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and ambiguous title. Under their reigns it might char.

be dangerous to dispute the legitimacy of their birth; and one of the Fatimite caliphs silenced an indiscreet question by drawing his scimitar: “This,” said Moez, “is my pedigree; and these,” casting a handful of gold to his soldiers, “ and these are my kindred and my children.” In the various conditions of princes, or doctors, or nobles, or merchants, or beggars, a swarm of the genuine or fictitious descendants of Mahomet and Ali is honoured with the appellation of sheiks, or sherifs, or emirs. In the Ottoman empire, they are distinguished by a green turban, receive a stipend from the treasury, are judged only by their chief, and, however debased by fortune or character, still assert the proud pre-eminence of their birth. A family of three hundred persons, the pure and orthodox branch of the caliph Hassan, is preserved without taint or suspicion in the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, and still retains, after the revolutions of twelve centuries, the custody of the temple and the sovereignty of their native land. The fame and merit of Mahomet would ennoble a plebeian race, and the ancient blood of the Koreish transcends the recent majesty of the kings of the earth."

The talents of Mahomet are entitled to our ap-success of

plause, but his success has perhaps too strongly attracted our admiration. Are we surprised that a multitude of proselytes should embrace the doctrine and the passions of an eloquent fanatic? In the heresies of the church, the same seduction has been

the son of Ali (Olearius, p. 957. Chardin, tom. iii. p. 288). But I cannot trace the intermediate degrees in any genuine or fabulous pedigree. If they were truly Fatimites, they might draw their origin from the princes of Mazanderan, who reigned in the ixth century (D'Herbelot, p. 96). * The present state of the family of Mahomet and Ali is most accurately described by Demetrius Cantemir (Hist. of the Othman Empire, p. 94), and Niebuhr (Description de l'Arabie, p. 9–16. 317, &c.) It is much to be la

mented, that the Danish traveller was unable to purchase the chronicles of Arabia.

Mahomet.

CHAP. tried and repeated from the time of the apostles to * that of the reformers. Does it seem incredible that a private citizen should grasp the sword and the sceptre, subdue his native country, and erect a monarchy by his victorious arms? In the moving picture of the dynasties of the East, a hundred fortunate usurpers have arisen from a baser origin, surmounted more formidable obstacles, and filled a larger scope of empire and conquest. Mahomet was alike instructed to preach and to fight, and the union of these opposite qualities, while it enhanced his merit, contributed to his success: the operation of force and persuasion, of enthusiasm and fear, continually acted on each other, till every barrier yielded to their irresistible power. His voice invited the Arabs to freedom and victory, to arms and rapine, to the indulgence of their darling passions in this world and the other; the restraints which he imposed were requisite to establish the credit of the prophet, and to exercise the obedience of the people; and the only objection to his success was his rational creed of the Perma-... unity and perfections of God. It is not the propa.."gation but the permanency of his religion that deserves our wonder: the same pure and perfect impression which he engraved at Mecca and Medina is preserved, after the revolutions of twelve centuries, by the Indian, the African, and the Turkish proselytes of the Koran. If the Christian apostles, St. Peter or St. Paul, could return to the Vatican, they might possibly inquire the name of the Deity who is worshipped with such mysterious rites in that magnificent temple: at Oxford or Geneva, they would experience less surprise; but it might still be incumbent on them to peruse the catechism of the church, and to study the orthodox commentators on their own writings and the words of their master. But the Turkish dome of St. Sophia, with an increase of

splendour and size, represents the humble tabernacle CHAP. erected at Medina by the hands of Mahomet. The to

Mahometans have uniformly withstood the temptation of reducing the object of their faith and devotion to a level with the senses and imagination of man. “I believe in one God, and Mahomet the apostle of God,” is the simple and invariable profession of Islam. The intellectual image of the Deity has never been degraded by any visible idol; the honours of the prophet have never transgressed the measure of human virtue; and his living precepts have restrained the gratitude of his disciples within the bounds of reason and religion. The votaries of Ali have indeed consecrated the memory of their hero, his wife, and his children, and some of the Persian doctors pretend that the divine essence was incarnate in the person of the Imams; but their superstition is universally condemned by the Sonnites; and their impiety has afforded a seasonable warning against the worship of saints and martyrs. The metaphysical questions on the attributes of God, and the liberty of man, have been agitated in the schools of the Mahometans, as well as in those of the Christians; but among the former they have never engaged the passions of the people or disturbed the tranquillity of the state. The cause of this important difference may be found in the separation or union of the regal and sacerdotal characters. It was the interest of the caliphs, the successors of the prophet and commanders of the faithful, to repress and discourage all religious innovations: the order, the discipline, the temporal and spiritual ambition of the clergy, are unknown to the Moslems; and the sages of the law are the guides of their conscience and the oracles of their faith. From the Atlantic to the Ganges, the Koran is acknowledged as the fundamental code, not only of theology but of civil and

CHAP.
L.

His merit towards his country.

criminal jurisprudence; and the laws which regulate
the actions and the property of mankind are guarded
by the infallible and immutable sanction of the will
of God. This religious servitude is attended with
some practical disadvantage; the illiterate legislator
had been often misled by his own prejudices and
those of his country; and the institutions of the
Arabian desert may be ill adapted to the wealth and
numbers of Ispahan and Constantinople. On these
occasions, the Cadhi respectfully places on his head
the holy volume, and substitutes a dexterous inter-
pretation more apposite to the principles of equity,
and the manners and policy of the times.
His beneficial or pernicious influence on the public
happiness is the last consideration in the character of
Mahomet. The most bitter or most bigoted of his
Christian or Jewish foes will surely allow that he
assumed a false commission to inculcate a salutary doc-
trine, less perfect only than their own. He piously
supposed, as the basis of his religion, the truth and
sanctity of their prior revelations, the virtues and
miracles of their founders. The idols of Arabia were
broken before the throne of God; the blood of human
victims was expiated by prayer, and fasting, and alms,
the laudable or innocent arts of devotion; and his
rewards and punishments of a future life were painted
by the images most congenial to an ignorant and carnal
generation. Mahomet was perhaps incapable of dic-
tating a moral and political system for the use of his
countrymen: but he breathed among the faithful a
spirit of charity and friendship, recommended the
practice of the social virtues, and checked, by his
laws and precepts, the thirst of revenge and the op-
pression of widows and orphans. The hostile tribes
were united in faith and obedience, and the valour
which had been idly spent in domestic quarrels was
vigorously directed against a foreign enemy. Had

the impulse been less powerful, Arabia, free at home, CHAP.

and formidable abroad, might have flourished under a succession of her native monarchs. Her sovereignty was lost by the extent and rapidity of conquest. The colonies of the nation were scattered over the East and West, and their blood was mingled with the blood of their converts and captives. After the reign of three caliphs, the throne was transported from Medima to the valley of Damascus and the banks of the Tigris; the holy cities were violated by impious war; Arabia was ruled by the rod of a subject, perhaps of a stranger; and the Bedoweens of the desert, awakening from their dream of dominion, resumed their old and solitary independence."

* The writers of the Modern Universal History (vol. i. and ii) have compiled, in 850 folio pages, the life of Mahomet and the annals of the caliphs. They enjoyed the advantage of reading, and sometimes correcting, the Arabic text; yet, notwithstanding their high-sounding boasts, I cannot find, after the conclusion of my work, that they have afforded me much (if any) additional information. The dull mass is not quickened by a spark of philosophy or taste: and the compilers indulge the criticism of acrimonious bigotry against Boulainvilliers, Sale, Gagnier, and all who have treated Mahomet with favour, or even justice.

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