Romanus I.
A. D.919,
Dec. 24.

Christopher, Stephen, Constantine VIII.

reluctant subject of those who oppressed his weakness or abused his confidence. His uncle Alexander, who had long been invested with the title of Augustus, was the first colleague and governor of the young prince: but in a rapid career of vice and folly, the brother of Leo already emulated the reputation of Michael; and when he was extinguished by a timely death, he entertained a project of castrating his nephew, and leaving the empire to a worthless favourite. The succeeding years of the minority of Constantine were occupied by his mother Zoe, and a succession or council of seven regents, who pursued their interest, gratified their passions, abandoned the republic, supplanted each other, and finally vanished in the presence of a soldier. From an obscure origin, Romanus Lecapenus had raised himself to the command of the naval armies; and in the anarchy of the times, had deserved, or at least had obtained, the national esteem. With a victorious and affectionate fleet, he sailed from the mouth of the Danube into the harbour of Constantinople, and was hailed as the deliverer of the people, and the guardian of the prince. His supreme office was at first defined by the new appellation of father of the emperor; but Romanus soon disdained the subordinate powers of a minister, and assumed, with the titles of Caesar and Augustus, the full independence of royalty, which he held near five-and-twenty years. His three sons, Christopher, Stephen, and Constantine, were successively adorned with the same honours, and the lawful emperor was degraded from the first to the fifth rank in this college of princes. Yet, in the preservation of his life and crown, he might still applaud his own fortune and the clemency of the usurper. The examples of ancient and modern history would have excused the ambition of Romanus: the powers and the laws of the empire were in his hand; the spurious birth of

Constantine would have justified his exclusion; and the grave or the monastery was open to receive the son of the concubine. But Lecapenus does not appear to have possessed either the virtues or the vices of a tyrant. The spirit and activity of his private life dissolved away in the sunshine of the throne; and in his licentious pleasures he forgot the safety both of the republic and of his family. Of a mild and religious character, he respected the sanctity of oaths, the innocence of the youth, the memory of his parents, and the attachment of the people. The studious temper and retirement of Constantine disarmed the jealousy of power: his books and music, his pen and his pencil, were a constant source of amusement; and if he could improve a scanty allowance by the sale of his pictures, if their price was not enhanced by the name of the artist, he was endowed with a personal talent, which few princes could employ in the hour of adversity.

The fall of Romanus was occasioned by his own vices and those of his children. After the decease of Christopher, his eldest son, the two surviving brothers quarrelled with each other, and conspired against their father. At the hour of noon, when all strangers were regularly excluded from the palace, they entered his apartment with an armed force, and conveyed him, in the habit of a monk, to a small island in the Propontis, which was peopled by a religious community. The rumour of this domestic revolution excited a tumult in the city; but Porphyrogenitus alone, the true and lawful emperor, was the object of the public care; and the sons of Lecapenus were taught, by tardy experience, that they had achieved a guilty



tine VII.

A. D. 945,
Jan. 27.

and perilous enterprise for the benefit of their rival.

Their sister Helena, the wife of Constantine, revealed, or supposed, their treacherous design of assassinating her husband at the royal banquet. His loyal adherents were alarmed; and the two usurpers were


II. junior,
A. D. 959,
Nov. 15.

prevented, seized, degraded from the purple, and
embarked for the same island and monastery where
their father had been so lately confined. Old Ro-
manus met them on the beach with a sarcastic smile,
and, after a just reproach of their folly and ingrati-
tude, presented his imperial colleagues with an equal
share of his water and vegetable diet. In the fortieth
year of his age, Constantine the seventh obtained the
possession of the eastern world, which he ruled, or
seemed to rule, near fifteen years. But he was de-
void of that energy of character which could emerge
into a life of action and glory; and the studies which
had amused and dignified his leisure were incom-
patible with the serious duties of a sovereign. The
emperor neglected the practice, to instruct his son
Romanus in the theory, of government: while he
indulged the habits of intemperance and sloth, he
dropt the reins of the administration into the hands
of Helena his wife; and, in the shifting scene of her
favour and caprice, each minister was regretted in the
promotion of a more worthless successor. Yet the
birth and misfortunes of Constantine had endeared
him to the Greeks; they excused his failings; they
respected his learning, his innocence, and charity,
his love of justice; and the ceremony of his funeral
was mourned with the unfeigned tears of his subjects.
The body, according to ancient custom, lay in state
in the vestibule of the palace; and the civil and mili-
tary officers, the patricians, the senate, and the clergy,
approached in due order to adore and kiss the inani-
mate corpse of their sovereign. Before the procession.
moved towards the imperial sepulchre, a herald pro-
claimed this awful admonition: “Arise, O king of
the world, and obey the summons of the King of
The death of Constantine was imputed to poison;
and his son Romanus, who derived that name from
his maternal grandfather, ascended the throne of
Constantinople. A prince who, at the age of twenty,
could be suspected of anticipating his inheritance,
must have been already lost in the public esteem;
yet Romanus was rather weak than wicked; and the
largest share of the guilt was transferred to his wife,
Theophano, a woman of base origin, masculine spirit,
and flagitious manners. The sense of personal glory
and public happiness, the true pleasures of royalty,
were unknown to the son of Constantine; and, while
the two brothers, Nicephorus and Leo, triumphed
over the Saracens, the hours which the emperor owed
to his people were consumed in strenuous idleness.
In the morning he visited the circus; at noon he
feasted the senators; the greater part of the after-
noon he spent in the sphaeristerium, or tennis-court,
the only theatre of his victories; from thence he
passed over to the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus,
hunted and killed four wild boars of the largest size,
and returned to the palace, proudly content with the
labours of the day. In strength and beauty he was
conspicuous above his equals: tall and straight as a
young cypress, his complexion was fair and florid, his
eyes sparkling, his shoulders broad, his nose long and
aquiline. Yet even these perfections were insufficient
to fix the love of Theophano; and, after a reign of
four years, she mingled for her husband the same
deadly draught which she had composed for his
father. -
By his marriage with this impious woman, Romanus
the younger left two sons, Basil the second and Con-
stantine the ninth, and two daughters, Theophano
and Anne. The eldest sister was given to Otho the
second, emperor of the West; the younger became
the wife of Wolodomir, great duke and apostle of
Russia, and, by the marriage of her grand-daughter
with Henry the first, king of France, the blood of
the Macedonians, and perhaps of the Arsacides, still


rus II.
A. D. 963,
August 6.


flows in the veins of the Bourbon line. After the death of her husband, the empress aspired to reign in the name of her sons, the elder of whom was five, and the younger only two, years of age; but she soon felt the instability of a throne which was supported by a female who could not be esteemed, and two infants who could not be feared. Theophano looked around for a protector, and threw herself into the arms of the bravest soldier; her heart was capacious; but the deformity of the new favourite rendered it more than probable that interest was the motive and excuse of her love. Nicephorus Phocas united, in the popular opinion, the double merit of a hero and a saint. In the former character, his qualifications were genuine and splendid: the descendant of a race, illustrious by their military exploits, he had displayed, in every station and in every province, the courage of a soldier and the conduct of a chief; and Nicephorus was crowned with recent laurels, from the important conquest of the isle of Crete. His religion was of a more ambiguous cast; and his hair-cloth, his fasts, his pious idiom, and his wish to retire from the business of the world, were a convenient mask for his dark and dangerous ambition. Yet he imposed on an holy patriarch, by whose influence, and by a decree of the senate, he was intrusted, during the minority of the young princes, with the absolute and independent command of the oriental armies. As soon as he had secured the leaders and the troops, he boldly marched to Constantinople, trampled on his enemies, avowed his correspondence with the empress, and, without degrading her sons, assumed, with the title of Augustus, the pre-eminence of rank and the plenitude of power. But his marriage with Theophano was refused by the same patriarch who had placed the crown on his head: by his second nuptials he incurred a year of canonical penance; a bar of

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