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mittee in its prolonged effort to obtain a National Department of Public Health, and the final result in a compromise creating the " Public Health and Marine Hospital Service of the United States” (as per act of Congress, SANITARIAN, Vol. xlix, p. 116), of which he gave an analysis. In the discussion which followed, Surgeon-General Wyman said that the report of Dr. Wingate was, to him, a subject of much gratification.—Dr. F. S. Munoz, Mexico, presented a paper on “The Cause and Prevention of Infant Mortality.”—Dr. R. N. Prado one on "Wet Nurses and Their Hygienic Importance." These papers were read by interpreters and attracted close attention. That of Dr. Prado, in particular, brought out the ideal for motherhood—that each mother should nurse her own child—but called attention to and described the conditions when she should not, when it became the duty of the physician to define and decide upon the quality of the wet nurse, constitutionally as well as hygienically.-"Disinfectants and Disinfection" was the next topic, the report of a special committee, Prof. Francis Robinson, of Brunswick, Me., chairman, but he being absent, the report was read by Dr. Hibbert Hill. It, for the most part, consisted in a summary of conclusions on the proper use and relative efficacy of formaldehyde gas and carbolic acid, as several times reported upon heretofore by the same committee. Dwelling upon the special advantages of formaldehyde for closed areas and how it can be most effectually used. In the discussion which the report elicited, William Fawcett Smith, of the Army of Mexico, mentioned a “rough and ready" method of disinfection occasionally used, when the means were not available. In Porto Rico, upon the occurrence of glanders among the stock, the walls and floors of a large stable were cleansed by "Aashing” with kerosene. The method was efficacious and did no harm to the building or fittings. Dr. J. J. Kinyoun gave the results of some experiments he had made in regard to the uncleanliness of railroad cars, which showed these vehicles to be less dangerous than they were sometimes thought to be. The drinking cup, he considered, was the most likely source of nearly all the contagion to which railroad cars are liable.—“National Lepers' Home,” by Dr. S. H. Durgin, of Boston, was the next paper. He stated, in substance, that, contrary to general belief, there were no American-born lepers in the Northwestern States, where the population is made up largely of Scandinavians and their descendants, this belief cannot be maintained, "for I now have knowledge of three young men,

American born, who have contracted leprosy in Minnesota. There is but one institution in the United States known as a home for lepers, and it is in Louisiana.” After giving a sketch of the provisions in Canada, Mexico and Cuba, beginning with the early settlements of those countries by Europeans, the recent effort of the Marine Hospital Service to obtain a census of the lepers in this country, and its recommendation that "sites covering broad areas be selected, in healthful localities, where lepers can have unlimited outdoor exercise and occupation. That these homes should be made attractive and comfortable, so that the unfortunate victims of this disease, instead of hiding their condition, may make it known and request admission to these public institutions.” And added: “With our present knowledge of leprosy in the countries which we represent, and the methods employed in its care, it seems to your committee advisable that the resolution adopted by this Association at the Indianapolis meeting, 1900, be reaffirmed; and that the work of pushing legislative action bearing upon this action be referred to our legislative committee.”—The resolution referred to pledged the Association to do all in its power to secure the establishment of a national home for lepers.

The afternoon was devoted to an excursion on the river.

Third Day.—The morning session began with miscellaneous business and action upon pending resolutions.—Dr. Ć. P. Wilkinson, on behalf of the Local Committee of Arrangements, presented to President Holton a gavel made of the wood of a Louisiana orange tree and bound with an inscribed silver band.—Two reports of committees that had been deferred at the previous day's session—“Dangers to Public Health from Illuminating Gas," Dr. S. H. Durgin, chairman; and “The Transportation of Diseased Tissue by Mail,” Dr. F. F. Westbrook, chairman—were read. Next followed papers : “Tuberculosis and Agricultural Colonies,” by Dr. Felix Formento, of New Orleans; “The Relative Immunizing Value of Human and Bovine Vaccine,” being the report of a committee, Dr. P. H. Bryce, of Toronto, Can., chairman; "Only Asepsis Necessary in Vaccination,” by Dr. Jesu Gonzalez Urena, of Mexico; "Human Vaccine as a Preventive of Small-pox,” by Dr. E. Liceaga, of Mexico; “Experiments in Revaccination in Mexico,” by Dr. Jose Ramirez, of Mexico.-Secretary Probst reported favorable action by the Executive Committee on the resolution looking to the establishment of a national sanatorium for consumptives, adopted. The resolution asking for the abolition of quarantine in virtue of recent knowledge on the transmissibility of yellow fever, was reported adversely by the Executive Committee; the report was accepted by a very close vote. It was vehemently opposed by most of those who unqualifiedly accept the mosquito transmissibility exclusively. But Dr. Guiteras, who so believes, nevertheless advocated, and was chiefly instrumental in, the adoption of the Executive Committee's report.-A memorial resolution of the late Dr. H. B. Horlbeck, ex-president, was adopted.—Motion was made that the president appoint delegates to the American Congress on Tuberculosis, to meet in St. Louis, 1904: adopted.

Committees for 1903 were announced as follows:

Purification of Public Water Supplies—G. W. Fuller, New York City, chairman.

Disposal of Industrial Wastes—Dr. G. T. Swarts, Providence, R. I., chairman.

Purification and Disposal of Sewage-George H. Benzenburg, chairman.

Disposal of Garbage–Rudolph Herring, New York City, chairman.

Animal Diseases and Food-D. E. Salmon, Washington, D. C., chairman.

Car Sanitation-Dr. G. P. Conn, Concord, N. H., chairman.

Steamboats and Steamships—Dr. Peter H. Bryce, Toronto, Can., chairman.

Etiology of Yellow Fever-Dr. John W. Ross, U. S. Navy, chairman.

Plague--Dr. Alvah H. Doty, New York City, chairman. Demography and Statistics : Their Sanitary Relation-Dr. Wm. A. King, Washington, D. C., chairman.

Cause and Prevention of Infectious Diseases—Dr. A. R. Reynolds, Chicago, Ill., chairman.

Disinfectants and Disinfection-Dr. Hibbert Hill, Boston, Mass., chairman.

Production and Free Distribution of Vaccine-Dr. H. P. Walcutt, Cambridge, Mass., chairman.

The Teaching of Hygiene and Granting Diplomas of Public Health-Dr. Benjamin Lee, Philadelphia, Pa., chairman.

Standing Aid Societies-- Dr. Geo. W. Goler, Rochester, N. Y., chairman.

Publication–Dr. Josiah Hartzell, Canton, chairman.

Dr. Fred J. Maver, of Scott, La., offered a resolution regarding Sanitary Education, that the Association promulgate a campaign of education to enable persons of all classes of society to combat with sanitary measures the incipiency of all infectious diseases: referred to Executive Committee.

At the afternoon session the subjects of discussion were: Committee report, Dr. Chas. A. Lindsley, of New Haven, Conn., on “The Canteen System of the U. S. Army"; "Sanitary Aid Societies," committee report, Henry Lomb, Rochester, N. Y., chairman; “Dirt Diseases and the Public Health,” by Dr. C. V. Chapin, Providence, R. I.; "Oculists and Opticians,” by Dr. Augustin Chacon, of Mexico; “The Water Supply of New Orleans and Its Improvement,” by Robert Spur Weston, of Boston, Mass.; "The Ways in which Typhoid Fever May be Transmitted,” by Dr. Wm. T. Sedgwick, of Boston, Mass. Discussion on these papers was mostly upon channels of infection in contagious diseases and the prime importance of pure water, centering chiefly on typhoid fever. Dr. Sedgwick arranged his evidence as follows: 1. The water supply in a number of American cities has been made approximately good. 2. In cities having a pure water supply and yet suffering from typhoid fever, the prevalence of the fever follows closely the warm weather. 3. Many cities, in spite of the purity of their pure water supply, still pay a heavy tax in typhoid fever. The conclusion he deduced from this evidence was that the fever was contracted through the presence of undisinfected excreta of patients. Dr. Woodward, of Washington, said that he believed that the fact that typhoid fever is most malignant during warm weather does not prove conclusively that the infection is conveyed through typhoid excreta. If there is any chance for contraction of the disease by water, it is in the summer, when many of the streams, especially brooks and creeks from which water is used, are low and clear. In the floods of the spring and winter the disease and other germs that are swept into the water have not the chance of concentration that is possible during a season when the water is more or less at a standstill. Much typhoid might be contracted from the use of such water, which is liable to be overlooked as a source of infection. He forced the proposition that the water is often more dangerous when it is pleasant and appears most attractive. Dr. McGehee thought that while the conclusion that undisinfected excreta was a principal source of typhoid fever infection may be correct, nevertheless there were many other ways by which the typhoid germs could be transferred to water from such excreta as had not been disinfected. He thought it the part of wisdom to preclude the use of water at hotels and other public places unless it was first boiled.

The canteen question came in for part of the discussion. But the report of the committee was confessedly inadequate; the only member of the committee who had access to the records in Washington was not present, hence, the chairman said, “to make any additional report over the last was impracticable. But he might say the committee had taken a different stand from those persons who seem unable to make any distinction between total abstinence and temperance. The general attitude of the committee was in accordance with Scriptural injunction, 'Be temperate in all things.' "-On motion, the committee was continued.—Dr. Hurty, of Indianapolis, who read the report of the Committee on Sanitary Aid, said that lectures had been delivered before schools and churches, to school children, their mothers and other persons. Frequent application had been made for such lectures. In fact, forty-seven had been delivered in one season. A variety of phases of principal topics had been treated, including directions for hygienic measures during small-pox and other diseases. The lectures were given with lantern slides preferably. Another feature had been the distribution of publications of the boards of health in different places. There had also been inspections of houses in infected districts, and efforts made to stop the spread of consumption and other diseases. Trained nurses had been furnished in various instances, co-operation of effort effected and urged, so that, all in all, information had been disseminated in many ways. Discussing the paper on “Dirt Diseases,” the author said that to fight infection the important thing is to get at its source—to prevent its spread from the infected person to healthy persons. Dr. Kohnke, of New Orleans, said that while he appreciated the paper on “Dirt Diseases” in its pointed features, it was well to remember that cleanliness should be enforced every way. If all cleanliness were made a point, then che dangerous kinds of uncleanliness would be sure to be covered by steps to procure municipal cleanliness, which was, in a degree, correlative with personal cleanliness.—The special and important part of the paper on “Oculists and Opticians” was the common incompetency of the latter and the need of physiological knowledge as well as of pathological conditions. Prescribing by them should be wholly prohibited. Oculists should have thorough clinical training, and upon them should devolve the responsibility of prescribing

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