Sidebilder
PDF
ePub

of dilute raw sewage, the enteric bacillus is recoverable up to the fifty-third day.

"11. That from a similar soil kept damp by occasional additions of dilute sterile sewage, the enteric bacillus is recoverable up to the seventy-fourth day.

“12. That in similar soil, after heavy rainfalls, the enteric bacillus at once disappears from the surface layers.

"13. That from a similar soil, allowed after inoculation to become so dry as to be readily blown about as dust, the enteric bacillus can be recovered up to and on the twenty-fifth day; and that enteric infective material can be readily translated from dried soil and sand by means of winds and air currents.

"14. That in a sewage-polluted soil recovered from beneath a broken drain, the enteric bacillus is able to survive up to the sixty-fifth day.

“15. That from a piece of khaki drill, inoculated with an emulsion of the enteric bacillus and then allowed to become quite dry, the microorganism is recoverable up to and on the seventyfourth day.

“16. That from a piece of khaki serge, similarly treated, the enteric bacillus is recoverable up to and on the eighty-seventh day.

"17. That from a piece of blue serge, similarly treated, the enteric bacillus is recoverable on the seventy-eighth day.

"18. That from a piece of khaki drill fouled by liquid enteric feces and then aliowed to dry, the microorganism is recoverable on the seventeenth day.

"19. That from similar fabric fouled by solid or semi-solid enteric feces and then allowed to dry, the microorganism is recoverable up to the ninth day.

"20. That the enteric bacillus is able to survive in surface soil an exposure of 122 hours of direct sunshine, extending over a period of twenty-one consecutive days. That from a piece of infected serge the enteric bacillus is recoverable after the fabric has been exposed to fifty hours of direct sunshine spread over a petiod of ten days.

“21. That ordinary house flies (Musca domestica) can convey enteric infective matter from specific excreta or other polluted material to objects on which they may walk, rest, or feed. That such infective matter appears to be attached not only to their heads (mandibles probably), but also to their legs, wings and bodies. It has not been proved that the enteric bacillus passes through the digestive tract of the fly.”

up as follows. We use their own words to express the results which they have obtained :

“From our experiments we draw the following conclusions, which are equally applicable to enteric bacilli recently isolated from enteric stools, as to old cultures of the organism which have been in the laboratory for many months.

“1. That there is no evidence to show that the enteric bacillus, when placed in soil, displays any disposition or ability to either increase in numbers or grow upward, downward, or laterally.

"2. That the enteric bacillus can be washed through at least eighteen inches of soil by means of water, even when the soil is closely packed down and no fissures or cracks allowed to exist.

"3. That the enteric bacillus is able to assume a vegetative existence in ordinary and sewage polluted soil and survive therein for varying periods, amounting in some cases to as much as seventy-four days. · "4. That the presence or absence of organic nutritive material in the soil appears to be a largely negligible factor, since the enteric bacillus can survive in a soil indifferently well whether it be an organically polluted soil or a virgin soil, and whether it receive dilute sewage or merely rain-water:

"5. That an excess or great deficiency of moisture in soils appears to be the dominant factor affecting the chances of survival of the enteric bacillus in, or at least the possibility of recovering it from, soil.

“6. That from fine sand allowed to become dry, the enteric bacillus can be recovered on the twenty-fifth day after inoculation.

"7. That from fine sand kept moist with either rain or dilute sewage, the enteric bacillus cannot be recovered later than the twelfth day after fouling; this inability to recover the organism is due probably not so much to its death as to its being washed down into the deeper sand layers by liquids added.

“8. That in peat the enteric bacillus appears to rapidly die out, as the microbe cannot be recovered from it after the thirteenth day; but this soil is so porous that it is quite possible that the microorganism was washed down into the deeper parts and consequently not recoverable from the place of inoculation.

"9. That from ordinary soil kept damp by occasional additions of rain-water the enteric bacillus can be recovered up to and on the sixty-seventh day. .

1,.. . ... - "10. That from a similar soil kept damp by occasional additions

of dilute raw sewage, the enteric bacillus is recoverable up to the fifty-third day.

"11. That from a similar soil kept damp by occasional additions of dilute sterile sewage, the enteric bacillus is recoverable up to the seventy-fourth day.

"12. That in similar soil, after heavy rainfalls, the enteric bacillus at once disappears from the surface layers.

“13. That from a similar soil, allowed after inoculation to become so dry as to be readily blown about as dust, the enteric bacillus can be recovered up to and on the twenty-fifth day; and that enteric infective material can be readily translated from dried soil and sand by means of winds and air currents.

“14. That in a sewage-polluted soil recovered from beneath a broken drain, the enteric bacillus is able to survive up to the sixty-fifth day.

"15. That from a piece of khaki drill, inoculated with an emulsion of the enteric bacillus and then allowed to become quite dry, the microorganism is recoverable up to and on the seventyfourth day.

"16. That from a piece of khaki serge, similarly treated, the enteric bacillus is recoverable up to and on the eighty-seventh day.

"17. That from a piece of blue serge, similarly treated, the enteric bacillus is recoverable on the seventy-eighth day.

"18. That from a piece of khaki drill fouled by liquid enteric feces and then aliowed to dry, the microörganism is recoverable on the seventeenth day.

“19. That from similar fabric fouled by solid or semi-solid enteric feces and then allowed to dry, the microorganism is recoverable up to the ninth day.

"20. That the enteric bacillus is able to survive in surface soil an exposure of 122 hours of direct sunshine, extending over a period of twenty-one consecutive days. That from a piece of infected serge the enteric bacillus is recoverable after the fabric has been exposed to fifty hours of direct sunshine spread over a petiod of ten days.

“21. That ordinary house flies (Musca domestica) can convey enteric infective matter from specific excreta or other polluted material to objects on which they may walk, rest, or feed. That such infective matter appears to be attached not only to their heads (mandibles probably), but also to their legs, wings and bodies. It has not been proved that the enteric bacillus passes through the digestive tract of the fly.”

All these conclusions possess a prophylactic value difficult to estimate, since they add much to our conception of the means by which typhoid infection is spread, and emphasize the necessity of seeing to it that all excreta of the patient are destroyed as soon as they escape from the bladder or bowel. Too frequently this immediate disinfection is not carried out, and physicians and nurses grow careless of the needs of a germicide used at the earliest possible moment.--"Therapeutic Gazette," Nov., 1902.

OPEN LETTERS ON VIVISECTION.

Hon. JACOB H. GALLINGER, Chairman of the Senate Committee on the District of Columbia, Washington, D. C.

My Dear Sir: As you have repeatedly introduced bills into the Senate for the purpose nominally of regulating experiments upon animals in the District of Columbia, which bills, however, if they had become laws, would, in fact, have prohibited many, if not all of them, I deem it my duty to call your attention to the case of Midshipnian Aikin of the United States Naval Academy, who was recently injured in a football game. My reason for doing so is to show you by a single concrete example that knowledge gained by animal experimentation is an immense boon to humanity and that, therefore, such experiments should be heartily encouraged.

The facts of Mr. Aikin's case are as follows: When I first saw him, three days after the accident, I found that he had been unconscious for a half hour after the accident and ever since then had complained bitterly of headache, which he located always in the forehead. Mentally he was very dull, though not comatose. His pulse was slowed down to 52 instead of being 72, the normal. Soon after the accident he began to develop convulsions, first in the right leg, afterward in the right arm also, the right arm being finally the chief seat of the convulsions. When they were very severe they involved the left side also. The face was never involved. In six and one-half hours after I first saw him he had twenty-four of these attacks, all limited to the right arm. They were not attended by any loss of consciousness. They exhausted him very greatly, especially when they were excessively severe. Several times it was necessary to give him chloroform.

There was no fracture of the skull. The only physical evidence of any injury was a very slight bruise at the outer end of the left eyebrow.

Had I seen this case before 1885, I would have been unable to explain why the spasms were chiefly manifested in the right arm, and from the evidence of the slow pulse, the headache, the stupor, the bruise in the left temple, etc., I would have been justified in inferring that probably the front part of the brain was injured at the site of the bruise. Had I opened his skull at that point, I would have found a perfectly normal brain and have missed the clot. The young man, therefore, would have died whether his skull had been opened or not.

In 1902, observe the difference. As a result of the knowledge derived from experiments upon animals which have located precisely the centre for motion of the right arm on the left side of the brain near the top and a little in front of a vertical line drawn through the ear, and disregarding entirely the site of the headache and the bruise, I reached the conclusion that there had been a rupture of a blood vessel within the head, which had poured out a quantity of blood, and that the situation of the clot should correspond to the warm centre.” The location of this arm centre was far away (about three inches) from the location of the bruise, and its position was fixed absolutely as a result of experiments upon animals, confirmed later by many operations on human beings and also by postmortems.

As soon as the skull was opened at this point the clot was found, its thickest point being exactly over the arm centre, and nine tablespoonfuls of blood were removed, with the result that the patient's life has been spared. The blood had first been poured out over the “leg centre,” which is located a little higher up than that for the arm. This explained the early spasms in the right leg. The clot did not extend, however, further down than the arm centre. This explained why the face was never convulsed, for the “face centre” lies just below that for the arm.

I think if you were to ask the parents of this young man how many animals they would be willing to have sacrificed in order that their son might have his life saved, there would be no doubt of the answer. Indeed, had it been your own son, I cannot doubt the answer. But this is only one of hundreds of cases in which a similar exact localization has been made by many surgeons, both in Europe and America. Yet by a curious coincidence in the

« ForrigeFortsett »