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child is most largely dependent upon his creasingly to consciousness of the exceldoing the planning. Some short-sightedly lence, or lack of excellence, of his work; practical people think that the objective but this must be done with such tact as value of the plan is the sole or principal to keep the child feeling that he himself desideratum, and accordingly stand ready sees the differences, and himself prefers to furnish the child with an adult-made the better. Many a parent has done inplan. This is generally to defeat the calculable harm just here. How to hold education of the child. If it is product up standards and yet at the same time we wish-and care nothing or little about both encourage further effort and bring the humanity involved—the plan-furnish- about the personal acceptance of the yet ing scheme can be defended. But if we unattained standards—these are indeed seek the education of the child, we must difficult for fallible mortals. To sketch let him assume some responsibility of the demands made upon the teacher in thinking out for himself the plan to be all of this relationship is far easier than followed. Of course, if the material to to meet the demands with children of be used is costly, we may have to step actual flesh and blood. in to check up or improve the plan. But What after all is feasible in regard under ordinary conditions, if a failure of
to project-teaching ? The method it result points clearly to the weak spot in would displace has been in process of perthe planning, it may be well to let the fecting since Aristotle reduced to form children learn by their own errors. It is,
the extant knowledge of the world. It of course, quite true that discouragement
may well take us some time to perfect may follow failure, and this we should
a substitute technique. In the first place, probably avoid at almost any cost. It is
I should advise caution and moderation. further true that we can by questioning Don't be misled by my enthusiasm into and other indirect ways help the children
concluding to make over your schoolto higher standards of planning, and with
room procedure all at once. You cannot profit. All of these considerations, the
do it. So hasty an effort at wholesale wise teacher will keep in mind, and step
transformation would bring failure and in to help only where it seems clear that
discouragement to you and arouse the the child will actually gain thereby in
contempt of our critics.
You must go progress towards effective planning and
slowly. There are three places where I confidence in himself thereto.
think you can begin simultaneously to Practically the same considerations
try out your ideas. First, there are many hold of executing and judging. In the
extra-curricula activities, differing accase of the latter, it may well be pointed cording to the age of the children-a out that the young child cannot be ex
party planned and conducted by the chilfected to pass very clear judgment upon dren, a school magazine published by his output. Our aim here is rather that the other children, a debating society, a he gain in judging; that is, in the devel- play given by the third grade to the cpment and application of standards of second grade. These and many more you excellence. Almost nowhere else is so can encourage. They are almost ideal much skill and wisdom required in the group projects, and much of good eduteacher. Unless the objective results of cational output of various kinds can success or failure are very evident (as readily be derived from them. Second, they are in roller skating, for instance), in your geography or your history you the teacher must take great care that can be on the lookout for a question the growing child shall be brought in- (problem) which the class can accept as its own to solve. If you are alert and approval, be free to prosecute the appersistent, you will find yourself more proved scheme (project). Your approval and more teaching your geography or being necessary, there need be nothing history on a problem-project basis. You wrong or even foolish attempted. For need not begin with any flourish of trum- those who cannot propose any acceptable pets nor feel bound to reach at any early projects, you can have some useful tasks day, if ever, a one hundred per cent pro- ready. As the plan succeeds, you can ject basis. You can experiment and grow extend the half-hour to a greater length only as your success warrants, no faster. or to every day in the week. By encourA third line : Get from your principal or aging group projects here, this period superintendent permission to set aside a will form a kind of seed bed for the other half-hour a week for individual projects. two lines of attack. In these and such Again feel your way carefully along. Tell ways
ways you can introduce the project the children that this half-hour is for method only so fast as you feel that it those who can use it wisely, that anyone proves useful. My prophecy is that it who can propose a worth-while way of will, upon trial, prove to you a most spending the half-hour may, with your alluring personal project.
THE GOAL OF EDUCATION IN A DEMOCRACY
Education in the United States should be guided by a clear conception of the meaning of democracy. It is the ideal of democracy that the individual and society may find fulfillment each in the other. Democracy sanctions neither the exploitation of the individual by society, nor the disregard of the interests of society by the individual. More explicitly
The purpose of democracy is so to organize society that each member may develop his personality primarily through activities designed for the well-being of his fellow members, and of society as a whole.
This ideal demands that human activities be placed upon a high level of efficiency; that to this efficiency be added an appreciation of the sig
nificance of these activities and loyalty to the best ideals involved; and that the individual choose that vocation and those forms of social service in which his personality may develop and become most effective. For the achievement of these ends democracy must place chief reliance upon education.
Consequently, education in a democracy, both within and without the school, should develop in each individual the knowledge, interest, ideals, habits, and powers whereby he will find his place and use that place to shape both himself and society toward ever nobler ends.-From the Report of the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education, Bulletin, 1918, Number 35, National Bureau of Education, Washington, D.C.
CHARLES H. JUDD
University of Chicago
MUCH of our school practice is lacking gains of the first years seems to be a
in precision because teachers are not matter which the ordinary teacher' has trained to make sharp distinctions be- not thought of as important. The comtween the methods of teaching which are mon practice seems to be that of giving appropriate to different levels of mental assignments of much the same kind of development. There is need in the teach- work in the third year as in the second. ing of Latin, for example, of a careful As a result, the pupil merely marks discrimination between the needs of sec- time or moves in an unprogressive circle. ond-year pupils and those of pupils of the The difficulty brought out by the third year. That this discrimination and Latin tests can be stated in another way. its consequent readjustment of methods The pupil apparently gets into certain of teaching are lacking appears from the fixed habits of attack which are only results of recent tests which have been moderately successful. Take, for exammade. These tests show that the differ- ple, the vocabulary method of translatence between pupils who have studied ing sentences. The pupil has no method for two years is sufficiently marked to
at the beginning of his study other than justify the assertion that the class as a that of looking up each word in the sewhole has made progress. The members lected vocabulary at the end of the book. of the class can get the meaning of a This method is confessedly a clumsy Latin passage so much better at the end method, but in the first two years it is of the second year than at the end of the better than nothing and results in modfirst year that it is fair to say that, in erate improvement in ability to get general, instruction has been successful. meaning. The trouble comes when the The same kind of a test applied at the method is persisted in: The pupil accepts end of the third and fourth years gives it as the only method, with perfect comvery discouraging results. For most of plaisance and without thought of change. the class there has been no. progress In the third year the pupil has grown whatsoever, or, at most, progress of so so accustomed to thumbing the vocabuslight a degree as to throw into doubt the lary that it begins to hinder his mental validity and usefulness of the effort of development rather than promote it, and these later years.
stagnation or retrogression results.
It is highly desirable that the various Such results as these in Latin have been secured also in the modern lan- subjects of instruction should be re-exguages. They evidently mean that the amined with a view to discovering the problem of carrying pupils beyond the points at which progress slows up or introductory stages of language-study is stops in order that at these points new
methods of teaching may be introduced. a difficult problem which has not been
This re-examination calls for a type of seriously or successfully attacked by the ordinary teacher. The change in meth
detailed analysis which will make it imods of instruction necessary in the third possible for any teacher to fall into the
routine which now follows on the loose year in order to take advantage of the
method of thinking of school subjects in *Copyright, 1920, by Charles H. Judd.
We must stop thinking of
Latin as a single subject. , It is rather other wholly different program' for those a succession of subjects. As the pupil who are more proficient. The method makes progress in his first year of work should follow the findings of the test. It he becomes a new individual and his at- would be a poor physician who insisted titude changes so that the mental proc- on a uniform treatment of all patients. esses which the Latin class is intended It would be folly for the physician to to call out are wholly different in the attempt to unload on his patient respon
The same statements can sibility for the reaction, favorable or be made for the third year and for all otherwise, to unintelligent and stereosubsequent periods.
typed treatment. A second type of analysis which high- A favorite excuse of high-school teachschool teachers will have to make if they ers, when faced with the fact that their are to be effective in their work can be pupils differ, is to unload on the lower illustrated by reference to the reading schools all the blame for unsuccessful tests which at a number of centers have preparation. It must be admitted at once been given to the entering classes in that there has been in the past, and is English.
now, much ineffective teaching in the Tests of the ability of the members of lower schools, but the teachers in these
, a freshman class to read bring out aston- schools have made much more of an efishing differences.
There are some pu- fort to study their problems in detail pils who read fluently and show a rate than have high-school teachers. They four or five times as rapid as others in have been infinitely more interested in the same class. Such a difference proves definite quantitative analysis of their reto be of importance not only in the sub- sults. sequent work in English, but also in all
The time is at hand when the highthe other subjects pursued by the pupil. school teachers of this country will have One high-school teacher who has given
to become more careful students of their tests in reading finds it possible to prog- methods and results. We are trying in nosticate with great precision who will this country the serious experiment of have difficulty in his or her other sub- offering a high-school education, paid for jects. Even a subject so remote from by the community, to every boy or girl English as algebra depends for its suc- who wants it. No other nation has vencess on ability to read fluently.
tured to try this enormously expensive The discovery of marked differences in experiment. No other nation has exhibreading ability ought to be followed at ited a desire for higher schooling as has once by readjustments in the teaching of
The Commissioner of Education English. There is no justification what- tells us that thirty per cent of all the soever for the uniform treatment of all young people of high-school age in the freshmen which is now practiced in most United States
in these schools. courses in freshman English. These be- All of us know that school systems are ginning classes are too often turned over hard put to it to provide for the great to relatively immature teachers who be- numbers of pupils in school. The problieve that the course of study can be fol- lem of providing the funds for maintelowed with assurance and can be admin- nance of high schools is one of the major istered without modification to all com- problems of school finance.
It is not
possible under these conditions to evade On the contrary, there should be one the responsibility of making a careful, de, treatment for the poor readers and an- tailed study of high-school teaching
methods. The pupils
in the relative abilities. He then administered schools. It is of little avail for high- a number of lessons by the laboratory school teachers to cry out against the method to the first division and the same lower school or quote traditional prac- lessons by the lecture-demonstration to tices. The present-day urgent fact is the other. After a time he reversed the that we must have an effective school procedure with the two divisions. As inadapted to the needs of real pupils. This dicated above, it was found that there is a social demand which can not be are lessons in which the pupil learns evaded. It is a call to close analytical more by being freed from the necessity study of pupils and of methods of deal- of giving attention to the distracting deing with pupils.
mands of laboratory manipulation, and A generation ago when high-school pu
there are other cases where direct perpils belonged to a highly selected and sonal manipulation is an advantage. fairly exclusive group, drawn chiefly Such a series of experiments calls into from the professional classes, there may question the indiscriminate use in science have been some justification for a stere- classes of laboratory exercises. It has otyped procedure. Since 1890 the high- long been known that such exercises are school population has been multiplied by expensive in point of time consumed and five, while the population of the country they are also expensive in equipment has a little less than doubled. All classes required. If they are not more effective of young people are in these schools.
than other means of instruction, they Their antecedent training has been va- ought to be regulated. ried and often interrupted. It shows little
The three examples of analyses reportinsight into social conditions for any
ed are typical of the studies which ought high-school teacher to attempt routine
to be made in every high-school field. The uniformity in his or her work with this
reason why such studies have not been great body of heterogeneous pupils.
more common is undoubtedly to be found Another example of analysis may be in the fact that high-school teachers are, drawn from the field of science-teaching in the main, specialists who are trained A study was made last year by a teacher in the particular subjects which they of chemistry and physics of the relative teach, but little concerned with the mimerits of the individual-laboratory meth. nute analysis of the results which their od of teaching these subjects and the lec- teaching produces. The first step in lecture-demonstration method. It is in- the direction of reform will be to secure teresting to note the fact that the author the attention of teachers to the imporof this experiment expected, when he be- tance of such analysis. The methods of gan his work, that his results would favor making studies of the kind advocated one or the other method in the gross. His will develop rapidly once their imporinvestigation led him, however, into more tance is clearly apprehended. detailed analyses than he had anticipated
A plea to high-school teachers to make and what he found was that there are investigations can be justified by refersome conditions under which one meth
ence to what has been accomplished in od is the more successful, others under
recent years in elementary education. A which the reverse relation obtains.
number of sweeping reforms have resultHis experiment was performed with ed directly from careful analytical studdue regard to the demands for quanti- ies of the results of teaching. One of tative exactness. He tested two divisions these, for example, is the emphasis which at the outset in order to determine their is being laid on instruction in oral read