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The Arabs return to

CHAP. fifty thousand of the infidels. The spoil was ines

timable; many banners and crosses of gold and silver,
precious stones, silver and gold chains, and innume-
rable suits of the richest armour and apparel. The
general distribution was postponed till Damascus
should be taken; but the seasonable supply of arms
became the instrument of new victories. The glorious
intelligence was transmitted to the throne of the ca-
liph, and the Arabian tribes, the coldest or most
hostile to the prophet's mission, were eager and im-
portunate to share the harvest of Syria.

The sad tidings were carried to Damascus by the
Damascus. speed of grief and terror; and the inhabitants beheld

from their walls the return of the heroes of Aiznadin.
Amrou led the van at the head of nine thousand
horse: the bands of the Saracens succeeded each
other in formidable review; and the rear was closed
by Caled in person, with the standard of the black
eagle. To the activity of Derar he intrusted the com-
mission of patroling round the city with two thousand
horse, of scouring the plain, and of intercepting all
succour or intelligence. The rest of the Arabian
chiefs were fixed in their respective stations before
the seven gates of Damascus; and the siege was re-
newed with fresh vigour and confidence. The art,
the labour, the military engines, of the Greeks and
Romans are seldom to be found in the simple, though
successful, operations of the Saracens: it was suf-
ficient for them to invest a city with arms, rather
than with trenches; to repel the sallies of the be-
sieged; to attempt a stratagem or an assault; or to
expect the progress of famine and discontent. Da-
mascus would have acquiesced in the trial of Aizna-
din, as a final and peremptory sentence between the
emperor and the caliph: her courage was rekindled
by the example and authority of Thomas, a noble
Greek, illustrious in a private condition by the alli-


ance of Heraclius. The tumult and illumination of CHAP. the night proclaimed the design of the morning sally; and the Christian hero, who affected to despise the enthusiasm of the Arabs, employed the resource of a similar superstition. At the principal gate, in the sight of both armies, a lofty crucifix was erected; the bishop, with his clergy, accompanied the march, and laid the volume of the New Testament before the image of Jesus; and the contending parties were scandalised or edified by a prayer, that the Son of God would defend his servants and vindicate his truth. The battle raged with incessant fury; and the dexterity of Thomas,& an incomparable archer, was fatal to the boldest Saracens, till their death was revenged by a female heroine. The wife of Aban, who had followed him to the holy war, embraced her expiring husband. “ Happy,” said she, “ happy art thou, my dear: thou art gone to thy Lord who first joined us together, and then parted us asunder. I will revenge uhy death, and endeavour to the utmost of my power to come to the place where thou art, because I love thee. Henceforth shall no man ever touch me more, for I have dedicated myself to the service of God.” Without a groan, without a tear, she washed the corpse of her husband, and buried him with the usual rites. Then grasping the manly weapons, which in her native land she was accustomed to wield, the intrepid widow of Aban sought the place where his murderer fought in the thickest of the battle. Her first arrow pierced the hand of his standardbearer; her second wounded Thomas in the eye;

Vanity prompted the Arabs to believe, that Thomas was the son-in-law of the emperor. We know the children of Heraclius by his two wives; and his august daughter would not have married in exile at Damascus (see Ducange, Fam. Byzantin. p. 118, 119). Had he been less religious, I might only suspect the legitimacy of the damsel.

& Al Wakidi (Ockley, p. 101) says, “ with poisoned arrows;” but this savage invention is so repugnant to the practice of the Greeks and Romans, that I must suspect, on this occasion, the malevolent credulity of the Saracens.


CHAP. and the fainting Christians no longer beheld their

ensign or their leader. Yet the generous champion of Damascus refused to withdraw to his palace: his wound was dressed on the rampart; the fight was continued till the evening; and the Syrians rested on their arms. In the silence of the night, the signal was given by a stroke on the great bell; the gates were thrown open, and each gate discharged an impetuous column on the sleeping camp of the Saracens. Caled was the first in arms; at the head of four hundred horse he flew to the post of danger, and the tears trickled down his iron cheeks, as he uttered a fervent ejaculation; “ O God, who never sleepest, look upon thy servants, and do not deliver them into the hands of their enemies.” The valour and victory of Thomas were arrested by the presence of the Sword of God; with the knowledge of the peril, the Moslems recovered their ranks, and charged the assailants in the flank and rear. After the loss of thousands, the Christian general retreated with a sigh of despair, and the pursuit of the Saracens was checked by the military engines of the rampart.

After a siege of seventy days, the patience, and storm and perhaps the provisions, of the Damascenes were excapitula- hausted; and the bravest of their chiefs submitted to A. Ď. 634. the hard dictates of necessity. In the occurrences of

peace and war, they had been taught to dread the fierceness of Caled, and to revere the mild virtues of Abu Obeidah. At the hour of midnight, one hundred chosen deputies of the clergy and people were

The city is taken by

h Abulfeda allows only seventy days for the siege of Damascus (Annal. Moslem. p. 67. vers. Reiske); but Elmacin, who mentions this opinion, prolongs the term to six months, and notices the use of balistæ by the Saracens (Hist. Saracen. p. 25. 32). Even this longer period is insufficient to fill the interval between the battle of Aiznadin (July, A. D. 633) and the accession of Omar (24 July, A. D. 634), to whose reign the conquest of Damascus is unanimously ascribed (Al Wakidi, apud Ockley, vol. i. p. 115. Abulpharagius, Dynast. p. 112. vers. Pocock). Perhaps, as in the Trojan war, the operations were interrupted by excursions and detachments, till the last seventy days of the siege.


introduced to the tent of that venerable commander. CHAP. He received and dismissed them with courtesy. They returned with a written agreement, on the faith of a companion of Mahomet, that all hostilities should cease; that the voluntary emigrants might depart in safety, with as much as they could carry away of their effects; and that the tributary subjects of the caliph should enjoy their lands and houses, with the use and possession of seven churches. On these terms, the most respectable hostages, and the gate nearest. to his camp, were delivered into his hands: his soldiers imitated the moderation of their chief; and he enjoyed the submissive gratitude of a people whom he had rescued from destruction. But the success of the treaty had relaxed their vigilance, and in the same moment the opposite quarter of the city was betrayed and taken by assault. A party of a hundred Arabs had opened the eastern gate to a more inexorable foe. “ No quarter,” cried the rapacious and sanguinary Caled, " no quarter to the enemies of the Lord:” his trumpets sounded, and a torrent of Christian blood was poured down the streets of Damascus. When he reached the church of St. Mary, he was astonished and provoked by the peaceful aspect of his companions; their swords were in the scabbard, and they were surrounded by a multitude of priests and monks. Abu Obeidah saluted the general: “ God,” said he,“ has delivered the city into my hands by way of surrender, and has saved the believers the trouble of fighting.”

66 And am I not,” replied the indignant Caled, “ am I not the lieutenant of the commander of the faithful? Have I not taken the city by storm? The unbelievers shall perish by the sword. Fall on.”

.” The hungry and cruel Arabs would have obeyed the welcome command; and Damascus was lost, if the benevolence of Abu Obeidah had not been supported


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CHAP. by a decent and dignified firmness. Throwing him

self between the trembling citizens and the most
eager of the barbarians, he adjured them by the holy
name of God, to respect his promise, to suspend their
fury, and to wait the determination of their chiefs.
The chiefs retired into the church of St. Mary; and
after a vehement debate, Caled submitted in some mea-
sure to the reason and authority of his colleague; who
urged the sanctity of a covenant, the advantage as
well as the honour which the Moslems would derive
from the punctual performance of their word, and
the obstinate resistance which they must encounter
from the distrust and despair of the rest of the Sy-
rian cities. It was agreed that the sword should be
sheathed, that the part of Damascus which had sur-
rendered to Abu Obeidah should be immediately
entitled to the benefit of his capitulation, and that
the final decision should be referred to the justice
and wisdom of the caliph. A large majority of the
people accepted the terms of toleration and tribute;
and Damascus is still peopled by twenty thousand
Christians. But the valiant Thomas, and the free-
born patriots who had fought under his banner, em-
braced the alternative of poverty and exile. In the
adjacent meadow, a numerous encampment was formed
of priests and laymen, of soldiers and citizens, of wo-
men and children; they collected, with haste and
terror, their most precious moveables; and aban-
doned, with loud lamentations, or silent anguish,
their native homes, and the pleasant banks of the
Pharphar. The inflexible soul of Caled was not
touched by the spectacle of their distress: he dis-
puted with the Damascenes the property of a maga-
zine of corn; endeavoured to exclude the garrison

i It appears from Abulfeda (p. 125) and Elmacin (p. 32), that this distinc-
tion of the two parts of Damascus was long remembered, though not always re-
špected, by the Mahometan sovereigns. See likewise Eutychius (Annal. tom. ii.
p. 379, 380. 383).

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