under the wall of the city; the son of the caliph, c

with a hundred volunteers, were committed to the faith of this new ally, and their successful intrepidity gave an easy entrance to their companions. After Caled had imposed the terms of servitude and tribute, the apostate or convert avowed in the assembly of the people his meritorious treason: “I renounce your society,” said Romanus, “both in this world, and the world to come. And I deny him that was crucified, and whosoever worships him. And I choose God for my Lord, Islam for my faith, Mecca for my temple, the Moslems for my brethren, and Mahomet for my prophet; who was sent to lead us into the right way, and to exalt the true religion in spite of those who join partners with God.”

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The conquest of Bosra, four days’ journey from siege of Q ys J y

Damascus,” encouraged the Arabs to besiege the ancient capital of Syria.” At some distance from the walls, they encamped among the groves and fountains of that delicious territory,” and the usual option of the Mahometan faith, of tribute or of war, was proposed to the resolute citizens, who had been lately strengthened by a reinforcement of five thousand

* Damascus is amply described by the Sherif al Edrisi (Geograph. Nub. p. 116, 117); and his translator, Sionita (Appendix, c. 4); Abulfeda (Tabula Syria, p. 100); Schultens (Index Geograph. ad Vit. Saladin); D'Herbelot (Bibliot. Orient. p. 291); Thevenot (Voyage du Levant, part i. p. 688–698); Maundrell (Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, p. 122–130); and Pocock (Description of the East, vol. ii. p. 117–127).

* Nobilissima civitas, says Justin. According to the oriental traditions, it was older than Abraham or Semiramis. Joseph. Antiq. Jud. l. i. c. 6, 7, p. 24. 29. edit. Havercamp. Justin. xxxvi. 2.

* Es, 'yo.6 oupazi orny Auos wroxiw 22néas, xa, rms ‘Ezzo &rarns opéaxaoy, orny itéay xzi asyurr.ny Aaozzozow Asya, 'rous ra'oza Aous avorary ăuoy iseasy x&AW.64, was via v Azoysées, zai &ew evzaga, zal ornywy 27Aziz, zz, rorquay oranési, zau yns wpoeia wizara, &c. Julian. epist. xxiv. p. 392. These splendid epithets are occasioned by the figs of Damascus, of which the author sends a hundred to his friend Serapion, and this rhetorical theme is inserted by Petavius, Spanheim, &c. (p. 390–396) among the genuine epistles of Julian. How could they overlook that the writer is an inhabitant of Damascus (he thrice affirms, that this peculiar fig grows only rae haw), a city which Julian never entered or approached?

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Greeks. In the decline as in the infancy of the military art, a hostile defiance was frequently offered and accepted by the generals themselves:" many a lance was shivered in the plain of Damascus, and the personal prowess of Caled was signalised in the first sally of the besieged. After an obstinate combat, he had overthrown and made prisoner one of the Christian leaders, a stout and worthy antagonist. He instantly mounted a fresh horse, the gift of the governor of Palmyra, and pushed forwards to the front of the battle. “Repose yourself for a moment,” said his friend Derar, “and permit me to supply your place: you are fatigued with fighting with this dog.” “O Derar!” replied the indefatigable Saracen, “we shall rest in the world to come. He that labours to-day shall rest to-morrow.” With the same unabated ardour, Caled answered, encountered, and vanquished a second champion; and the heads of his two captives, who refused to abandon their religion, were indignantly hurled into the midst of the city. The event of some general and partial actions reduced the Damascenes to a closer defence: but a messenger whom they dropt from the walls returned with the promise of speedy and powerful succour, and their tumultuous joy conveyed the intelligence to the camp of the Arabs. After some debate it was resolved by the generals to raise, or rather to suspend, the siege of Damascus, till they had given battle to the forces of the emperor. In the retreat, Caled would have chosen the more perilous station of the rear-guard; he modestly yielded to the wishes of Abu Obeidah. But in the hour of danger he flew to the rescue of his companion, who was rudely pressed by a sally of six thousand horse and ten thousand foot, and few among


* Voltaire, who casts a keen and lively glance over the surface of history, has been struck with the resemblance of the first Moslems and the heroes of the Iliad; the siege of Troy and that of Damascus (Hist. Generale, tom. i. p. 348).

the Christians could relate at Damascus the circum- chAP.

stances of their defeat. The importance of the contest required the junction of the Saracens, who were dispersed on the frontiers of Syria and Palestine; and I shall transcribe one of the circular mandates which was addressed to Amrou, the future conqueror of Egypt. “In the name of the most merciful God: from Caled to Amrou, health and happiness. Know that thy brethren the Moslems design to march to Aiznadin, where there is an army of seventy thousand Greeks, who purpose to come against us, that they may eatinguish the light of God with their mouths; but God preserveth his light in spite of the insidels." As soon therefore as this letter of mine shall be delivered to thy hands, come with those that are with thee to Aiznadin, where thou shalt find us if it please the most high God.” The summons was cheerfully obeyed, and the forty-five thousand Moslems who met on the same day, on the same spot, ascribed to the blessing of Providence the effects of their activity and zeal.


About four years after the triumphs of the Persian Battle of

war, the repose of Heraclius and the empire was again A
disturbed by a new enemy, the power of whose reli-
gion was more strongly felt than it was clearly un:
derstood by the Christians of the East. In his pa-
lace of Constantinople or Antioch, he was awakened
by the invasion of Syria, the loss of Bosra, and the
danger of Damascus. An army of seventy thousand
veterans, or new levies, was assembled at Hems or
Emesa, under the command of his general Werdan;"
* These words are a text of the Koran, c. ix. 32. lxi. 8. Like our fanatics
of the last century, the Moslems, on every familiar or important occasion, spoke
the language of their scriptures; a style more natural in their mouths, than the
Hebrew idiom transplanted into the climate and dialect of Britain.
• The name of Werdan is unknown to Theophanes, and, though it might
belong to an Armenian chief, has very little of a Greek aspect or sound. If the

Byzantine historians have mangled the oriental names, the Arabs, in this in-
stance, likewise have taken ample revenge on their enemies. In transposing the

1znadin, . D. 633, July 13.

CHAP. and these troops, consisting chiefly of cavalry, might


be indifferently styled either Syrians, or Greeks, or Romans: Syrians, from the place of their birth or warfare; Greeks, from the religion and language of their sovereign; and Romans, from the proud ap

pellation which was still profaned by the successors

of Constantine. On the plain of Aiznadin, as Werdan rode on a white mule decorated with gold chains, and surrounded with ensigns and standards, he was surprised by the near approach of a fierce and naked warrior, who had undertaken to view the state of the enemy. The adventurous valour of Derar was inspired, and has perhaps been adorned, by the enthusiasm of his age and country. The hatred of the Christians, the love of spoil, and the contempt of danger, were the ruling passions of the audacious Saracen; and the prospect of instant death could never shake his religious confidence, or ruffle the calmness of his resolution, or even suspend the frank and martial pleasantry of his humour. In the most hopeless enterprises, he was bold, and prudent, and fortunate: after innumerable hazards, after being thrice a prisoner in the hands of the infidels, he still survived to relate the achievements, and to enjoy the rewards, of the Syrian conquest. On this occasion, his single lance maintained a flying fight against thirty Romans, who were detached by Werdan; and after killing or unhorsing seventeen of their number, Derar returned in safety to his applauding brethren. When his rashness was mildly censured by the general, he excused himself with the simplicity of a soldier. “Nay,” said Derar, “I did not begin first: but they came out to take me, and I was afraid

that God should see me turn my back: and indeed I

fought in good earnest, and without doubt God as

Greek character from right to left, might they not produce, from the familiar .

appellation of Andrew, something like the anagram Werdan?

sisted me against them; and had I not been appre- CHAP.

hensive of disobeying your orders, I should not have come away as I did; and I perceive already that they will fall into our hands.” In the presence of both armies, a venerable Greek advanced from the ranks with a liberal offer of peace; and the departure of the Saracens would have been purchased by a gift to each soldier, of a turban, a robe, and a piece of gold; ten robes, and a hundred pieces to their leader; one hundred robes, and a thousand pieces to the caliph. A smile of indignation expressed the refusal of Caled. “Ye Christian dogs, you know your option; the koran, the tribute, or the sword. We are a people whose delight is in war, rather than in peace; and we despise your pitiful alms, since we shall be speedily masters of your wealth, your families, and your persons.” Notwithstanding this apparent disdain, he was deeply conscious of the public danger: those who had been in Persia, and had seen the armies of Chosroes, confessed that they never beheld a more formidable array. From the superiority of the enemy, the artful Saracen derived a fresh incentive of courage: “You see before you,” said he, “the united force of the Romans, you cannot hope to escape, but you may conquer Syria in a single day. The event depends on your discipline and patience. Reserve yourselves till the evening. It was in the evening that the prophet was accustomed to vanquish.” During two successive engagements, his temperate firmness sustained the darts of the enemy, and the murmurs of his troops. At length, when the spirits and quivers of the adverse line were almost exhausted, Caled gave the signal of onset and victory. The remains of the imperial army fled to Antioch, or Caesarea, or Damascus; and the death of four hundred and seventy Moslems was compensated by the opinion that they had sent to hell above

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