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Council; Dr. F. F. Westbrook, the retiring chairman, in place of Dr. Wyatt Johnson, deceased; all the rest of the old council, Drs. W. H. Park, New York City; M. J. Rosenau, Washington, D. C.; E. G. Horton, Columbus, O.; Angel Gaviño, Mexico, Mex., were re-elected. After which the reading of papers and discussion were proceeded with. “Laboratory Methods During the New Orleans Water Purification Experiments,” by Robert Spur Weston; "A Study of the Methods Employed for Determining the Amount of Oxygen Consumed by the Impurities of Water and Sewage," by Henry C. Fuller; "The Occurrence of Tubercle Bacilli of Exalted Virulence in Human Beings,” by Dr. M. P. Ravanel ; "Tuberculosis in Cattle Induced by Subcutaneous Inoculation of Material Obtained from a Child,” by Dr. E. A. de Schweinitz; "The Prevalence of Dysentery in New York and New Jersey," by Dr. W. H. Park; “An Investigation of the Morphology of the Diphtheroid Group," by Dr. Francis F. Denny; “Notes on General Morphology," by Dr. Hibbert W. Hill and B. R. Rickards; “An Examination of the Value of Certain Antiseptics L'sed for the Preservation of Antitoxic and Other Immune Serums,” by Dr. Joseph McFarland; "Formaldehyde Disinfection," by Dr. Hibbert W. Hill and B. R. Rickards; "A Practical Method for Rapid and Accurate Weighing," by H. D. Williamson and Dr. E. G. Horton. There were, besides, several papers read in abstract or by title, for want of more time, on general subjects: altogether covering a wide field of scientific inquiry.
THE ASSOCIATION convened in Tulane Hall at 10 o'clock, December 9, was called to order by the President, Dr. Henry D. Holton, of Vermont, and an opening address of welcome made by the Rev. Max Heller, of New Orleans.
After the announcements of the business committees and the local committee of arrangements, the first paper read was an “Official Examination of the Water of the United States," by Marshall Leighton, Hydrographer in the U. S. Geographical Survey Service. He showed the necessity for a complete examination into the merits of the waters in the different localities, and drew the conclusion that in the hands of the United States officials the undertaking could be carried to a satisfactory conclusion.
The Secretary, in the absence of Rudolph Hering, C. E., chairman, read, in abstract, the report of the Committee on “Disposal of Refuse Materials”-summarizing the entire field of the subject. Resolutions were adopted for action of the Association in recognition of the work done by the late Dr. Walter Reed, U. S. A., and asking Congress to take necessary action for the protection of the health of the operatives in the work contemplated on the Isthmian Canal. Dr. Heber Jones, of Memphis, Tenn., gave a short address on the modern methods of garbage cremation as practiced in Memphis. He said that, in his opinion, cremation was the only method approaching perfection in garbage disposal, and adduced figures showing that it was more economical and safer to so dispose of garbage than in any other way. The report of the committee on "Animal Diseases and Animal Food” was called for, and in the absence of Dr. Salmon, the chairman, was read by Dr. Ravanel. It comprehended the various theories advanced from different quarters in regard to the relative virulence and the relation of bovine and human bacilli. The committee agreed that both bovine and human bacilli were dangerous to human beings, and that, if possible, the former was more virulent than was the latter. The report takes direct issue with the contention of Professor Koch, of Berlin, for the non-transmissibility of bovine tubertle bacilli to man, and contends for continuous effort against communicability by tuberculous food. On the conclusion of the report, some discussion arose as to the relative degrees of accuracy in the reported experiments referred to.—Dr. Eduardo Licéaga, of Mexico, read a paper on “Proper Sanitary Measures Necessary to Prevent Tuberculosis Contagion from the Foul Air and Fittings in Railroad Cars," purporting to show that many deaths occurring in the City of Mexico, annually, were attributable to tuberculosis contiacted in dirty cars. He stated that the health authorities of Mexico had presented a memorial to the companies of the railroads running through the country, designating and asking needful measures for the prevention of tuberculosis hitherto promoted by the unsanitary condition of the cars. Dr. Conn, of New Hampshire, who is well known to have devoted much attention to railroad-car sanitation, thanked Dr. Licéaga for his paper, and expressed gratification at the efforts undertaken for its promotion in Mexico.-Dr. John S. Fulton, of Maryland, read a paper on “Vital Statistics; a Plea for Actuarial Administration and Control of the Great Resources of Preventive Medicine," demonstrating the necessity and utility of complete tabulations of all statistics of births and deaths and conditions thereto related, in order to properly gauge the advance made by the different new
measures adopted from time to time toward perfection of statement.—Dr. Cressy L. Wilbur, of Lansing, Mich., followed with a paper, virtually on the same subject, and the need of co-operation by the registrars of vital statistics throughout the country, for the accomplishment of a common standard for forming comparative judgments on the results. He said that in many cities fictitious results were adduced by eliminating deaths occurring in hospitals and other institutions, and yet comprehending in the population all the itinerancy for the time being, insomuch that, notwithstanding the showing, he doubted whether any city in the United States reached an annual death rate of less than 17 per 1,000 of population. This conclusion of Dr. Wilbur elicited considerable discussion. A member from Buffalo, N. Y., remarked, with regard to his own city, most rigid methods were employed, while the rate there was but 14 per 1,000. Others stated, with reference to cities severally, all deaths in hospitals were included in their reports. Papers by members from Mexico next followed.—“Period in Which Every Contagious Malady Can Be. Transmitted, and Period in Which Every Sick Person is Dangerous to Healthy Persons Near Him," by Dr. Louis E. Ruiz, was listened to with marked attention.—Dr. Jose P. Guyon read “A Note Concerning the Transmission of Pathogenic Fungi by Flies and Mosquitoes," technically discussing the now generally accepted belief in the transmission of certain diseases in tropical countries, especially by these means.—Dr. Jesus E. Monjaras read a paper on the "Principal Causes of Infectious Diseases and the Principal Means to Act Against Them,” dwelling in particular upon the various sani- tary measures in vogue in the Spanish-American countries.
Evening Session was held, beginning at 8 o'clock, to hear the Welcoming Address of Mayor CAPDEVIELLE and Hon. J. Y. SANDERS, Speaker of the Louisiana House of Representatives; and the Address of Dr. Henry D. HOLTON, President of the Association. The session was opened with a prayer by the Rev. Father Laval, of St. Louis Cathedral, a gem in thought and wording, expressive of the great debt of gratitude owed by men for the opportunity and means to combat the afflictions of the human race, and giving thanks for the deeds already done, as well as asking blessings upon the future progress of the great work.
Mayor CAPDEVIELLE expressed great pleasure in behalf of the city at the meeting of the Association here. He said in part:
"Louisiana, from an early date in her history, has pursued the enlightening public policy of fostering the studies which are neces
sary for the development of sanitary regulations, or those means designed to secure health, as calculated to produce the most beneficial effect on the people of the State, tending at once to the increase of population, the extension of trade and commerce, the productiveness of agriculture, and the rapid growth and progress of the arts and sciences.
“Having constantly in view the policy in question, the property holders of New Orleans have not very long since laid upon themselves the heavy burden of additional taxation, the proceeds of which have been capitalized in 4 per cent. bonds amounting to $12,000,000, having fifty years to run, in order to construct a system of drainage and a sewerage system, with free water therefor, through the city. At this interesting period in the history of the place, a considerable portion of the system of drainage has been completed. When the many obstacles are taken into account which it has been required to overcome, I am able to say that the result so far attained is satisfactory.
"We live in Louisiana in a terrestrial paradise, whose riches, science instructs us, are in all probability not yet hálf explored.
"The Mississippi is held in by artificial banks as it courses its way to the Gulf of Mexico. The gardens of New Orleans, luxuriant with semi-tropical plants and shrubbery, and the streets of the metropolis are no longer to be deluged by the torrential rainfalls of the locality, but, conveyed in open and in lined and covered canals, will be discharged into the Lake Pontchartrain, and, eventually, into Lake Borgne. When the alluvial plain on which the city is built will have been sewered, and the filth and other foul and polluting matter which has heretofore been deposited and left to infect the soil, will have been removed, New Orleans is certain to become as healthful a place of residence as any other large American city.
"Gentlemen of the Convention, I greet your gathering in this place with heartfelt satisfaction. Our people have watched your coming with deep interest. They will witness your departure, when that has to take place, with unfeigned regret.
“Speaking for the people, and in my own name, besides, I bid you once more a heartfelt welcome."
Mr. SANDERS spoke very briefly, but cogently, to the purpose. “It gave him pleasure to accede to the request, and in the name of the Governor, to welcome the Convention to the hospitality of the State of Louisiana, and he embraced the opportunity of speaking some words which expressed his own heartfelt desires as well as those of all the great Commonwealth—that the work of the Association should ever prosper, and that in the future, as in the past, all mankind would have a debt of gratitude owing to tho work of the American Public Health Association.”
President HOLTON thanked the preceding speakers for their cordial welcome to the Association, and proceeded to deliver the annual presidential address. He sketched briefly the progress that had been made in preventive medicine throughout the country since the organization of the Association ; dwelt upon the achievement of practical sanitation in Cuba, and awarded high tribute to the work of Drs. Jesse W. Lazear and James Carroll, who sacrificed their lives in the performance of dangerous duty for the cause of sanitary science. He also paid tribute to deceased members of the Association during the year: Robert C. Kedzie and Albert L. Gihon, ex-presidents; Thomas J. Turner, Medical Director, U. S. Navy; Col. John F. Kimball and Major Walter Reed, U. S. Army, and Prof. Wyatt Johnson. He then proceeded on the objects and hopes of the Association with regard to preventive medicine; reviewed the progress made in the prevention of tuberculosis and other diseases during recent years, and referred to the pending conflict with small-pox. He next referred to the enlarged scope of the Marine Hospital Service, and discussed the comparative merits of the two bills before Congress, concluding with an argument for the establishment of a thorough public health service, which should have complete control of all matters pertaining to sanitary regulations, quarantines, and the like measures for public safety.
The Second Day.—Following the routine of announcements, Dr. Probst, the Secretary, submitted a resolution agreed upon by the Executive Committee, which was later adopted, incorporating Cuba into membership with the American Public Health Association, and asking the President of the Republic to appoint representatives to the next convention. Another resolution submitted and subsequently adopted instructing the Executive Committee to do all in its power to secure uniform registration of deaths in all the countries conjoined in the Association. A memorial resolution on the death of Dr. Robert Clark Kedzie, of Michigan, was offered by Dr. Henry A. Haigh, of the same State, and referred.
Dr. U. O. B. Wingate, of Wisconsin, Chairman of the "Committee on Legislation,” reported in detail the action of the com