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BOOK REVIEWS.

A System OF PHYSIOLOGIC THERAPEUTICS. Edited by SoloMON Solis COHEN, A.M., M.D., Senior Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine in Jefferson Medical College; Physician to the Jefferson Medical College Hospital and to the Philadelphia, Jewish and Rush hospitals; one time Professor of Medicine and Therapeutics in the Philadelphia Polyclinic, etc. Volume V: “PROPHYLAXIS," " PERSONAL HYGIENE," "Civic HYGIENE," "CARE OF The Sick.” By Joseph McFARLAND, M.D., Professor of Pathology, Medico-Chirurgical College, Philadelphia; HENRY LEFFMAN, M.D., Professor of Chemistry in the Woman's Medical College, Philadelphia ; ALBERT ABRAMS, A.M., M.D. (University of Heidelberg), formerly Professor of Pathology, Cooper Medical College, San Francisco; and W. WAYNE BABCOCK, M.D., Lecturer on Pathology and Bacteriology, Medico-Chirurgical College, Philadelphia. Pp. 539. Illustrated. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1903.

This is a most interesting volume, comprehending an epitome of what is essential in the Natural History of Medicine—the origin, dissemination and prevention of disease. . It is divided into three parts. The first, on the “Origin and Prevention of Disease," is by Drs. McFarland and W. W. Babcock. Here are discussed very thoroughly the etiological factors concerned in the production of disease: Immunity, microbic infection, age, sex, heredity, nervous influences, abnormalities of development, auto-intoxications, physical causes, heat, light, cold, electricity, the atmosphere, climate and season. Poisons are very completely summarized and thoroughly discussed; and their relationships to the general problems of disease outlined. Under the head of sociologic causes, the authors speak of density of population, dissipation, sexual excesses and occupation.

A particularly interesting chapter is that on the extrinsic causes of disease, in which a thorough presentation of the organic factors, those of animal and vegetable origin, is given. The diffusion of disease in various ways-by the air, water, food and soil, and how, the body is invaded by micro-organisms, is thoroughly treated. There are, besides, short chapters on the different diseases due to animal and vegetable parasites.

In Part II, the subject of "Civic Hygiene" is discussed by Dr. Henry Leffman. It is a very thorough and readable presentation of how a city should be sanitarily policed, what to do with the garbage and sewage, and the requirements of plumbing and ventilation. Part III, by Dr. A. Abrams, discusses personal hygiene and the care of the sick.

Altogether, it is an admirably adjusted work to the needs of medical practitioners. That is to say: preventive medicine in its just relation to curative medicine as a means of curing as well as preventing disease, and replete with diagnostic knowledge of material things and conditions in conflict with health.

DISEASES OF THE HEART AND ARTERIAL SYSTEM. DESIGNED TO BE A PRACTICAL PRESENTATION OF THE SUBJECT FOR THE USE OF STUDENTS AND PRACTITIONERS OF MEDICINE. By ROBERT H. BABCOCK, A.M., M.D., Professor of Clinical Medicine and Diseases of the Chest, College of Physicians and Surgeons (Medical Department of the Illinois State University), Chicago; Attending Physician to Cook County Hospital and Cook County Hospital for Consumptives; Consulting Physician to Mary Thompson Hospital, Hospital of St. Anthony de Padua, and of Marion Sims Sanitarium; Fellow and formerly President of the American Climatological Association ; Member of the American Medical Association, etc. Pp. 874, with three colored plates and one hundred and thirtynine illustrations. Bound in cloth. Price, $6.00. New York: D. Appleton & Co.

This work is based upon extensive observation and thorough mastery of the subjects of which it treats. Alike to the most important needs of the student and for the most facile use of the medical practitioner, all mere theories and speculations have been omitted from consideration; and only so much of the anatomy and physiology of the circulatory organs appertaining to their healthy conditions as deemed necessary to a better understanding of the matter in hand has been described, because an extended consideration of them was believed to be out of place in a work devoted to diseased conditions.—“Although aware that physical signs are properly a part of the symptomatology of disease and should be considered under that head, still the author has thought it best to consider them separately, for the sake of facilitating the knowledge of that most difficult subject, the diagnosis of cardiac disease.”

Special attention is paid to treatment-following careful diagnosis-throughout. The author evidently having availed himself of the gist of extensive research in this regard, in addition to his own practical knowledge, by which his work, as compared with other treatises on the same subject, is pre-eminently resourceful for remedial measures.

INFECTIVENESS OF MILK OF Cows WHICH HAVE REACTED TO THE TUBERCULIN, TEST. By John R. MOHLER, A.M., V.M.D., Chief of the Pathological Division Bureau of Animal Industry. Bulletin No. 44, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

A brochure of ninety-three pages, comprising the history, care and study of a herd of tuberculous cows, disinfection and isolation. Meanwhile a study of the infectiousness of the milk was pursued, with feedings and injections of the milk to guinea pigs.-A "synopsis of positive results obtained from the feeding and inoculation experiments, as well as from the microscopic examination of the centrifugalized sediment of milk and cream, indicates that one or more of the guinea pigs fed with milk from 9 different cows have succumbed with typical tuberculosis; that is, the milk of 16.07 per cent. of the 56 reacting cows has been found to be pathogenic to guinea pigs when fed to them. Of the experimental animals inoculated intra-abdominally in the first series, at least i guinea pig has died of tuberculosis in each of the 6 different instances, showing that the milk of 10.9 per cent. of the 55 reacting cow's in this experiment has proven fatal to guinea pigs in the first inoculation experiment. In the second series of intra-abdominal injections the milk from 7 individual cows out of 45 examined, or 15.5 per cent., was demonstrated to possess virulent tubercle bacilli. By uniting these inoculation results it will be observed that it out of 55 cows, or 20 per cent., secreted milk which transmitted tuberculosis to one or more experimental animals when injected into the peritoneal cavity.

“The combined results of the ingestion and inoculation experiments show that the milk of 12 out of 56 reacting cows, or 21.4 per cent., has at one time or another since the beginning of the experiment contained virulent tubercle bacilli.

"Specimens of the mammary glands from all the above-men- . tioned cows were brought to the laboratory and histological examination made, but without finding any indication of tuberculosis.

“The result of this investigation demonstrated fully the necessity for thorough sterilization of the milk from reacting cows before it was consumed as food, and precautions of this nature were

at once observed by the asylum authorities. The danger to the consumer of this raw milk seems palpable, although it is not assumed to be in direct proportion to the positive results obtained in such susceptible animals as guinea pigs.”.

STUDIES ON THE DIGESTIBILITY AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF BREAD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA IN. 1900-1902. By HARRY SNYDER, B.S., Professor of Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Minnesota, and Chemist, Agricultural Experiment Station. Bulletin No. 126. U. S. Department of Agriculture. Fifty pages.

A valuable contribution to the differentiation in the digestibility of bread depending upon the different kinds of flour of which it is made.

"The results of these investigations are in accord with those obtained in former studies, and indicate that fine patent flours from both hard and soft wheat are more digestible than corresponding coarse fours, though they contain somewhat less protein and mineral matter pound for pound. The investigations also show that all fours are quite thoroughly digested, and furnish experimental proof of the generally recognized fact that wheat flours of all grades are among the most important articles of diet."

MANUAL OF INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF CAUSES OF DEATH.-Adopted by the United States Census Office for the Compilation of Mortality Statistics, for use beginning with the year 1900, prepared under the supervision of WILLIAM A. KING, Chief Statistician for Vital Statistics, United States Census Office.

As a guide to the proper tabulation of mortality statistics, this manual should be a table book to every board of health registrar throughout the country; and its forms should be observed as the most certain means of correct returns.—Medical Education in Vital Statistics, Instruction of Medical Students in Registration Methods, etc.—Relation of Physicians to Mortality Statistics, The International Classification of Causes of Death adopted by the

United States Census Office and approved by the American Public • Health Association.—Legislative Requirements for Registration

of Vital Statistics, The Necessity for Uniform Laws, Methods and Reforms.-Practical Registration Methods : emanating from the Census Bureau, are also educational bulletins of practical utility to all health officers and others interested in vital statistics.

THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE AND THE RISE OF THE UNITED STATES.

The international effects of the Louisiana Purchase were even more significant than its political effect. From it dates the end of the struggle for the possession of the Mississippi Valley and the beginning of the transfer of the ascendency in both Americas to the United States. Even the English veterans of the Napoleonic battles were unable to wrest New Orleans from Andrew Jackson in the War of 1812. The acquisition of Florida, Texas, California, and the possessions won by the United States in the recent Spanish-American War are in a sense the corollaries of this great event. France, England, and Spain, removed from the strategic points on our border, were prevented from occupying the controlling position in determining the destiny of the American provinces which so soon revolted from the empire of Spain. The Monroe Doctrine would not have been possible except for the Louisiana Purchase. It was the logical outcome of that acquisition. Having taken her decisive stride across the Mississippi, the United States enlarged the horizon of her views and marched steadily forward to the possession of the Pacific Ocean. From this event dates the rise of the United States into the position of a world power.-From "The Significance of the Louisiana Purchase," by Frederick J. Turner, in the “American Monthly Review of Reviews" for May.

"STORY OF THE BIRTH OF NEW YORK." To anyone taking even a bird's-eye view, the contrast between the Dutch settlement on the point of the Island of Manhattan in

1653 and the New York of to-day is tremendous. To one who knows nothing of New York save its name it may be said that the city of to-day spreads over three hundred and twenty-seven square miles, and houses in its five boroughs something over three millions of people. In the Dutch village of New Amsterdam there were less than three hundred homes and not twelve hundred people. Nevertheless, the charter that was granted to those twelve hundred people meant a great deal to them, and it means much to the present-day city, dating its birth from that morning when the people assembled to the beating of drums to listen to the first reading of the charter granting them municipal rights.

The houses of New Amsterdam were for the most part rude wooden structures, quaint in appearance and homely in arrangement, with tall, slanting roofs absurdly steep, surmounted by

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