-During September and October there was comparatively little smallpox in the State, but in the last two months it has become more widespread. The present chief centres are Rochester, where in November there were 144 cases reported, and 173 in December, and whence it spread to six adjoining towns in Monroe county, and to seven more remote localities, 35 cases in all. At the end of the year there are 24 cases in Monroe county, outside of Rochester, where the outbreak is believed to be decreasing; at Buffalo, Syracuse, Olean, Bristol and Yost's, Montgomery county, 9; in Clinton and Essex counties, 17; Ellicott, 3; Salamanca, 3; Lyons, 1, some 60 cases in all. There were 19 deaths in Rochester and 1 in Brooklyn during the month.

New York City report for the quarter ending June 30: Marriages, 9,604; births, 18,725; deaths, 17,173; still births, 1,525. Reports of births, marriages and still-births are incomplete. Actual number of deaths from zymotic and certain other preventable diseases in Borough of Manhattan, 1,850,093 : Cerebrospinal meningitis, 45; diphtheria and croup, 313; typhoid fever, 52; malarial fever, 12; measles, 81; scarlet fever, 170; smallpox, 4; whooping cough, 95; diarrheal diseases, 458; phthisis, 966; all causes, 9,263; deaths in institutions, 2,851; deaths under five years of age, 3,215.

Borough of the Bronx, 175,422: Cerebrospinal meningitis, 4; diphtheria and croup, 21; typhoid fever, 8; malarial fever, 6; measles, 48; scarlet fever, 79; smallpox, 93 ; whooping cough, 28; diarrheal diseases, 41 ; phthisis, 278; all causes, 1,273; deaths in institutions, 514; deaths under five years, 414.

Borough of Brooklyn, 1,166,582: Cerebrospinal meningitis, 13; diphtheria and croup, 201 ; typhoid fever, 54; malarial fever, 10; measles, 109; scarlet fever, 92; smallpox, 49; whooping cough, 51; diarrhæal diseases, 395; phthisis, 610; all causes, 5,704; deaths in institutions, 1,062; deaths under five years, 1,982.

Borough of Richmond, 67,021 : Cerebrospinal meningitis, 3; diphtheria and croup, 3; typhoid fever, 2; scarlet fever, 6; whooping cough, 3; diarrhæal diseases, 7; phthisis, 30; all causes, 271 ; in institutions, 77; under five years, 40.

Borough of Queens, 152,299: Cerebrospinal meningitis, 4; diphtheria and croup, 26; typhoid fever, 2; malarial fever, 1;

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