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CHAPTER XLIX.

Introduction, worship, and persecution of images.-Revolt of Italy and Rome.

-Temporal dominion of the popes.Conquest of Italy by the Franks.-
Establishment of images.-Character and coronation of Charlemagne.-Re-
storation and decay of the Roman empire in the West. Independence of Italy.
-Constitution of the Germanic body.

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Introduction of images into the Christian church

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Their worship

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The image of Edessa
Its copies

Opposition to image-worship
726_-840. Leo the Iconoclast, and his successors
754. Their synod of Constantinople

Their creed
726–775. Their persecution of the images and monks

State of Italy

727. Epistles of Gregory II. to the emperor

728. Revolt of Italy

Republic of Rome

730—752. Rome attacked by the Lombards
754. Her deliverance by Pepin
774. Conquest of Lombardy by Charlemagne ·
751. 753. 768. Pepin and Charlemagne, kings of France

Patricians of Rome
Donations of Pepin and Charlemagne to the popes

Forgery of the donation of Constantine
780. Restoration of images in the East by the empress Irene
787. VIIth general council, iid of Nice
842. Final establishment of images by the empress Theodora

* 794. Reluctance of the Franks and of Charlemagne

774_800. Final separation of the popes from the eastern empire

800. Coronation of Charlemagne as emperor of Rome and of the West

768_814. Reign and character of Charlemagne

Extent of his empire in France

Spain

Italy

Germany

Hungary

His neighbours and enemies

His successors

814—887. In Italy

911. In Germany

987. In France

814_840. Lewis the Pious

840–856. Lothaire I.

856_875. Lewis II.

888. Division of the empire

962. Otho, king of Germany, restores and appropriates the western

empire

Transactions of the western and eastern empires

800-1060. Authority of the emperors in the elections of the popes

Disorders

1073. Refuimation and claims of the church

Authority of the emperors in Rome

932. Revolt of Alberic

967. Of pope John XII.

998. Of the consul Crescentius

774_1250. The kingdom of Italy

1152_1190. Frederic I.

1198_1250. Frederic II.

814—1250. Independence of the princes of Germany

1250. The Germanic constitution

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