of his predecessors, the esteem and confidence of the
Moslems: during a siege of six weeks his water and
provisions were intercepted, and the feeble gates of
the palace were protected only by the scruples of the
more timorous rebels. Forsaken by those who had
abused his simplicity, the helpless and venerable caliph
expected the approach of death: the brother of Ayesha
marched at the head of the assassins; and Othman,
with the Koran in his lap, was pierced with a multi-
tude of wounds. A tumultuous anarchy of five days
was appeased by the inauguration of Ali: his refusal
would have provoked a general massacre. In this
painful situation he supported the becoming pride of
the chief of the Hashemites; declared that he had
rather serve than reign; rebuked the presumption of
the strangers; and required the formal, if not the
voluntary, assent of the chiefs of the nation. He
has never been accused of prompting the assassin
of Omar; though Persia indiscreetly celebrates the
festival of that holy martyr. The quarrel between
Othman and his subjects was assuaged by the early
mediation of Ali; and Hassan, the eldest of his sons,
was insulted and wounded in the defence of the
caliph. Yet it is doubtful whether the father of
Hassan was strenuous and sincere in his opposition
to the rebels; and it is certain that he enjoyed the
benefit of their crime. The temptation was indeed
of such magnitude as might stagger and corrupt the
most obdurate virtue. The ambitious candidate no
longer aspired to the barren sceptre of Arabia: the
Saracens had been victorious in the East and West;
and the wealthy kingdoms of Persia, Syria, and
Egypt, were the patrimony of the commander of the
A life of prayer and contemplation had not chilled


Death of
A. D. 655,
June 18.

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- • - - - Ali, the martial activity of Ali; but in a mature age, Ap. 655

after a long experience of mankind, he still betrayed

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CHAP. in his conduct the rashness and indiscretion of youth.

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In the first days of his reign, he neglected to secure, either by gifts or fetters, the doubtful allegiance of Telha and Zobeir, two of the most powerful of the Arabian chiefs. They escaped from Medina to Mecca, and from thence to Bassora; erected the standard of revolt; and usurped the government of Irak, or Assyria, which they had vainly solicited as the reward of their services. The mask of patriotism is allowed to cover the most glaring inconsistencies; and the enemies, perhaps the assassins, of Othman now demanded vengeance for his blood. They were

accompanied in their flight by Ayesha, the widow of

the prophet, who cherished, to the last hour of her life, an implacable hatred against the husband and the posterity of Fatima. The most reasonable Moslems were scandalized, that the mother of the faithful should expose in a camp her person and character; but the superstitious crowd was confident that her presence would sanctify the justice, and assure the success, of their cause. At the head of twenty thousand of his loyal Arabs, and nine thousand valiant auxiliaries of Cufa, the caliph encountered and defeated the superior numbers of the rebels under the walls of Bassora. Their leaders, Telha and Zobeir, were slain in the first battle that stained with civil blood the arms of the Moslems. After passing through the ranks to animate the troops, Ayesha had chosen her post amidst the dangers of the field. In the heat of the action, seventy men, who held the bridle of her camel, were successively killed or wounded; and the cage, or litter, in which she sat, was stuck with javelins and darts like the quills of a porcupine. The venerable captive sustained with firmness the reproaches of the conqueror, and was speedily dismissed to her proper station, at the tomb of Mahomet, with the respect and tenderness that was still due to the widow of the apostle. After this victory, which was chAP.

styled the Day of the Camel, Ali marched against a more formidable adversary; against Moawiyah, the son of Abu Sophian, who had assumed the title of caliph, and whose claim was supported by the forces of Syria and the interest of the house of Ommiyah. From the passage of Thapsacus, the plain of Siffin' extends along the western bank of the Euphrates. On this spacious and level theatre, the two competitors waged a desultory war of one hundred and ten days. In the course of ninety actions or skirmishes, the loss of Ali was estimated at twenty-five, that of Moawiyah at forty-five, thousand soldiers; and the list of the slain was dignified with the names of five-and-twenty veterans who had fought at Beder under the standard of Mahomet. In this sanguinary contest the lawful caliph displayed a superior character of valour and humanity. His troops were strictly enjoined to await the first onset of the enemy, to spare their flying brethren, and to respect the bodies of the dead, and the chastity of the female captives. He generously proposed to save the blood of the Moslems by a single combat; but his trembling rival declined the challenge as a sentence of inevitable death. The ranks of the Syrians were broken by the charge of a hero who was mounted on a pyebald

horse, and wielded with irresistible force his pon

derous and two-edged sword. As often as he smote a rebel, he shouted the Allah Acbar, “God is victorious;” and in the tumult of a nocturnal battle, he was heard to repeat four hundred times that tremendous exclamation. The prince of Damascus already meditated his flight, but the certain victory was snatched from the grasp of Ali by the disobedience and enthusiasm of his troops. Their conscience was

• The plain of Siffin is determined by D'Anville (PEuphrate et le Tigre, p. 29) to be the Campus Barbaricus of Procopius.


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awed by the solemn appeal to the books of the Koran which Moawiyah exposed on the foremost lances; and Ali was compelled to yield to a disgraceful truce and an insidious compromise. He retreated with sorrow and indignation to Cufa; his party was discouraged; the distant provinces of Persia, of Yemen, and of Egypt, were subdued or seduced by his crafty rival; and the stroke of fanaticism, which was aimed against the three chiefs of the nation, was fatal only to the cousin of Mahomet. In the temple of Mecca, three Charegites or enthusiasts discoursed of the disorders of the church and state: they soon agreed, that the deaths of Ali, of Moawiyah, and of his friend Amrou, the viceroy of Egypt, would restore the peace and unity of religion. Each of the assassins chose his victim, poisoned his dagger, devoted his life, and secretly repaired to the scene of action. Their resolution was equally desperate: but the first mistook the person of Amrou, and stabbed the deputy who occupied his seat; the prince of Damascus was dangerously hurt by the second; the lawful caliph, in the mosch of Cufa, received a mortal wound from the hand of the third. He expired in the sixtythird year of his age, and mercifully recommended to his children, that they would despatch the murderer by a single stroke. The sepulchre of Ali" was concealed from the tyrants of the house of Ommiyah;" but in the fourth age of the Hegira, a tomb, a temple, a city, arose near the ruins of Cufa." Many thousands of the Shiites repose in holy ground at the feet CHAP. of the vicar of God; and the desert is vivified by * the numerous and annual visits of the Persians, who esteem their devotion not less meritorious than the pilgrimage of Mecca. The persecutors of Mahomet usurped the inherit- *:::::. ance of his children; and the champions of idolatry A.D. #5, became the supreme heads of his religion and empire. ..."T The opposition of Abu Sophian had been fierce and obstinate; his conversion was tardy and reluctant; his new faith was fortified by necessity and interest; he served, he fought, perhaps he believed; and the sins of the time of ignorance were expiated by the recent merits of the family of Ommiyah. Moawiyah, the son of Abu Sophian, and of the cruel Henda, was dignified in his early youth with the office or title of secretary of the prophet: the judgment of Omar intrusted him with the government of Syria; and he administered that important province above forty years either in a subordinate or supreme rank. Without renouncing the fame of valour and liberality, he affected the reputation of humanity and moderation: a grateful people was attached to their benefactor; and the victorious Moslems were enriched with the spoils of Cyprus and Rhodes. The sacred duty of pursuing the assassins of Othman was the engine and pretence of his ambition. The bloody shirt of the martyr was exposed in the mosch of Damascus: the emir deplored the fate of his injured kinsman; and sixty thousand Syrians were engaged in his service by an oath of fidelity and revenge. Amrou, the conqueror of Egypt, himself an army, was the first who saluted the new monarch, and divulged the dangerous secret, that the Arabian caliphs might be created elsewhere than in the city of the


• Abulfeda, a moderate Sonnite, relates the different opinions concerning the burial of Ali, but adopts the sepulchre of Cufa, hodie famá numeroque religiose frequentantium celebratum. This number is reckoned by Niebuhr to amount annually to 2000 of the dead, and 5000 of the living (tom. ii. p. 208,209).

* All the tyrants of Persia, from Adhad el Dowlat (A. D. 977, D'Herbelot, p. 58, 59.95) to Nadir Shah (A. D. 1743, Hist. de Nadir Shah, tom. ii. p. 155), have enriched the tomb of Ali with the spoils of the people. The dome is copper, with a bright and massy gilding, which glitters to the sun at the distance of many a mile.

* The city of Meshed Ali, five or six miles from the ruins of Cufa, and one hundred and twenty to the south of Bagdad, is of the size and form of the modern

Jerusalem. Meshed Hosein, larger and more populous, is at the distance of thirty miles. -

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