Interpreting the rest of the diagram 100 strokes per minute, while on the in the same way, it is seen that there other hand, 25 per cent wrote more than is steady growth from

from Course (1) 200 strokes per minute. These wide difthrough Course (4) and that the differ- ferences of ability hold with regularity ence between the upper and lower quar- in all classes and courses. Such results tiles remains approximately the same prove that it is impossible to teach any throughout. The median scores may be class in typewriting efficiently by the used as tentative standards; thus, pupils class method where all pupils are workin Typewriting (1) should acquire a rate ing on a given lesson at the same time. of at least 104 strokes per minute, Type- Individual instruction must be used so writing (2), at least 178 strokes, Type- that each pupil may progress at his own writing (3), at least 203 strokes, and

rate. Typewriting (4), at least 234 strokes.

A study of the diagram also shows a

tremendous amount of overlapping from TENTATIVE STANDARDS IN ACCURACY course to course. Many pupils of Course The median number of errors in three

(1) write as well as many pupils in Course minutes of typing may be set up as ten

(2). The upper 25 per cent of the pupils tative standards for accuracy. They are

in Course (1) write faster than the lower

25 as follows:

per cent of pupils in Course (2). The

best 10 per cent in Course (1) write as Course (1) 2.7 errors

rapidly as the lower 10 per cent of Course Course (2) 3.1 errors

(3. The overlapping between Courses (2), Course (3) 2.8 errors

(3), and (4) is even more striking. At Course (4) 3.1 errors

least 15 per cent of the pupils in Course The number of errors remains practi- (2) and 22 per cent of the pupils in Course cally the same in all courses. However, (3) have attained the median speed, that the ratio of errors to strokes decreases is, the tentative standard for Course (4). materially, as is shown in the following In other words, 15 per cent of the pupils table, which presents the number of er- in Course (2) write as fast as those who rors per 100 strokes :

have taken typewriting twice as long.

These results show conclusively that we Course (1)

.9 errors Course (2)

can set no definite time period for the

.6 errors Course (3)

attainment of satisfactory standards in .5 errors

typewriting. The indications are that Course (4)

.4 errors

some pupils will be able to write as well

at the end of two semesters as is necesVARIABILITY AND OVERLAPPING IN RATE

sary. While a large number are able to Diagram II shows the wide variation complete their typewriting course in in the abilities of pupils in each course,

three semesters, others will require four, and the overlapping from

five, or possibly six semesters of the same course to

type of work as is now offered in the course.

high schools. Interpreting the diagram in this way, it is seen that in Typewriting (1), 4

CONCLUSIONS out of every 100 pupils wrote fewer than 50 strokes, and that 10 out of every 1. The stroke seems to be a satisfac100 wrote more than three times as many tory measure of typewriting ability. in the same length of time. In Type- 2. Tentative standards in typewriting writing (2), 5 per cent wrote fewer than for Detroit are as follows:



(1) (2) (3)

Strokes Errors in 3. No time limit for completing type-
per Minute 3 Minutes writing should be set at the present time.

2.7 Pupils should be allowed to progress as
178 3.1 rapidly as their abilities permit.
203 2.8
234 3.1


0- 50- 75- 100. 125- 150- 175- 200- 225- 250 275 300 325 350

74 99,124 149, 174, 199, 224, 249, 274, 299, 324, 349, 399 TYPEWRITING 4


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SO 75- 100 125 150. 175- 200- 225. 230. 276- 300 325-35074 99 124 149 174 199 224 249 274 299 324 349 399


Diagram 11-Showing Variation in Abilities of Pupils in Each Type

writing course, and Overlapping from Course to Course The diagram should be read as follows: In Typewriting (1), lower part of diagram, 4 per cent wrote less than 50 strokes per minute, 15 per cent wrote from 50 to 74 strokes per minute, 27 per cent wrote from 75 to 99 strokes per minute, etc.

Supervisor of Visual Instruction


SEE,” said the man in his busy office, the story. And the reason for this is that as he hung up the receiver.

practical man has found that he can most “I see,” chattered the aboriginal tree successfully make his appeal through the man, as he swung down to his mate on eye, since it is to the eye that the reason. the ground.

ing ability which man possesses is most Both had listened to something that in- closely related, and from the eye receives terested them, and both had answered in

the greatest number of its impressions. the most hackneyed, universal expression,

Out of every one hundred impressions "I see,” which has come to be mankind's which reach the brain of



cent favorite way of saying that he under- are said to come through the eye. This is stands things.

nearly seven times the amount of imVisual instruction is one of the oldest pressions which reach us through the methods of teaching, which the human

other four senses: the ear, the nose, the race has developed. It is the most nat

taste, and the touch, combined. ural way of learning, and it is the easiest The motion picture, by virtue of its inmethod for imparting knowledge. Mo- herent qualities, is one of the most nat. tion pictures are but a change in the ural ways of visual teaching. Motion is mechanical application or development of one of the most interesting things in the what has been a time-honored custom: world. Have you ever noticed while sitteaching through the eye.

ting in an audience which was being enFrom the time when man

tertained by the most interesting logic soned, in his desire to impart his thought and the most pleasing of personalities, to others, he has used some form of vis- how a single person passing out will atible expression. The first perfections tract the greater part of the attention of which man achieved some five hundred the room? It is only natural. We like years B. C. were through the dexterous to see things move, and we betray this chisels of Phydias and Praxiteles. These weakness at all times. This being true, told their stories to the eye, while the is it not natural then that in teaching we greatest monuments of all history are but should employ the law of vision to its other examples of the same appeal. fullest? Can we not show through the Present-day applications of visual 87

per cent avenue, in a great deal less teaching in the world of business and art time, many of the simple facts of our are so numerous that one cannot turn courses of study more effectively than without encountering them. Advertising, through the 13 per cent avenue? /Hownow developed to one of the highest-paid ever, the teaching of•facts is not the final arts, is but successful teaching through objective for classroom activity. It is to

Other examples are found in teach facts applied to life processes for the laying out of a large industrial proj. which we strive. And herein visual inect, the building of an automobile, the struction, especially the motion picture, making of a watch, or the planning of a comes most logically into its own. military campaign. All are done first in Direct contact with things and situamodels, models which must work and tell tions is, no doubt, the quickest way to

first rea

the eye.


learn about them. However, since it is These are mere suggestions of many cnly a small per cent who are permitted features which will force themselves into to have these direct experiences, the next the classrooms of the public schools best approach is through the motion pic shortly. In the more formal academic ture. - To some, this even surpasses a subjects the situation is very much the personal contact, since the camera can be

same. In the study of geography and hismade to look into things and through tory and civics and natural sciences, the them, showing the processes and the laws

child is able to see in a few moments'time involved which are often hidden to the

a tremendous array of facts and their reuntrained observer.

sultant influences on mankind. Selected inBy diagrammatical sketches and X-Ray

stances which have most directed history, pictures one is able to look through liv

what caused them and why they affected ing tissue and see the capillary action of the blood, the mending of a fracture, the society as they did, can be graphically and digestion of food, the inside working of pointedly illustrated by means of the moan engine, or the crystallization of

tion picture. In geography the work of snowflake. By means of the telephoto rivers, tides, glaciers, volcanoes, coral lens the beaver builds his dam with un

reefs, and all the natural features and

their influences can be explained simply interrupted industry three feet from any observer, and intimate studies of the shy- and directly. Even the smallest child may est of our bird and animal friends can be

know the phenomena which build the made. By means of the "speed camera"

"stern and rock-bound coast.” the athlete's precision of stroke and tech

Visual instruction by means of the monique of movement can be reviewed as tion picture is young. There are many models in physical culture, while the possibilities which have not as yet been "slow camera," photographing a few suggested. However, the idea is gaining "frames” each day, shows the bursting of rapidly throughout the entire United a growing seed or bulb, the emerging of States. We believe that the movement a caterpillar into a beautiful butterfly, or will be a permanent one, and that the the unfolding of a bud into a flower as

further this work is developed the greatnature actually directs it. Health habits er its justification will appear. and their good results can be indelibly Organizations, including

including schools, stamped on the mind, as can care of the churches, and welfare and social centers, teeth, proper food, clothing, rest, and rec. are springing up throughout the entire reation. All these can pass rapidly before country in an effort to develop and cothe class, not as the average teacher ordinate the work on a national basis. would interpret them, but as she would Producers are spending vast sums, anexplain them when instructed by the na- ticipating the school market for films, tionally known specialist who produced and we are beginning to SEE the way the picture.



ing companies, such as the Ford Factory The Detroit Journal of Education, and the Burroughs Adding Machine Comwhich makes its initial appearance with pany, depend upon such publications in this number, is published by the Board of the development of their business enterEducation in the interest of intermediate prises. The Detroit school system is and secondary school teachers. While dealing with business problems as diffithe circulation of the magazine must of cult and as complicated as any dealt with necessity be limited, it is hoped that its in the great business institutions of the outlook may be broad and progressive city, and, furthermore, is concerned with and that it shall stand for a forward-look- intricate problems of educational reading policy in education. It will undertake justment. The need for the reorganizato reflect the views of leaders in educa

tion of public-school education, which is tion throughout the country, and each felt throughout the United States, exists number will contain contributions by ed- in an intensified form in Detroit, where ucators of national prominence. It will during the past decade the city has risen aim to stimulate and encourage teachers from a position of ninth in importance to to apply the principles of research to all that of the fourth largest city in the educational problems, and to this end will country. The annual report of the superopen its columns to meritorious contribu- intendent of schools, recently issued, tions based upon scientific studies. The shows that the Detroit population ingreat social objectives are held to con- creased from 465,766 in 1910 to more than stitute the aims of all educational en- 993,000 in 1920, with an increase in school deaver, and this magazine will promote a registration from 61,961 to 139.604an realization of these aims throughout the increase in city population of 113% and Detroit school system. It is expected in school registration of 125%. The inthat this periodical will exert an import- crease in the value of school property ant influence in the development of a con- leaped from $7,080,167.00 in 1912 to $40,structive educational policy in the inter- 000,000.00 in June, 1921-a growth of mediate and secondary schools of this 457%. The number of teachers employed city.

C. L. S.

has increased 146% since 1910. Under A CLEARING-HOUSE OF IDEAS FOR DETROIT such rapidly changing conditions, involvTEACHERS

ing numbers of such large magnitude, in The Detroit Journal of Education is

these times of economic stress, it would not an innovation so far as the educa

be practically impossible for this staff of tional press is concerned. Journals of

teachers, 3,922 in all, to work together this kind are being published in several of

with a sense of common purpose and the largest and most progressive cities

with a consciousness of high professional in the United States. State universi

ideals without some such medium of ties and normal schools throughout the

communication as the Detroit Journal of country make use of publications of this

Education. The Journal will serve the character, too, in building their influence in the field of education. Moreover, the

teachers as a clearing-house of ideas. It

will give them the opportunity to pool practical importance of official publications of this kind is widely recognized by their experiences, to come out of the business organizations. In Detroit, the

tread-mill of individual isolation, in fine, Board of Commerce, the Athletic Club, to do real team work with the greatest and various other organizations of a sim- amount of satisfaction to themselves and ilar nature, as well as many manufactur- to others.

C. C. C.

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