rest rooms for both men and women (a) Two mechanical drawing rooms teachers, and locker space for all teach- obliged to terminate their schooling

On the second floor level are two early because of economic pressure from large gymnasiums, one for boys and one the home. for girls. On the third floor level are two

For this group the intermediate school corrective gymnasiums each 16x45 feet. will provide among other things: On this level also is a well lighted din

1. On the ground floor a variety of ing-room for pupils, with a small dining- shops as follows: room for teachers adjoining. The best

(a) Electrical shop recognized standards have been followed

(b) Wood shop in providing toilet rooms, lavatory equip

(c) Two machine shops ment, drinking fountains, and all other

(d) Paint shop accessories to the proper care of the

(e) Auto mechanic shop physical health. Table III serves to indicate how

(f) A general shop-providing for a the space in the proposed buildings is dis

number of different activities. tributed on the basis of the social aims. 2. On the second floor:

Table 111-Condensed Table Showing Distribution of Space Based on the Social Aims

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cordance with standards recommended While the social aims lie behind the by the North Central Association of Colentire program and organization of this leges and Secondary Schools and by the school, certain features are specifically

National Education Association. The plan intended to realize these aims :

makes possible the greatest economy in 1. The social sciences are made the the use of books and other materials of core of the curriculum rather than the

instruction. In fact, all necessary prolanguages. This phase of instruction is vision is made for recreational reading, emphasized throughout the three years class reading, reference work, and for

2. The auditorium periods are planned systematic training in the use of books to bring the pupils together under con- and library agencies of all kinds. ditions which will make them conscious

ADMINISTRATIVE QUARTERS of their social relationships.

In recognition of the fact that the suc3. This school will give much attention

cess of this school will depend in a large to extra-curricula activities-clubs, so

degree upon the skill with which it is cieties, and various co-operative groups. administered, an attempt has been made Boy scout work for boys and similar

to plan the offices in a way that will be group work for girls, will play an impor

most conducive to effective administratant part.

tion. 4. Pupil participation in school activi- Separate administrative offices are proties and control will be encouraged. vided for the health department. The

general administrative offices are locatTHE AUDITORIUM

ed on the second floor. They include ofOn the first floor, space is planned for

fices for the principal and assistant prina moderate sized auditorium. Its capac- cipal, a general waiting room with space ity will approximate 750. Its purpose is for clerks, and a large room divided into not primarily for general assemblies or

administrative compartments to be used for community use, but for regular school by heads of departments, and vocational work. The auditorium will be used con

counsellors. tinuously during the day for work of a

Adjoining the administrative offices distinctly socializing nature. It is plan

will be a teachers' workroom. The genned to bring the pupils together under

eral plan of organization does not include conditions which will make them con

a separate room for each teacher. This scious of their social relationships, and

workroom will be a general work and the substance of the auditorium instruc

study room for teachers. Here each tion will have a distinct trend in this di

teacher will have a locker for her books rection.

and papers and tables will be provided for work or study. A section of this

room will be seated with special opera The library, on the third floor, is designed to meet the needs of the school

chairs facing a raised platform. This from both practical and recreational

space will be used for faculty meetings

and other group meetings, and may be standpoints. The library suite consists

utilized at times as a small auditorium. of a large reading-room, a classroom, or clubroom, a workroom, a teachers' con

COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES ference room, and six small conference While this building has been arranged rooms for student committees or groups primarily and definitely to meet the reof pupils interested in common projects. quirements of the intermediate school, These rooms are to be constructed in ac- the needs of the community also have


been kept in mind. By the proper loca- development, and every effort is being tion of iron gates, that portion of the made to achieve this end. Detroit is now building which includes the community well on the way toward the development rooms for women and men, the commu- of an elementary school organization that nity locker-rooms, the showers and pools, will place this city in the van of othe the gymnasium and the auditorium can municipalities. When our intermediate be isolated from the remainder of the school plans reach fruition, and the sevbuilding. This plan makes the building enth, eighth, and ninth grade pupils of available for community use and, at the the city are all housed in schools of the same time, avoids many unpleasant al proposed type, a result will be attained ministrative problems which might oth- that will be well worth while. It is hoped erwise arise. This community unit of that the innovations planned for the inthe building will also have separate heat- termediate school may prove in every ing facilities.

way so effective and desirable that they

may ultimately find their way into the CONCLUSION

high school, and that the intermediate The intermediate school is to be dis- school may realize the social aims of tinctly a school for adolescents. It is education in such a large and convincin hoped to meet the needs, individually and way that the whole school system will b? collectively, of children of this stage of profoundly benefited thereby.


Within the past few decades changes have taken place in American life profoundly affecting the activities of the individual. As a citizen, he must to a greater extent and in more direct way cope with problems of community life, State and National Governments, and international relationships. As a worker, he must adjust himself to a more complex economic order. As a relatively independent personality, he has more leisure. The problems arising from these three

dominant phases of life are closely interrelated and call for a degree of intelligence and efficiency on the part of every citizen that can not be secured through elementary education alone, or even through secondary education unless the scope of that education is broadened.--From th? Report of the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education, Bulletin, 1918, Number 35, National Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C.

Professor of the Philosophy of Education, Teachers College, Columbia University


S THE project method merely a new differ from a problem, from a topic, from

name for an old type of procedure ? motivated activity, from the socialized Yes and no. If one were disposed to recitation ? The answers to these quesstress its age, the claim might be made tions will, I hope, come during the disthat it is old, very old; older, in fact, cussion. [ A project, as I understand it,

[ than the institution we call the school, is any instance of activity or experience for it is as old as the first instance of carried on under the dominating purpose learning in connection with a set purpose of the agent; that is, of the doer and to accomplish an end. More specifically, learner. Let us note almost in the reverse it has been found in every case where the order the words, learner, purpose, domichildren have consciously shared the pur- nating. It is the learner that concerns poses of their parents while learning to

us, the learning that is to come from carry forward the domestic activities. In his doing, his experience. That learning

. this sense, learning through purposeful may best come, the factor of purpose has activity has characterized the best inci- been seized upon as the key to the procdental learning of every age and clime. ess. Note, however, that it is the Spur

However, if learning through felt pur- pose of the learner that counts. His purposes is thus admittedly old, it may still pose, as it guides and controls the various lay some claim to novelty as a doctrine steps in his activity, is the psychological for the modern schoolroom. Not that factor, as I hope to show, in the whole good teachers in many schoolrooms have process of most efficient learning. not in every age from time to time made Suppose a teacher sets the task for actual use of child purposes to the great a pupil to write a letter forwarding profit of all concerned. Such is undoubt- to the "Youth's Companion" a new subedly true. But, so far as I know, it is scription, and ordering in return, as a only recently that such a procedure has premium, a toy electrical steamboat. been brought to consciousness for definite This may be close enough to the child's consideration, and conceived of as an life to be called by some a "motivated ideal that should—if we could so effect lesson" in letter-writing. Now, let us it-pervade the whole intentional educa- suppose that this same boy. had actually tive process. In this latter school sense been wishing for a steamboat, and had this purposeful procedure is so new that persuaded his aunt to take the “Youth's it is still in the making. It is pretty well Companion," in order that, by providing worked out in the extremes of the proc- the magazine with a new subscriber, and ess in the kindergarten, primary, and in by sending fifteen cents extra for postage the university, but elsewhere technique and packing, he might secure the steamand standards are yet to be achieved. boat for his own. Do you think the letOur meeting today is to speed the process. ter-writing in the two cases would be What is a project? Wherein does it

Wherein does it the same? The instance is perhaps ex

treme, but it illustrates the point. The *The substance of an address delivered Oct.

purpose of the boy to get the steamboat 30, 1919, before the Michigan State Teachers' is an actual vital thing in his life. This Association.

purpose dominates his whole thinking


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