Sidebilder
PDF
ePub
[blocks in formation]

A.D. PAOB

Jealousy of the Roman Generals . . . . .423

Death of Constantine ....... 423

The Eunuch Narses ....... 424

Firmness and Authority of Belisarius .... 425

538. 539. Invasion of Italy by the Franks . . . .425

Destruction of Milan ....... 426

Belisarius Besieges Ravenna ...... 428

539. Subdues the Gothic Kingdom of Italy .... 429

Captivity of Vitiges 429

540. Return and Glory of Belisarius ..... 431

Secret History of his Wife Antonina .... 432

Her Lover Theodosius 434

Resentment of Belisarins and her Son Photius . . , 436

Persecution of her Son ....... 437

Disgrace and Submission of Belisarius .... 438

CH. XLII. — STATE OF THE BABBAEIO WORLD.—ESTABLISHMENT OF

THE LOMBABDS ON THE DANUBE. — TBIBES AND INBOADS OF THE

SCLAVONIANS.—ORIGIN, EMPIRE, AND EMBASSIES OF THE TURKS.—

THE FLIGHT OF THE AVARS.—CHOSROES I. OR NUSHIRVAN KING OF

PERSIA.—HIS PROSPEROUS REIGN AND WARS WITH THE ROMANS.—

THE COLOHIAN OR LAZIO WAR.—THE .ETHOPIANS.

627—565. Weakness of the Empire of Justinian . . . 439

State of the Barbarians ........ 441

The Gepidse . . . .. . . .442

The Lombards ........ 443

The Sclavonians . . . . . . . .445

Their Inroads ........ 448

545. Origin and Monarchy of the Turks in Asia . . . 451

The Avars Fly before the Turks, and approach the Empire . 454

558. Their Embassy to Constantinople ..... 456

569—582. Embassies of the Turks and Romans . . .458

500—530. State of Persia 461

531—579. Reign of Nushirvan, or Chosroes .... 463

His Love of Learning ....... 465

533—539. Peace and War with the Romans .... 469

540. He Invades Syria 471

And Euins Antioch 473

541. Defence of the East by Belisarius 474

Description of Colchos, Lazica, or Mingrclia . . . 476

Manners of the Natives. . . . . . 479

Revolutions of Colchos . ...... 480

Under the Persians, before Christ 500 .... 481

Under the Romans, before Christ 60 ... . . 4S2

530. Visit of Arrian 483

522. Conversion of the Lazi 483

642—549. Revolt and Repentance of the Colchians . . • 4S*

[ocr errors][merged small]

CH. XLIII.—REBELLIONS OF AFRICA.—RESTORATION OF THE G0THIO

KINGDOM OF TOTILA.—LOSS AND RECOVERY OF ROME.—FINAL CONQUEST

OF ITALY BY NARSES.—EXTINCTION OF THE OSTROGOTHS.—DEFEAT OF

THE FRANKS AND ALLEMANNI.—LAST VICTORY, DISGRACE, AND DEATH

OF BELISARIUS.— DEATH AND CHARACTER OF JUSTINIAN, — COMETS,

EARTHQUAKES, AND PLAGUE.

535—545. The Troubles of Africa 496

543— 558. Rebellion of the Moors 500

540. Revolt of the Goths • . 502

541— 544. Victories of Totila, King of Italy . . . .503

Contrast of Greek Vice and Gothic Virtue . . . 504

544— 548. Second Command of Belisarius in Italy . . . 506

546. Rome Besieged by the Goths ...... 508

Attempt of Belisarius ....... 509

Rome taken by the Goths . . . . . .511

547. Recovered by Belisarius ...... 513

548. Final Recall of Belisarius . . . . . .515

'549. Rome again Taken by the Goths ..... 517

549—551. Preparations of Justinian for the Gothic War . . 519

552. Character and Expedition of the Eunuch Narses . . 521

Defeat and Death of Totila 524

Conquest of Rome by Narses ...... 527

553. Defeat and Death of Teias, the last King of the Goths . 528

Invasion of Italy by the Franks and Allemanni . . 53Q

554. Defeat of the Franks and Allemanni by Narses. . . 534

554—568. Settlement of Italy 537

559. Invasion of the Bulgarians ...... 538

Last Victory of Belisarius ...... 539

561. His Disgrace and Death ...... 540

565. Death and Character of Justinian ..... 542

531—539. Comets .545

Earthquakes ........ 547

542. Plague—its Origin and Nature ..... 550

542— 594. Extent and Duration 553

[merged small][graphic][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

CHAPTER XXXV.

INVASION OF QATTL BY ATTILA. — HE IS BEPULSED BT XT1V3 AND THH VISIGOTHS. — ATTILA INVADES AND EVACUATES ITALY.—THE DEATHS OF ATTILA, MT1VS, AND VALENTINIAN THE THIBD.

It was the opinion of Marcian, that war should he avoided, as long as it is possible to preserve a secure and honourable peace; but it was likewise his opinion, that peace cannot be honourable or secure, if the sovereign betrays a pusillanimous aversion to war. This temperate courage dictated his reply to the demands of Attila, who insolently pressed the payment of the annual tribute. The emperor signified to the barbarians, that they must no longer insult the majesty of Rome by the mention of a tribute; that he was disposed to reward, with becoming liberality, the faithful friendship of his allies; but that, if they presumed to violate the public peace, they should feel that he possessed troops, and arms, and resolution, to repel their attacks. The same language, even in the camp of the Huns, was used by his ambassador Apollonius, whose bold refusal to deliver the presents, till he had been admitted to a personal interview, displayed a sense of dignity and a contempt of danger which Attila

VOL. IT. B

2

CHABACTEB AND ADMINISTEATION [CH. XXXV.

was not prepared to expect from the degenerate Romans.* He threatened to chastise the rash successor of Theodosius; but he hesitated whether he should first direct his invincible arms against the Eastern or the Western empire. While mankind awaited his decision with awful suspense, he sent an equal defiance to the courts of Ravenna and Constantinople; and his ministers salnted the two emperors with the same haughty declaration. "Attila, my lord, and thy lord, commands thee to provide a palace for his immediate reception."f But as the barbarian despised, or affected to despise, the Romans of the east, whom he had so often vanquished, he soon declared his resolution of suspending the easy conquest, till he had achieved a more glorious and important enterprise. In the memorable invasions of Gaul and Italy, the Huns were naturally attracted by the wealth and fertility of those provinces; but the particular motives and provocations of Attila can only be explained by the state of the western empire under the reign of Valentinian, or, to speak more correctly, under the administration of .iEtius. J

After the death of his rival Boniface, ^Etius had prudently retired to the tents of the Huns; and he was indebted to their alliance for his safety and his restoration. Instead of the suppliant language of a guilty exile, he solicited his pardon at the head of sixty thousand barbarians; and the empress Placidia confessed, by a feeble resistance, that the condescension, which might have been ascribed to clemency, was the effect of weakness or fear. She delivered herself, her son Valentinian, and the "Western empire, into the hands of an insolent subject; nor could Placidia protect the sonin-law of Boniface, the virtuous and faithful Sebastian,§

* See Priscus, p. 39. 72. + The Alexandrian or Paschal

Chronicle, which introduces this haughty message during the lifetime of Theodosius, may have anticipated the date; hut the dull annalist was incapable of inventing the original and genuine style of Attila.

t The second book of the Histoire Critique de l'Etablissement de la Monarchie Francoise, tom.i, p. 189—424, throws great light on the state of Gaul, when it was invaded by Attila: but the ingenious author, the Abbe" Dubos, too often bewilders himself in system and conjecture.

§ Victor Vitensis (de Persecut. Vandal. 1.1, c. 6, p. 8, edit. Ruinart) calls him, acer consilio et strenuus in bello; but his courage, when he became unfortunate, was censured as desperate rashness; and Sebastian deserved, or obtained, the epithet of pracept. (Sidon. Apollinar. Carmen 9.181.) His adventures at Constantinople, in Sicily, Gaul, Spain, and Africa, are faintly marked in the Chronicles of Marcellinus

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

from the implacable persecution, which urged him from one kingdom to another, till he miserably perished in the service of the Vandals. The fortunate ALt ius, who was immediatelypromoted to the rank of patrician and thrice invested with the honours of the consu lship, assumed, with the title of master of the cavalry and infantry, the whole military power of the state ; and he is sometimes styled, by contemporary writers, the duke, or general, of the Romans of the West. His prudence, rather than his virtue, engaged him to leave the grandson of Theodosius in the possession of the purple; and Valentinian was permitted to enjoy the peace and luxury of Italy, while the patrician appeared in the glorious light of a hero and a patriot, who supported near twenty years the ruins of the western empire. The Gothic historian ingenuously confesses, that JEtius was born for the salvation of the Roman republic :* and the following portrait, though it is drawn in the fairest colours, must be allowed to contain a much larger proportion of truth than of flattery. "His mother was a wealthy and noble Italian, and his father Gaudentius, who held a distinguished rank in the province of Scythia, gradually rose, from the station of a military domestic, to the dignity of master of the cavalry. Their son, who was enrolled almost in his infancy, in the guards, was given as a hostage, first to Alaric, and afterwards to the Huns; and he successively obtained the civil and military honours of the palace, for which he was equally qualified by superior merit. The graceful figure of .iEtius was not above the middle stature: but his manly limbs were admirably formed for strength, beauty, and agility; and he excelled in the martial exercises of managing a horse, drawing the bow, and darting the javelin. He could f patiently endure the want of food or of sleep; and his mind and body were alike capable of the most laborious efforts. He possessed the genuine courage that can despise not only dangers but injuries; and it was impossible either to corrupt, or deceive, or intimidate, the firm integrity of his soul."t The barbarians, who had seated themselves in the

and Idatius. In his distress, he was always followed by a numerous train; since he could ravage the Hellespont and Propontis, and seize the city of Barcelona. * Reipublicse Romana; singulariter

natus, qui superbiam Suevorum Francorumque barbariem immensis csedibus servire imperio Romano coegisset. Jornandes de Rebus Ceticis, c. Si, p. 660. + This portrait is drawn by Renatua

« ForrigeFortsett »