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CHAP. XLVIII.

Irene,
A.D. 792,
August 19.

survived many years, oppressed by the court and forgotten by the world: the Isaurian dynasty was silently extinguished; and the memory of Constantine was recalled only by the nuptials of his daughter Euphrosyne with the emperor Michael the second. The most bigoted orthodoxy has justly execrated the unnatural mother, who may not easily be paralleled in the history of crimes. To her bloody deed, superstition has attributed a subsequent darkness of seventeen days; during which many vessels in midday were driven from their course, as if the sun, a globe of fire so vast and so remote, could sympathise with the atoms of a revolving planet. On earth, the crime of Irene was left five years unpunished; her reign was crowned with external splendour; and if she could silence the voice of conscience, she neither heard nor regarded the reproaches of mankind. The Roman world bowed to the government of a female; and as she moved through the streets of Constantinople, the reins of four milk-white steeds were held by as many patricians, who marched on foot before the golden chariot of their queen. But these patricians were, for the most part, eunuchs; and their black ingratitude justified, on this occasion, the popular hatred and contempt. Raised, enriched, intrusted with the first dignities of the empire, they basely conspired against their benefactress: the great treasurer Nicephorus was secretly invested with the purple; her successor was introduced into the palace, and crowned at St. Sophia by the venal patriarch. In their first interview, she recapitulated with dignity the revolutions of her life, gently accused the perfidy of Nicephorus, insinuated that he owed his life to her unsuspicious clemency, and, for the throne and treasures which she resigned, solicited a decent and honourable retreat. His avarice refused this modest compensation; and, in her exile of the isle of Lesbos, the empress earned a scanty subsistence by the labours CHAP. of her distaff. XLVIII. Many tyrants have reigned undoubtedly more cri-Nicepho

minal than Nicephorus, but none, perhaps, have more *; 802, deeply incurred the universal abhorrence of their October 3i. people. His character was stained with the three odious vices of hypocrisy, ingratitude, and avarice: his want of virtue was not redeemed by any superior talents, nor his want of talents by any pleasing qualifications. Unskilful and unfortunate in war, Nicephorus was vanquished by the Saracens, and slain by the Bulgarians; and the advantage of his death overbalanced, in the public opinion, the destruction of a Roman army. His son and heir Stauracius escaped stauracius, from the field with a mortal wound: yet six months off." of an expiring life were sufficient to refute his indecent, though popular declaration, that he would in all things avoid the example of his father. On the near prospect of his decease, Michael, the great master of the palace, and the husband of his sister Procopia, was named by every person of the palace and city, except by his envious brother. Tenacious of a sceptre now falling from his hand, he conspired against the life of his successor, and cherished the idea ofchanging to a democracy the Roman empire. But these rash projects served only to inflame the zeal of the people and to remove the scruples of the candidate: Michael the first accepted the purple, and before he sunk into the grave, the son of Nicephorus implored the clemency of his new sovereign. Had Michael in an age Michael I. of peace ascended an hereditary throne, he might have oi. reigned and died the father of his people: but his October 2. mild virtues were adapted to the shade of private life, nor was he capable of controlling the ambition of his equals, or of resisting the arms of the victorious Bulgarians. While his want of ability and success exposed him to the contempt of the soldiers, the

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CHAP. XLVIII.

Leo V. the Armenian, A.D. 813, July 11.

masculine spirit of his wife Procopia awakened their
indignation. Even the Greeks of the ninth century
were provoked by the insolence of a female, who, in
the front of the standards, presumed to direct their
discipline and animate their valour; and their licen-
tious clamours advised the new Semiramis to reverence
the majesty of a Roman camp. After an unsuccessful
campaign, the emperor left, in their winter-quarters
of Thrace, a disaffected army under the command of
his enemies; and their artful eloquence persuaded the
soldiers to break the dominion of the eunuchs, to de-
grade the husband of Procopia, and to assert the right
of a military election. They marched towards the
capital: yet the clergy, the senate, and the people of
Constantinople, adhered to the cause of Michael;
and the troops and treasures of Asia might have pro-
tracted the mischiefs of civil war. But his humanity
(by the ambitious it will be termed his weakness) pro-
tested, that not a drop of Christian blood should be
shed in his quarrel, and his messengers presented the
conquerors with the keys of the city and the palace.
They were disarmed by his innocence and submission;
his life and his eyes were spared; and the imperial
monk enjoyed the comforts of solitude and religion
above thirty-two years after he had been stripped of
the purple and separated from his wife.
A rebel, in the time of Nicephorus, the famous
and unfortunate Bardanes, had once the curiosity to
consult an Asiatic prophet, who, after prognosticating
his fall, announced the fortunes of his three principal
officers, Leo the Armenian, Michael the Phrygian,
and Thomas the Cappadocian, the successive reigns
of the two former, the fruitless and fatal enterprise
of the third. This prediction was verified, or rather
was produced, by the event. Ten years afterwards,
when the Thracian camp rejected the husband of
Procopia, the crown was presented to the same Leo,

the first in military rank, and the secret author of the mutiny. As he affected to hesitate, “With this sword,” said his companion Michael, “I will open the gates of Constantinople to your imperial sway; or instantly plunge it into your bosom, if you obstinately resist the just desires of your fellow-soldiers.” The compliance of the Armenian was rewarded with the empire, and he reigned seven years and a half under the name of Leo the fifth. Educated in a camp, and ignorant both of laws and letters, he introduced into his civil government the rigour and even cruelty of military discipline; but if his severity was sometimes dangerous to the innocent, it was always formidable to the guilty. His religious inconstancy was taxed by the epithet of Chameleon, but the Catholics have acknowledged by the voice of a saint and confessors, that the life of the Iconoclast was useful to the republic. The zeal of his companion Michael was repaid with riches, honours, and military command; and his subordinate talents were beneficially employed in the public service. Yet the Phrygian was dissatisfied at receiving as a favour a scanty portion of the imperial prize which he had bestowed on his equal; and his discontent, which sometimes evaporated in hasty discourse, at length assumed a more threatening and hostile aspect against a prince whom he represented as a cruel tyrant. That tyrant, however, repeatedly detected, warned, and dismissed the old companion of his arms, till fear and resentment prevailed over gratitude; and Michael, after a scrutiny into his actions and designs, was convicted of treason, and sentenced to be burnt alive in the furnace of the private baths. The devout humanity of the empress Theophano was fatal to her husband and family. A solemn day, the twenty-fifth of December, had been fixed for the execution: she urged, that the anniversary of the Saviour's birth would be profaned

CHAP. XLVIII. CHAP. XLVIIL

by this inhuman spectacle, and Leo consented with
reluctance to a decent respite. But on the vigil of
the feast, his sleepless anxiety prompted him to visit
at the dead of night the chamber in which his enemy
was confined: he beheld him released from his chain,
and stretched on his gaoler's bed in a profound slum-
ber: Leo was alarmed at these signs of security and
intelligence; but, though he retired with silent steps,
his entrance and departure were noticed by a slave
who lay concealed in a corner of the prison. Under
the pretence of requesting the spiritual aid of a con-
fessor, Michael informed the conspirators, that their
lives depended on his discretion, and that a few hours
were left to assure their own safety, by the deliverance
of their friend and country. On the great festivals,
a chosen band of priests and chanters was admitted
into the palace by a private gate to sing matins in
the chapel; and Leo, who regulated with the same
strictness the discipline of the choir and of the camp,
was seldom absent from these early devotions. In
the ecclesiastical habit, but with swords under their
robes, the conspirators mingled with the procession,
lurked in the angles of the chapel, and expected, as
the signal of murder, the intonation of the first psalm
by the emperor himself. The imperfect light, and the
uniformity of dress, might have favoured his escape,
while their assault was pointed against a harmless
priest; but they soon discovered their mistake, and
encompassed on all sides the royal victim. Without
a weapon and without a friend, he grasped a weighty
cross, and stood at bay against the hunters of his life;
but as he asked for mercy, “This is the hour, not of
mercy, but of vengeance,” was the inexorable reply.
The stroke of a well-aimed sword separated from his
body the right arm and the cross, and Leo the Ar-
menian was slain at the foot of the altar.
A memorable reverse of fortune was displayed in

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