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this purpose consciously before us, it will is conscious of the necessity of broadengive point to all of our instruction. It ing and liberalizing its training. It has will help, if not compel, the university seen that more emphasis must be placed to focus. Specifically it will demand that
upon problems of management, upon the some effort shall be made to correlate economic side of production, and upon all the courses offered. In some way the
those phases of engineering which make student will be given such guidance that
for community improvement. The preshe will see the relationship of his courses
ent emphasis upon highway construction to one another, to knowledge as a whole,
and transportation is a very pertinent and to life in its most practical relation- illustration. The School of Law recogships. Quietly but inevitably he will nizes its obligations in adjusting the law begin to have convictions. He will see,
to the changing social order. Real leadif he is a self-respecting man, that he ership in this highly important field
simply must must begin to live for America, just as
la w his colleagues died for her. It will
schools. Our schools of medicine have awaken him to new responsibilities. He long since shifted the emphasis to prewill see that this is a real place, vitally ventive medicine. They see the vital imconnected with the mightiest proposal portance of public health service, and the world has ever known. He will in
more and more are thinking in terms of stinctively understand that Democracy, group and community medicine. Dentisjust as much as military life, requires try is no longer concerned chiefly about backbone. He will develop moral fibre.
the training of the "tooth carpenter,” but He will banish slouchiness of every form.
sees its responsibilities to the general Laziness, mediocrity, and smattering will health of the individual and its bearings give way to work, quality, and a thorough upon public hygiene. These statements mastery of a few vital things. Such re- represent marvelous shiftings of emsults are just as possible as the present phasis. They indicate clearly that by realities of student life. In fact, to the giving this direction to our various curcollege man of this generation they are ricula we are attempting to assume our more nearly possible.
responsibilities to American life. 2. The curricula of our various schools 3. The university must utilize definiteand colleges within the university must ly its equipment and personnel for rebe definitely directed toward community search work in solving the problems of needs. In fact, this tendency is already
the state. In fact, the university should in full tide. The College of Literature, be the research center of the state. Science, and Arts is accepting its obliga- Questions of all kinds and descriptions tions to society. It recognizes that it immediately related to the welfare of the must serve the state through the profes- people must be answered. The actual sional training of the high-school teacher. organization here of an industrial reUpon this campus are those subject-mat- search laboratory in co-operation with ter departments which, properly corre- the Michigan Manufacturers Association lated with professional training courses, is an illustration of the application of can render an inestimable service to this principle. All results of research Michigan life and meet a long deferred work will be published. By these plans and earnest desire of the schoolmen of the university relates itself directly to the state. A similar tendency is mani- the industrial welfare of the state withfested in the courses in business admin- out in any sense violating its obligations istration. The College of Engineering to any group.
Just so in every realm, the university
This university should serve the people.
must come into closer contact with all problem of government, economics, soci- of the schools of the state. They are ology, art, and education, the university making the citizens of tomorrow. We should concern itself. In a word, it should must be of vital service in recruiting the become the thinking, investigating, phil- teaching profession. Groups of progresosophizing center of the commonwealth. sive business men throughout the state No one need interpose here that this
need and desire various business courses. violates the cardinal principle of learn- We should attempt the training of social ing for learning's sake. Research activi- service workers, including field work and ties of the kind described will only stim- co-operation with the various departulate investigation of every type. We
ments of county, municipal, and state govmust never lose sight of the fact that the
ernments. There are limitless possibiliquality of civilization waits upon dis
ties of wise and valuable co-operation covery, invention, and research. A true with all kinds of private enterprises. Our university,as distinguished from a college, Extension Division has done and is doing must function mightily in this respect, much. It deserves high approbation. It or it fails utterly. To aim at genuine now needs adequate support and recogniservice to the people through the solu- tion. These aims may call for a clearer tion of all types of problems can orly demarcation between university work give vitality and power to our graduate and the duties of executive departments work.
of our government. They may even sug4. Finally, the university must per
gest the necessity of new units in our meate the state with knowledge.
educational system. But, in the meanThe
time, if we consciously aim to assume people of today as never before under
our share of the responsiiblity for the stand the power which accrues to anyone who has the facts and the proper train
new America, we must remember that
knowledge is the property of every man. ing. The people are literally hungry for
In a word, we pretend to believe that knowledge. The British Labor Party
men must be free. They are only free showed statesmanship when it affirmed that we must aim to “bring effectively understand how to govern themselves
when they know how to live wisely and within the reach, not only of every boy and girl, but also of every adult citizen. justly and efficiently. In our appraisal of
America we said that her greatest tyrant all the training, physical, mental, and
was ignorance. If now we are to serve moral, literary, technical, and scientific,
her, we must give her knowledge. of which he is capable.” Such an ideal is democracy applied to education. For
Here, then, are four suggestive possithe university it takes the form of exten
bilities of the specific type of service sion service.
which the university can and must renSuch a division requires very little in the way of its own teaching
der to the state if it is to be worthy of staff. In fact, its instructional work
its history, its opportunities, and its
ideals. should be done by those who are regular members of the university faculties. Knowledge is one. We cannot tolerate one type for the campus and another for I am quite conscious that the main the state. The mutual benefits are not proposals of this address have far-reachto be ignored. To become a successful ing ramifications.
ing ramifications. I am equally aware extension teacher would vitalize a man's that I have left many questions untouched
and some of our most serious problems turn this trick. He is at the center of unsolved. A man cannot remake the uni- the stage. Sometimes we maintain the verse or even the educational world with
illusion that regents, presidents, deans, words in a short half-hour. A wise ad
alumni, or students are primarily to ministrator must often use an inaugural blame for existing conditions. If we foraddress to conceal, not to reveal, all of
get the question of praise and blame, and his education fads, frills, and fancies! I
face the future with its luring possibiliappreciate the fact that some things at
ties, we must crown the teaching prowhich I have hinted today, if carried out,
fessor today. As one of his own group, would involve radical changes in our edu
Professor Hudson has said so wisely: cational system. The necessity of econ
“Our ultimate hope is in the college proomy of time in education is very pressing. fessor himself.” Alluding to necessary Two or three years for every one of our millions of youth might be saved. The changes in education he affirms that “no
such reform is likely to be permanently startling problem of growth may call for new units in our educational machinery. the aggressive convictions of the college
effective, unless it emerges directly from Junior colleges may make a temporary professor himself.” reduction of enrollment in the first two. years, but they will only accentuate the
Here, then, is our message today: The
function of the state university is to problem in its ultimate form. Co-operation with all kinds of enterprises may
serve the state, and through the state to assist materially in reducing the expenses
serve America and the world. I like to of education, and contribute mightily to
re-read Henry Van Dyke's poem entitled the more thorough unification of the "Home Thoughts from Europe.” When
he wrote it he had a proper perspective state.
of America. With all his appreciation of In conclusion, it is quite useless to observe as usual that we must acquire a
Europe he could not smother his native
American instincts, and so he exclaimed: new sense of individual responsibility, unless we actually point oui finger at the
“But life is in the present, and the future must individual. With considerable audacity
be free; and abandon, I desire to express the belief
We love our land for what she is, and what she that the professor is the man who can is to be."
DETROIT'S INTERMEDIATE-SCHOOL PROGRAM
CHAS. L. SPAIN
N September, 1919, the authorities in al leadership in the Detroit school
control of the Detroit school system system. It rests, we believe, on a sound adopted an educational policy which con- educational philosophy. It embodies, in templates the ultimate segregation of the
a concrete way, the results of the best first six grades of the elementary schools experience and thought of the past, comin platoon schools, and the training of all bined with the results of the latest studpupils of the seventh, eighth, and ninth ies and research in the fields of psycholgrades in large intermediate schools ogy, sociology, and school administration.
. specifically organized to meet the educa- The ideals which underlie this program tional needs of pupils of adolescent are social rather than academic. It is years.
conceived that education should be of While the complete realization of this that type which will best achieve the purpolicy must await the passing of years, poses of a democracy. This program is the progress made toward this end during
based upon the theory that “the purpose the past year has been very noteworthy.
of democracy is so to organize society The development of a new elementary
that each member may develop his perorganization has gone rapidly forward, sonality primarily through activities deand buildings and additions planned to signed for the well-being of his fellow house a modernized school have been members, and of society as a whole. started and are well on the way to com- “Consequently, education in a democpletion. In the intermediate school field, racy, both within and without the school, while the actual showing in concrete re- should develop in each individual the sults has not been as evident, the prog- knowledge, interests, ideals, habits, and ress, nevertheless, has been almost as
powers, whereby he will find his place marked. To formulate a new educational and use that place to shape both himself policy; to “sell” this policy to those upon and society toward ever nobler ends." whom its success must depend; to set up The platoon schools which are rapidly educational objectives; to develop a cur
being developed in Detroit are intended riculum to realize these objectives, and to minister in the largest way possible to plan buildings in which the curriculum
to the physical, intellectual, moral, and can find adequate expression, is a tremen- social needs of each individual child, and dous undertaking, but it has been almost
at the same time so to organize and accomplished within a year, and the ac
relate his knowledge, interests, and habtual construction of five intermediate
its to the life outside of school that he school buildings for which funds are now
may fit readily and effectively into a available, only awaits the completion of place in society . the working drawings.
The intermediate school is an expresThis far-reaching educational program, sion of the same educational philosophy, which is well on its way to realization, applied to the needs of children of adowas inaugurated only after the most ex- lescent years. Among the many reasons haustive consideration and study on the why a separate school for adolescents is part of those responsible for education- desirable, there are some which are wor*Copyright, 1920, by Chas. L. Spain.
thy of special emphasis :
1. Pupils between the ages of 12 and olds, 58 per cent of the thirteen-year16 are passing through a critical period, olds, 66 per cent of the fourteen-yearduring which the influence of the school olds, 52 per cent of the fifteen-year-olds, may “make” or “break” the pupil's career. and 36 per cent of the sixteen-year-olds. It is, therefore, important that this fact This is the group of children for which be recognized, and that special consider the intermediate school is being organation be given to such pupils.
ized. 2. While it is important to provide for
The period from the end of the sixth individual differences in the training of grade to the beginning of the tenth is all children, it is doubly so during the
one of exceedingly great school mortaladolescent period when these differences
ity. A comparison of the enrollment of are more marked than they have been in 8,212 pupils in the sixth grade with 3,420 the earlier years. A large intermediate in the tenth is convincing proof of the school can provide for these differences
failure of pupils to remain in school at by a varied curriculum, and by giving
this period. Undoubtedly economic prespupils some freedom to select types of
sure and the desire to earn and possess work which they prefer.
money, and the independence that goes
therewith, are accountable for a great The segregation of large numbers of pupils of the same grade in one school part of the loss. There is much evidence, makes possible the organization of classes however, to indicate that the educational of like ability, and permits the more cap- prolonged if the school were able to meet
life of a great many who leave might be able pupils to advance rapidly.
the requirements of this class. The cur3. This is a period during which voca
riculum of the intermediate school has tional interests begin to appear. At this been framed with this thought very time the study of books and the routine
clearly in mind.
It aims : of the grammar school become irksome
1. To prolong the educational life of to many pupils. It is highly desirable
those who are so placed that they may that such pupils have opportunities to
remain in school for an indefinite period. test their aptitudes and abilities in various kinds of vocational work. The school 2. To prolong, if possible, the educa
tional life of those whose future is. unmust also explore for pupils the vocations into which they are likely to find their certain, by counsel, guidance, and the
inducements of a more attractive and way, and give them information as to
varied curriculum. possibilities for employment, wages, advancement, and leisure time. Pupils of
3. To study and analyze the cases of this age also need guidance and counsel,
those who must leave school early, and
to provide for them the kind of vocational especially with respect to employment and the choice of a career.
The inter- experience and guidance that will help mediate school can provide for all of these
them to find their places in life. things.
THE CURRICULUM In general, it is expected that the inter- Behind the curriculum of the intermediate school will successfully train a mediate school lie the great social objecgroup of pupils who have never been ade- tives, quately provided for, either by the gram- I. To provide for the health of the mar school or the high school. The sev- pupil. enth, eighth, and ninth grades of the II. To continue the training in the funDetroit schools, during 1919-1920, en- damental processes, which was begun in rolled 35 per cent of the twelve-year- the elementary school.