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the ambition of Martina was quickened by maternal
love, and perhaps by the envy of a step-mother; and
the aged husband was too feeble to withstand the arts
of conjugal allurements. Constantine, his eldest son,
enjoyed in a mature age the title of Augustus; but
the weakness of his constitution required a colleague
and a guardian, and he yielded with secret reluctance
to the partition of the empire. The senate was sum-
moned to the palace to ratify or attest the association
of Heracleonas, the son of Martina: the imposition
of the diadem was consecrated by the prayer and
blessing of the patriarch; the senators and patricians
adored the majesty of the great emperor and the
partners of his reign; and as soon as the doors were
thrown open, they were hailed by the tumultuary but
important voice of the soldiers. After an interval
of five months, the pompous ceremonies which formed
the essence of the Byzantine state were celebrated in
the cathedral and the hippodrome: the concord of
the royal brothers was affectedly displayed by the
younger leaning on the arm of the elder; and the
name of Martina was mingled in the reluctant or
venal acclamations of the people. Heraclius survived
this association about two years: his last testimony
declared his two sons the equal heirs of the eastern
empire, and commanded them to honour his widow
Martina as their mother and their sovereign.
When Martina first appeared on the throne with
the name and attributes of royalty, she was checked
by a firm, though respectful, opposition; and the
dying embers of freedom were kindled by the breath
of superstitious prejudice. “We reverence,” ex-
claimed the voice of a citizen, “we reverence the
mother of our princes; but to those princes alone
our obedience is due; and Constantine, the elder
emperor, is of an age to sustain, in his own hands,
the weight of the sceptre. Your sex is excluded by

nature from the toils of government. How could you combat, how could you answer, the barbarians, who, with hostile or friendly intentions, may approach the royal city? May heaven avert from the Roman republic this national disgrace, which would provoke the patience of the slaves of Persia!” Martina descended from the throne with indignation, and sought a refuge in the female apartment of the palace. The reign of Constantine the third lasted only one hundred and three days: he expired in the thirtieth year of his age, and, although his life had been a long malady, a belief was entertained that poison had been the means, and his cruel step-mother the author, of


his untimely fate. Martina reaped indeed the har-Heracleo. vest of his death, and assumed the government in op. 641, the name of the surviving emperor; but the incestuous May”.

widow of Heraclius was universally abhorred; the .

jealousy of the people was awakened, and the two orphans whom Constantine had left became the objects of the public care. It was in vain that the son of Martina, who was no more than fifteen years of age, was taught to declare himself the guardian of his nephews, one of whom he had presented at the baptismal font: it was in vain that he swore on the wood of the true cross, to defend them against all their enemies. On his death-bed, the late emperor had despatched a trusty servant to arm the troops and provinces of the East in the defence of his helpless children: the eloquence and liberality of Valentin had been successful, and from his camp of Chalcedon, he boldly demanded the punishment of the assassins, and the restoration of the lawful heir. The licence of the soldiers, who devoured the grapes and drank the wine of their Asiatic vineyards, provoked the citizens of Constantinople against the domestic authors of their calamities, and the dome of St. Sophia reechoed, not with prayers and hymns, but with the


Punishment of Martina and Heracleonas, A. D. 641, September.

Constans II.
A. D. 641,

clamours and imprecations of an enraged multitude.
At their imperious command, Heracleonas appeared
in the pulpit with the eldest of the royal orphans;
Constans alone was saluted as emperor of the Ro-
mans, and a crown of gold, which had been taken
from the tomb of Heraclius, was placed on his head,
with the solemn benediction of the patriarch. But
in the tumult of joy and indignation, the church was
pillaged, the sanctuary was polluted by a promiscuous
crowd of Jews and barbarians; and the Monothelite
Pyrrhus, a creature of the empress, after dropping a
protestation on the altar, escaped by a prudent flight
from the zeal of the Catholics. A more serious and
bloody task was reserved for the senate, who derived
a temporary strength from the consent of the soldiers
and people. The spirit of Roman freedom revived
the ancient and awful examples of the judgment of
tyrants, and the imperial culprits were deposed and
condemned as the authors of the death of Constan-
tine. But the severity of the conscript fathers was
stained by the indiscriminate punishment of the in-
nocent and the guilty: Martina and Heracleonas
were sentenced to the amputation, the former of her
tongue, the latter of his nose; and after this cruel
execution, they consumed the remainder of their
days in exile and oblivion. The Greeks who were
capable of reflection might find some consolation for
their servitude, by observing the abuse of power
when it was lodged for a moment in the hands of an
We shall imagine ourselves transported five hun-
dred years backwards to the age of the Antonines,
if we listen to the oration which Constans II. pro-
nounced in the twelfth year of his age before the
Byzantine senate. After returning his thanks for
the just punishment of the assassins, who had inter-
cepted the fairest hopes of his father's reign, “By

the divine providence,” said the young emperor, “ and by your righteous decree, Martina and her incestuous progeny have been cast headlong from the throne. Your majesty and wisdom have prevented the Roman state from degenerating into lawless tyranny. I therefore exhort and beseech you to stand forth as the counsellors and judges of the common safety.” The senators were gratified by the respectful address and liberal donative of their sovereign; but these servile Greeks were unworthy and regardless of freedom; and in his mind, the lesson of an hour was quickly erased by the prejudices of the age and the habits of despotism. He retained only a jealous fear lest the senate or people should one day invade the right of primogeniture, and seat his brother Theodosius on an equal throne. By the imposition of holy orders, the grandson of Heraclius was disqualified for the purple; but this ceremony, which seemed to profane the sacraments of the church, was insufficient to appease the suspicions of the tyrant, and the death of the deacon Theodosius could alone expiate the crime of his royal birth. His murder was avenged by the imprecations of the people, and the assassin, in the fulness of power, was driven from his capital into voluntary and perpetual exile. Constans embarked for Greece; and, as if he meant to retort the abhorrence which he deserved, he is said, from the imperial galley, to have spit against the walls of his native city. After passing the winter at Athens, he sailed to Tarentum in Italy, visited Rome, and concluded a long pilgrimage of disgrace



and sacrilegious rapine, by fixing his residence at .

Syracuse. But if Constans could fly from his people, he could not fly from himself. The remorse of his conscience created a phantom who pursued him by land and sea, by day and by night; and the visionary Theodosius, presenting to his lips a cup of blood, said,

CHAP. or seemed to say, “Drink, brother, drink;” a sure * emblem of the aggravation of his guilt, since he had received from the hands of the deacon the mystic cup of the blood of Christ. Odious to himself and to mankind, Constans perished by domestic, perhaps by episcopal, treason, in the capital of Sicily. A servant who waited in the bath, after pouring warm water on his head, struck him violently with the vase. He fell, stunned by the blow, and suffocated by the water; and his attendants, who wondered at the tedious delay, beheld with indifference the corpse of their lifeless emperor. The troops of Sicily invested with the purple an obscure youth, whose inimitable beauty eluded, and it might easily elude, the declining art of the painters and sculptors of the age. Constan- Constans had left in the Byzantine palace three o sons, the eldest of whom had been clothed in his in*::::: fancy with the purple. When the father summoned them to attend his person in Sicily, these precious hostages were detained by the Greeks, and a firm refusal informed him that they were the children of the state. The news of his murder was conveyed with almost supernatural speed from Syracuse to Constantinople; and Constantine, the eldest of his sons, inherited his throne without being the heir of the , public hatred. His subjects contributed, with zeal and alacrity, to chastise the guilt and presumption of a province which had usurped the rights of the senate and people; the young emperor sailed from the Hellespont with a powerful fleet; and the legions of Rome and Carthage were assembled under his standard in the harbour of Syracuse. The defeat of the Sicilian tyrant was easy, his punishment just, and his beauteous head was exposed in the hippodrome: but I cannot applaud the clemency of a prince, who, among a crowd of victims, condemned the son of a patrician, for deploring with some bitterness the execution of a

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