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A.D. 481-511.] C1OYIS, KING OF THE FRANKS. 159

"While Childeric.. the father of Clovis, lived an exile in Germany, he was hospitably entertained by the queen, as .well as by the king, of the Thuringians. After his restoration, Basina escaped from her husband's bed to the arms of her lover; freely declaring, that if she had known a man wiser, stronger, or more beautif'id, than Childeric, that man should have been the object of her preference.* Clovis was the offspring of this voluntary union; and, when he was no more than fifteen years of age, he succeeded, by his father's death, to the command of the Salian tribe. The narrow limits of his kingdomf were confined to the island of the Batavians, with the ancient dioceses of Tournay and Arras;J and at the baptism of Clovis, the number of his warriors could not exceed five thousand. The kindred tribes of the Franks, who had seated themselves along the Belgic rivers, the Scheld, the Meuse, the Moselle, and the Ehine, were governed by their independent kings, of the Merovingian race; the equals, the allies, and sometimes the enemies, of the Salic prince. But the Germans, who obeyed, in peace, the hereditary jurisdiction of their chiefs, were free to follow the standard of a popular and victorious general; and the superior merit of Clovis attracted the respect and

of articulation may be traced in that language itself, and accounts for the total absence of this hard guttural sound in many later branches of the Gothic dialect. These changes in the name of the king of the Franks are thus exhibited by Clinton (F. R. ii, p. 571):—Chludwig, probably the original form; Chlothovecus, Acts of the council of Orleans, A.d. 511; Chlothoseus, Agathias; Chlodoveus, Fredegarius; Luduin, Cassiodorus; Lodoin, Jornandes; Fluduicus, Isidorus: Ludovicus, Lat.; Clovis, Moderns; Louis, modern French.Ed.]

* Greg. Turon. lib. 2, c. 12, in tom. i, p. 168. Basina speaks the language of nature ; the Franks, who had seen her in their youth, might converse with Gregory in their old age; and the bishop of Tours could not wish to defame the mother of the first Christian king. [This anecdote does not accord with the character ascribed to the Thuringians by this same Gregory of Tours, as quoted in this volume (p. 25), nor with the atrocities which they are there said to have so wantonly committed on the Franks, at about this very period.—Ed.]

+ The abbs' Dubos (Hist. Critique de l'Etablissement de la Monarchic Franeoise dans les Gaules, tom. i, p. 630—650) has the merit of defining the primitive kingdom of Clovis, and of ascertaining the genuine number of his subjects. + Ecclesiam incultam ac negli

gentia civium paganorum prsetermissam, veprium densitate oppletam, &c. (Vit. St. Vedasti, in tom, iii, p. 372.) This description supposes that Arras was possessed by the Pagans many years before the baptism

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allegiance of the national confederacy. When he first took the field, he had neither gold and silver in his coffers, nor wine and corn in his magazines ;* but he imitated the example of Csesar, who, in the same country, had acquired wealth by the sword, and purchased soldiers with the fruits of conquest. After each successful battle or expedition, the spoils were accumulated in one common mass; every warrior received his proportionable share, and the royal prerogative submitted to the equal regulations of military law. The untamed spirit of the barbarians was taught to acknowledge the advantages of regular discipline.f At the annual review of the month of March, their arms were diligently inspected; and when they traversed a peaceful territory, they were prohibited from touching a blade of grass. The justice of Clovis was inexorable; and his careless or disobedient soldiers were punished with instant death. It would be superfluous to praise the valour of a Prank; but the valour of Clovis was directed by cool and consummate prudence.J In all his transactions with mankind, he calculated the weight of interest, of passion, and of opinion; and his measures were sometimes adapted to the sanguinary manners of the Germans, and sometimes moderated by the milder genius of Bome, and Christianity. He was intercepted in the career of victory, since he died in the fortyfifth year of his age; but he had already accomplished, in a reign of thirty years, the establishment of the Trench monarchy in Gaul.

The first exploit of Clovis was the defeat of Syagrius, the son of iEgidius; and the public quarrel might, on this occasion, be inflamed by private resentment. The glory of the father still insulted the Merovingian race; the power of the son might excite the jealous ambition of the king of the

of Clovis. * Gregory of Tours (lib. 5, c. 1, in tom, ii,

p. 232) contrasts the poverty of Clovis with the wealth of his grandsons. Yet Itemigius (in tom, iv, p. 62) mentions his patcrnas opes, as sufficient for the redemption of captives.

+ See Gregory (lib. 2, c. 27, 37, in tom, ii, p. 175, 181, 182). The famous story of the vase of Soissons explains both the power and the character of Clovis. As a point of controversy, it has been strangely tortured by Boulainvilliers, Dubos, and the other political antiquarians. X The duke of Nivernois, & noble statesman, who has managed weighty and delicate negotiations, ingeniously illusstrates ^M6m. de l'Acad. des Inscriptions, tom, xx, p. 147—184) the

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Franks. Syagrius inherited, as a patrimonial estate, tLe city and diocese of Soissons: the desolate remnant of the second Belgic, Eheims and Troyes, Beauvais and Amiens, would naturally submit to the count or patrician ;* and after the dissolution of the Western empire, he might reign with the title, or at least with the authority, of king of the Romans.f As a Roman, he had been educated in the liberal studies of rhetoric and jurisprudence; but he was engaged by accident and policy in the familiar use of the Germanic idiom. The independent barbarians resorted to the tribunal of a stranger, who possessed the singular talent of explaining, in their native tongue, the dictates of reason and equity. The diligence and affability of their judge rendered him popular, the impartial wisdom of his decrees obtained their voluntary obedience, and the reign of Syagrius over the Franks and Burgundians, seemed to revive the original institution of civil society.J In the midst of these peaceful occupations, Syagrius received, and boldly accepted, the hostile defiance of Clovis; who challenged his rival in the spirit, and almost in the language, of chivalry, to appoint the day, and the field,§ of battle. In the time of Csesar,

political system of Clovis. * M. Biet (in a Dissertation

which deserved the prize of the Academy of Soissons, p. 178-—226) has accurately defined the nature and extent of the kingdom of Syagrius, and his father; but he too readily allows the slight evidence of Dubos (tom. ii, p. 54—57) to deprive him of Beauvais and Amiens.

+ I may observe that Fredegarius, in his Epitome of Gregory of Tours (tom. ii, p. 398), has prudently substituted the name of Putricius for the incredible title of Rex Romanorum.

J Sidonius (1ib. 5, epist. 5, in tom. i, p. 794), who styles him the Solon, the Amphion of the barbarians, addresses this imaginary king in the tone of friendship and equality. From such offices of arbitration, the crafty Dejoces had raised himself to throne of the Medes. (Herodot. lib. 1, c. 96—100.) [According to Zedler (Lexicon, 41, 527), the wife of iEgidius was a Frank, or belonged to some other Teuton race, and gave to her son the name of Siegreich (the victorious), which was latinized in the form now known to us. She probably imparted to him, in early life, his knowledge of her mother-tongue. The distinction which he thereby acquired proves how, even at that late period and after ages of intercourse, the Romans still generally neglected or disdained to study the languages of barbarians. "Es wurde fur was ausserordentliches gehalten, wenn ein Romer Deutsch lernte," are the words of Schmidt (i, 184.)—Ed.]

§ Campum sibi praparari jussit. M. Biet (p. 226—251) has diligently ascertained this field of battle at Nogent, a Benedictine abbey, about ten miles to the north of Soissons. The ground was marked by

VOL. IV. M

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Soissons would have poured forth a body of fifty thousand horse; and such an army might have been plentifully supplied with shields, cuirasses, and military engines, from the three arsenals, or manufactures, of the city.* But the courage and numbers of the Gallic youth were long since exhausted; and the loose bands of volunteers, or mercenaries, who marched under the standard of Syagrius, were incapable of contending with the national valour of the Franks. It would be ungenerous, without some more accurate knowledge of his strength and resources, to condemn the rapid flight of Syagrius, who escaped, after the loss of a battle, to the distant court of Thoulouse. The feeble minority of Alaric could not assist, or protect, an unfortunate fugitive; the pusillanimousf Goths were intimidated by the menaces of Clovis; and the Roman Icing, after a short confinement, was delivered into the hands of the executioner. The Belgic cities surrendered to the king of the Franks; and his dominions were enlarged towards the east by the ample diocese of Tongres,J which Clovis subdued in the tenth year of his reign.

a circle of Pagan sepulchres; and Clovis bestowed the adjacent lands of Leuilly and Coucy on the church of Rheims.

* See Csesar, Comment, de Bell. Gallic. 2, 4, in tom, i, p. 220, and the Notitiee, tom, i, p. 126. The three Fabricseof Soissons, were Seutaria, Balistaria, and Clinabaria. The last supplied the complete armour of the heavy cuirassiers. [Ctesar does not say that Soissons itself could furnish such a force, but that the people, the Suessiones, who held a territory containing twelve towns (oppida nwmero duodecim) had promised 50,000 men as their contingent to the general levy. They were not, however, very formidable combatants, for they were soon put to flight. Nor is there any sign of such arsenals existing there at that period. They were probably established during the empire, when the chief city where they were formed received the name of Augusta Suessionum. (Cellarius, 1, 316.) The munitions of war prepared in the third of these military workshops are not correctly explained here. The clunabulum was a small sword or dagger (pugio), which was suspended from the hip {ad clunem) whence it had its name. It was sometimes called clunaclum, or clunandum. (Ducange, ii, p. 704.) Clinabaria evidently means clunabaria, or armouries, where this weapon was made.—Ed.] + The epithet must be con

fined to the circumstances; and history cannot justify the French prejudice of Gregory (lib. 2, c. 27, in tom, ii, p. 175), ut Gothorum pavere mos est. J Dubos has satisfied me (tom, i, p. 277—"

286) that Gregory of Tours, his transcribers or his readers, have repeatedly confounded the German kingdom of Thuringia, beyond the Bhine, and the Gallic city of Tongria, on the Meuse, which was mora A.D. 496.] Suemission or THE Allemanni.

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The name of the Allemaimi has been absurdly derived from their imaginary settlement on the banks of the Lemam lake.* That fortunate district, from the lake to Avenche and Mount Jura, was occupied by the Burgundians.f The northern parts of Helvetia had indeed been subdued by the ferocious Allemanni, who destroyed with their own hands the fruits of their conquest. A province, improved and adorned by the arts of Bome, was again reduced to a savage wilderness; and some vestige of the stately Vindonissa may still be discovered in the fertile and populous valley of the Aar.J From the source of the Bhine to its conflux with the Mein and the Moselle, the formidable swarms of Allemanni commanded either side of the river, by the right of ancient possession or recent victory. They had spread themselves into Gaul, over the modern provinces of Alsace and Lorraine; and their bold invasion of the kingdom of Cologne, summoned the Salic prince to the defence of his Bipuarian allies. Clovis encountered the invaders of Gaul in the plain of Tolbiac,§ about twenty-four miles from Cologne; and the two fiercest nations of Germany were mutually animated by the memory of past exploits, and the prospect of. future greatness. The Franks, after an obstinate struggle, gave way; and the Allemanni, raising a shout

anciently the country of the Eburones, and more recently the dioceseof Liege.

* Populi habitantes juxta Zemannum lacum, Allemaimi dicuntur. (Servius, ad Virgil. Georgic. 4. 278.) Dom. Bouquet (tom, i, p. 817) has only alleged the more recent and corrupt text of Isidore of Seville.

+ Gregory of Tours sends St. Lupicinus inter ilia Jurensis deserti secreta, quse, inter Burgundiam Alamanniamque sita, Aventicte adjacent civitati, in tom, i, p. 648. M. de Watteville (Hist, de la Confederation HelvGtique, tomn. i, p. 9,10) has accurately defined the Helvetian r limits of the duchy of Allemannia, and the Transjurane Burgundy. They were commensurate with the dioceses of Constance and Avenche, or Lausanne, and are still discriminated in modern Switzerland, by the use of the German or French language.

t See Guilliman de Rebus Helveticis, 1. 1, c. 3, p. 11, 12. Within the ancient walls of Vindonissa, the castle of Hapsburg, the abbey of Kbnigsfeld, and the town of Bruck, have successively arisen. The philosophic traveller may compare the monuments of Roman conquest, of feudal or Austrian tyranny, of monkish superstition, and of industrious freedom, If he be truly a philosopher, he will applaud the merit and happiness of his own times.

§ [Now Ziilpich. (Cellarius, 1. 268.) Mr. Hallam has used the modern, in preference to the ancient, name.—Ed.]

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