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and doing in connection therewith. If his the construction need not be material; it letter lacks definiteness, he is glad to. can be, as we saw, of as spiritual a sublearn how to improve it. Precision and

stance as prayer itself. The distinction is clearness are now inherent in a real life best seen in the contrasting types. Type situation. This is one instance of a proj- II is that in which the dominating purpose ect, the living purpose of the doer and is to enjoy some (aesthetic) experience. I learner dominating and guiding each step hear there is a sunset, I purpose to enjoy of the process.

it to the extent of my being; so with a Suppose a girl has at length secured poem, or a play, or an opera. A child her mother's permission to make a dress who asks his mother for a story purposes

a “all by herself.” Her attitude makes a

a project in Type II. These two types project of the whole affair, whereas, if

are often correlatives. The poet writes the sewing teacher sets as a task sewing

the poem (Type 1); we enjoy it (Type ten straight seams, there will probably II). Da Vinci paints the Mona Lisa (Type be many in the class to whom the activity I); you and I stand enraptured before is no project but a mere task and nothing

his masterpiece (Type II). Type II So, also, if a group of children

we may call the Appreciation Project. A give a play, we have a group project, pro

third is Type III, where the dominating vided all purposed conjointly. The poet purpose is to solve a problem, to clear up who spends hours and days on a poem

some intellectual conflict. A problem we is working on a project. The statesman may often easily recognize; so also a who makes an argument for a great cause

boat. Solving a problem is another and is engaged in a project. The mother. different thing; so likewise is sailing a

I whose faith tells her that fervent prayer boat different from the boat itself. in behalf of her wayward son will avail

may contemplate solving the problem or to quicken again his hardened heart, is sailing the boat, but I may say in the

end: “No, it is too much trouble.” or engaged in a purposeful act that enlists

“I her whole being, and involves her whole

haven't the time," or "I am faith in God, and her whole philosophy

cerned.” So far, no project. But if I

” of life. A project then can take every

determine to solve the problem, and set form that human purpose and endeavor

to work effectively at it, then I am en

Have can take. The distinguishing essence is gaged in a project of Type III. an effective purpose.

I made clear the difference between a It was indicated above that projects problem and a project? Problems are may be individual affairs or they may

very common in geography, science, and

history. Projects of Type III should, be carried on by groups. It is clear at

I think, also be very common in the once that a group project is the essence

teaching and

learning of science, ♡ of the “socialized recitation," though not

geography, and history; but, so far, most all group projects need be of this type.

teachers cannot institute projects. It is It may be well to distinguish several

a distressing fact, but true. Perhaps after types of projects differentiated according

a while we shall know more about an to the types of purposes involved. I my

effective technique for building and self distinguish four. Type I is that in

arousing purposes. which the dominating purpose demands embodiment in some form. The illustra- The fourth and last type of project is tions given above were all of this kind. that in which the dominating purpose is This is sometimes called the Constructive to acquire some item or degree of knowl? Type, though it must be made clear that edge or skill. So close is this to old

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fashioned drill that I almost fear to give treatment. The inclusive answfir is that it place, but it exists as a type form and the project utilizes in almost remarkable we need it. I remember that my teacher fashion most of the desirable tendencies once conceived the very evident idea that in modern education. In the first place, my handwriting was not as good as it the purposeful act is the typical unit of should be, and I was required to practice the admirable and effective life. The life under her direction. But I took it as a animated and controlled by worthy purtask imposed from without and prac

poses, we admire and emulate. The mere ticed in but a desultory fashion. Later,

drifter, who takes life as it comes, withI myself woke up to the fact that I

out purpose and without effort, we dewas ashamed of my penmanship, and for

spise. If the persevering pursuit of worthy several years I practiced in season and out. It had then become for me an en

purposes constitutes thus the worthy and

efficient life, should we not seek early grossing project. A colleague asked a

to educate our children accordingly? group of us to tell him what was back

Could we, reasoning in advance, think of of the Gunpowder Plot. The answers

a preparation more promising of good were scant indeed. I determined to look

results than one which provides practice it up when I got home, and learn more

in the choice and pursuit of purposes? about it than the "fifth of November and

To choose purposes wisely and worthily gunpowder, treason, and plot." This, then, was a project to me of Type IV.

is certainly a desirable characteristic. Can

this characteristic be built in the youth, So far, we have done little more than

save by such practice in the choice and define and distinguish. Am I warranted pursuit of purposes as will tend to corin saying that practically all school ac

rect errors in the choice and feebleness tivities worth considering can conceivably of pursuit? How is it now? The teacher appear as one or the other of the four

and the school authorities do practically types differentiated? If any of you doubt all the choosing that is done in school; this, I shall be glad to learn of it more so that the children perforce acquire their definitely Attention should again be habits of choosing on the playground or called to the distinction between individ

street, where the more forward of their ual and group projects, and it should be

fellows set the fashion in choosing. For pointed out that any one of these four

my part, I wish to see the difficult art of types might conceivably appear as a sub- choosing taught in school, where the ordinate part of any other. In particular, teacher can help guide the process. But any construction project worthy of the choosing cannot be taught apart from name is almost sure to involve a number

some opportunity to choose-all the time of subordinate projects of Type III. So under wise teacher guidance. This, of close is the connection that some less

course, means a different notion of school. discerning cannot distinguish which is

It means having things go on in school, means and which is end, what is main

in which children can enter purposefully. purpose and what is subordinate means

Without such actual living, I have very to this as an end.

little faith in the school's being a place If so far we have mainly learned what

to prepare for living. Does this mean we mean by a project, it is now all the that the teacher abdicates? Exactly no, more necessary to ask why we should use but it does mean a more complex kind of projects. Cui bono? An inclusive an- teaching, one that expects the school time swer can be given at once, but the justifi- to be made up typically of life itself. In cation of the answer will require detailed other words, only by living—under properly selective guidance-can the child

the child many is “self-activity,” and there is much learn better how to live.

to be said for it. However, is it not at Again, we have for many years agreed

once evident that what was desired was that school work should not be so ab

an activity that springs from within, from stract. There must be more of concrete

the same inner urge that we saw above? ness, more of objectivity of “real” prob- In other words, the purposeful act is at lems, in it. We have not always dis- the same time self-activity. Froebel comtinguished that what is very concrete plicated his discussion with some doubt

corto one may be very abstract to another ful metaphysics, but, this factor who has not progressed so. To you and rected, self-activity is quite nearly an

old name for what we here advocate. me 334 yards is very concrete, but to a very young child it is painfully abstract. A more recent term or idea is one that If anyone uses purposeful acts, we can be distinguishes the concomitant aspects of sure that he is living in the realm of any learning activity from the more imthe concrete, because no one can purpose mediate or primary aspects. The boy in terms that he feels beyond him. Pur- who sets out to make a boat that he can pose means the essence of concreteness

sail in will undoubtedly learn much about exactly adapted to the degree of develop- making boats; but he will also have ment of each.

learned self-reliance, that it pays to take Still again, we have heard much-pro pains, that accuracy counts, etc., etc. and con-about interest. We have been These concomitant learnings, while slowtold that without interest there is no er to get, have perhaps most to do with effort and little learning. We have con- what we call character. In school we trariwise heard that to try always to promote on the other aspects of learning; interest children is to spoil them, and but in life these concomitants count no most of us have agreed. Now, the fac

less than the immediate learnings. Now, tor of purpose will, I believe, solve the it needs little discussion from me to point puzzle. Where purpose is, there we have out that good concomitants come best one kind of interest-a good interest, if from successful purposing. Where the the purpose be worthy-which shows it- child never sees his work as anything self in effort, in an inner urge which

but tasks, irksome tasks, bad concomiwould of itself, and from within, push

tants are the outcomes those of shirkthe child on in the face of obstacles and ing, dawdliig, hating school, and the like. hindrances. Such a state of interest we Perhaps clearer than anything I have all wish. In a case where no purpose is yet urged is the fact that purpose secures present, there the weak and foolish organization and a weighing of comteacher has often, in times past, cajoled parative values. As long as facts and and promised and sugar-coated, and this data are mere facts and mere data, and we all despise. Purpose then-its pres- the school treats them all as "free and ence or its absence-exactly distinguishes equal,” the child with difficulty sees things the desirable and manly interest from the in relation, and has no basis for prefermushy type of anything-to-keep-the-dear ring one fact to another. In life, on things-interested or amused. It is pur- the contrary, it is the relation, the perpose, then, that we want, worthy pur- tinence, of facts that counts—in truth, poses, urgently sought. Get these, and

we have hard work to remember facts the interest will take care of itself. All

that are not related. Now, he who has, that is good we'll have.

under a dominating purpose, sought facts Another phrase that has attracted pertinent to his purpose, and has so or

1

ganized them as to attain his purpose, first dress. We have first an inner urge, has got at once a relatedness and an not an outer compulsion, that pushes her organization possible in no other way. on. Obstacles only stimulate to greater The question of comparative values, so activity. Second, there is a readiness for far as they concern this purpose, is solved action of all girls' inner resources so far en route. As I hope to show in a ino

as they might in anywise pertain to makment, he will, for valid reasons, also ing the dress. If she walks along the remember all of this, so that we may street, certain shop windows are bound conclude that purpose effects an organi

to catch her eye, while others, the hardzation of material and data in a way to

ware store, for instance, she will pass produce immediate results and supply a

without knowing its presence. If she model for future needs, and at the same

sees a dress that might furnish a sugtime it fixes the whole in the nervous

gestion, she is all alert to learn what she system as a relatively permanent posses

can from it. Any remarks about fabrics sion of the doer and learner.

will attract her attention. Such words That purposing means more effective

as "latest," "chic," "ton," and the like, learning, needs more attention than I have an attraction for her. She is equally give it in this talk. Nevertheless, this dull of hearing or seeing to anything that claim is of all, perhaps, the most signifi- would distract her. Suppose now she succant. In the past few years, knowl- ceeds in making the dress. Her success edge of the conditions under which learn- means satisfaction, and satisfaction in ing takes place has greatly increased. proportion to the strength of her purpose. Among much that might be said, I shall This satisfaction, by the law of learning here call attention to two factors most given above, tends to fix in her all the important for us. One is that where any responses which brought the success. response is made with satisfaction, the Whatever of thought or movement that tendency to respond in that fashion is entered consciously into bringing her strengthened (and, contrariwise, when success, these are by the attendant satisa response is made with annoyance, the faction fixed in her. She could the next tendency to respond in that way is weak- day do better. As for forgetting what ened). This "law of learning" underlies she did or how she did it, that is impospractically all of the valuable learning in sible. There may be many before me the world. The greater the satisfaction, right now who can to this day recall a the quicker and more lasting the learning. similar experience in their own lives, the The other psychological principle to details of which are even yet astonishwhich I call attention is one technically ingly clear. When this fixing of responses called “set," "mind-set," or "attitude." is taken in connection with the choice For my present purpose I shall call it and organization of data, a very strong "mind-set-toward-an-end." The cat which case is made out for utilizing purposes. with deliberate cunning sets out to slip The purpose gives the mind-set-towardtipon a bird and catch it, is acting under an-end, supplies or is the inner urge, the influence of this mind-set-toward-an- makes all pertinent inner resources, and end. So also is the politician who sets contributes satisfaction when success out to win an election, or the boy who is crowns the efforts. This satisfaction, going to make his team win the cham- then, fixes the organized data and facpionship. Let us note the steps of activ- tors of thought, knowledge, and moveity proceeding from such a mind-set as ment, so that the child comes out with they appear, say, in the girl making her an effective organization of pertinent knowledge and skill fixed in his mental relating to the objective character of the make-up as a permanent possession. project, the other to the child's increas

Then what is the place of the teacher ing ability and disposition to ascertain in all this? Does the emphasis on child this character and act accordingly. With purposing mean teacher abdication? Does these two points cared for, there seems, it mean that the teacher is to await the as was said above, good reasons for wishspontaneous purposing of the child, and ing the child, as far as may be feasible, then accept whatever may come? By no himself to conceive, and-after approprimeans soever. This negative must be ate deliberation-adopt the

purpose. made clear. The emphasis placed above Among the things we most wish for is on the practice in wise purposing indi

the ability to get from any novel situacates what seems the proper line to fol- tion a fruitful suggestion for dealing low. But to make the discussion more

with it, and in close connection with accurate, let us first ask what the char- this, the ability and disposition to conacteristic steps of a typical project are. ceive an effectual purpose to accept and These steps I have myself provisionally prosecute the suggestion thus conceived. accepted as follows: Purposing, plan- Just how far initiative can be built upon ning, executing, judging. A word or two

a child we cannot now tell, but in default about these and their relation to each of scientific knowledge, common sense. other may be useful. It has been clear

seems to tell us that at any rate certain in all that precedes that the presence of attitudes closely connected with the exerthe felt purpose is the key to the whole cise of initiative can be built. It is these point of view under discussion. Natur- attitudes, making apparently for initiaally this, then, is put first. It is at once tive, that we here seek. From this conclear that the purpose should permeate sideration the wise teacher will encourand direct the planning at each stage. age the child initiating purposes-guardThe purpose as thus present in, and ex

ing, of course, against the two dangers pressed through, the plan, should control already pointed out. But whether or not the execution. The judging must be pri- the child can himself conceive the initial marily in terms of the purpose. Has the suggestion of the purpose, we must not result fulfilled the aim set by the pur- lose sight of the fact that the child must pose? Our question then becomes : What eventually make the purpose his own, if respective parts have teacher and pupil the project is going to fulfill the demands as regards each of these essential steps we have laid down in all that has gone in the conception and prosecution of a before. As to the step of purposing, project ?

then, the teacher will seek to have the As regards purposing, with certain dan children themselves originate their projger points observed, the more fully the ects-guarding always the danger points purpose can be forinulated by the child, and will in any event use every enthe better. The more important of these

deavor to have the children make an acdangers would seem to be, first, that the ceptable purpose so fully their own that purpose judged in itself and in its rela- the purpose thereafter impels to an activtions, be a wise and fruitful one and, this ity which it at the same time permeates being granted, second, that the child as

and directs. (If this cannot be done, he grows older, adopt and enter upon his something is wrong either in the present purpose with increasing consideration of or past.) its consequences and value. These two The step of planning requires an analodemands are clearly correlatives, the one gous discussion. The advantage to the

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