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THE METHOD OF EXPERIENCE APPLIED IN

when sharply conflicting issues of a perETHICAL CULTURE

sonal or a social nature are involved. The elections and the discussion con

was with a view to providing in the tests recently organized in the schools

schools training that would meet deare of more than passing interest. Forty- mands of this character that the elections one thousand two hundred children in the

and the discussion contests were organschool elections cast their votes for can

ized. When we have succeeded more unididates on national and state tickets. versally in converting the traditional ethThese young voters conformed in every

ical culture of the schools into types of detail, with the exception of age require experience such as these, children will ments, to the suffrage laws. Their pre

grow into men and women more capable election campaigns were conducted with

of bearing the responsibilities of public a fairness and a dignity rarely known in

and domestic life.

C. C. C. our political life. Sixteen thousand boys

AN EDITORIAL FROM THE DETROIT NEWS and girls in the intermediate and high

Superintendent Cody issued a bulletin schools are participating in discussion

last fall asking that "The Yellow and contests organized under the auspices of

the Blue," a college song of the Univerthe English Club, with the purpose of lifting give and take discussion to the sity of Michigan, be taught all pupils in

the Detroit schools. Consequently, the level of tolerant intelligence. These two

singing of “The Yellow and the Blue” has events exemplify in our school life types

become an established custom in the of moral training that will make the pub- schools, with a significance that the Delic school system a force in the building

troit News recently commented editoriof civil and political consciousness. What James Brice regarded as the indolence ally upon as follows:

'RAH FOR THESE LITTLE CHAPS and ignorance of American citizens,

It is possible that to the two grown-ups who

stood by and listened, this little schoolroom incijudged by their conduct at the polls, may

dent may not have been anything extraordinary. after all have been not indolence, not ig

One was a teacher and the other a school official, and so, because these things are to them of every

day occurrence, both of them may have overlooked norance, but a lack of experience in po

what to other grown-ups would have been dralitical conduct. What has appeared a matic possibilities in this incident.

The school official in the course of a visit to one

of the grade schools in the city had stepped casufailure in citizenship may have been

ally into a room where two score children or more rather a failure in education. A noted were at their lessons. For a few minutes the reg

ular school program was set aside and the children educator, speaking last year before a

Most of them were children whose features gave eloquent testimony that their ancestry could

be traced back to one of Europe's southern coungroup of Detroit teachers, stated that

tries, Italy, most likely. In many cases, perhaps, after serving many months on a board the parents of these little singers were born and

brought up in Italy; and even in the speech of the for the arbitration of industrial disputes

children might be found traces of a foreign tongue.

But they sang the school song of our state unihe had come to the conclusion that the versity-"The Yellow and the Blue.” And right

merrily did they “Hurrah for the Yellow and the real conflict in these disputes lay not so

Education is made up of a lot of little things, much in irreconcilable interests as in a some of them very small indeed. Some of these

stay in

a long time and some pass lack of experience of all concerned in the through as water passes through a sieve; some

help greatly to give shape and direction to the principles of free speech and fair play. personality of the learner, and no doubt many of

the thirgs he learns leave him untouched, at least The difficulty, he said, lay not so much in

as far as any estimate can be made of the effect

or these lessons. It would be difficult, however, to the inherent selfishness of capital and persuade anyone that this singing of the song of

our state school on the part of these children hasn't labor as in the difficulty that one person

in it something of significance to these college

students in embryo. It may not be a point to be has in catching sympathetically another's

argued out logically; but, somehow, anyone who

reflects on this incident cannot help feeling that point of view in argument. In this con

the singing of this college song helps in

measure to determine a desirable educational ideal nection, he asserted that the schools have for these children.

university of Michigan alumni and failed in their program to provide train

alumnae, for students and their friends and rela

tives, what food for sentimental reflection there is ing looking towards mutual adjustment

in this incident-little Italian children singing "The Yellow and the Blue''!

sang

Blue

the

mind

some

Ana

Jor

!

AND EXPERIMENTS

THE MOVEMENT FOR BETTER

AMERICAN SPEECH

a

CLAUDIA E. CRUMPTON

Northwestern High School, Detroit, Secretary of the Committee on American Speech, Na

tional Council of Teachers of English.

this s'ore and those of others. In Cincinnati the employees of the chief stores, who have a course in salesmanship jointly under the supervision of the Board of Education and business establishments, are required to attain certain standards in speech before graduation.

Last year about twenty department stores of New York, Brooklyn, and Newark established at the University of the City of New York a School for Teachers of Retail Selling. In this course they have made much of training in speech. For this training they have employed a man who, through his experience as a teacher of English in college and a teacher of public speaking in the Y. M. C. A.'s of New York and vicinity, also by his association with a publishing house as editor, is peculiarly fitted for this work. This gentleman writes :

When one looks back to pioneer days of the Speech Movement, about four years ago, and sees today so many communities in all parts of the country preparing for the observance of Speech Week that there promises to be a second national observance, and when he sees the development of the Movement in purpose and method, he stands amazed to find that the forefathers built more surely than they thought.

How much of this phenomenal growth is due to mere agitation with reference to the Speech Movement is difficult to estimate. Certainly it is true that the perils encountered during the war, of having within our bounds a polyglot language, and the difficulties of international understanding because of differences in language and points of view, also the contact of our soldiers with those of other countries where a high standard of daily speech is encouraged, all have contributed tremendously to the influences that have made the Speech Movement in America popular.

The most significant fact concerning the Speech Movement at present is that it has become a recognized factor in the social and business life of our country. The following are typical instances. Last year a leading bank of Milwaukee, on

one of its busiest days, closed its doors for an hour in order to have its employees hear talks on Better Speech, by prominent citizens. Later, this bank printed for free distribution a pamphlet upon the subject of speech. This winter several prominent bankers of Detroit are having a course in public speaking through the Extension Department of the University of Michigan. During the last two years one of the leading stores of Chicago has conducted a definitely organized project for speech betterment, with the result that one of the Detroit editors, not knowing of this activity, upon visiting Chicago, remarked upon the contrast in pleasantness of speech and manner between the employees of

“The students must be college graduates, or persons of equivalent training, and, in addition, must have a good record for business efficiency. Although the course was announced late in the summer, there were nearly 400 applicants, from whom about 30 students were selected. Twenty of these came into my class; the others were temporarily excused, but will take the course later. At present, at the opening of the second term-or semester--I have 18 in the class.

"The students are men and women between 25 and 35, most of them, although one or two are younger; 10 men and 8 women. The women are mostly studying to become teachers in stores, or in the commercial classes in the city high schools. The men are mostly fitting themselves for executive positions in the stores. They are all competent, serious, ambitious people. Most of the women have been teachers; most of the men have been in the army.

“They have classes in the mornings-each course meeting once a week for a two-hour ses

In the afternoon each student works behind the counter in one of the contributing stores ---half a term in a store--and works there Saturdays, also in the summer. For support, each student receives a salary, beginning at $60 to $80 per month. In summer, when the student's whole time is given to the store, the salary is increased.

"When they finish the two-years' course, they will be pretty sure of good positions in the stores, or in city high schools. The chances for advancement in the retail store are very great. One of these big New York stores will havé 80 or more departments, each headed by a buyer, who receives from $5,000 to $20,000 per year, not to speak of the positions in the educational departments, personnel work, etc."

Sion.

a

Whereas, four years ago, the workers for G. Brogdan, prepared a bulletin entitled "Guide speech betterment made much of the fact that to a Better English Drive for Rural Schools,” about a dozen prominent women of a large com- which will be used extensively this month in the punity were willing to come together once campaign for Speech Betterment in Maryland. month for considering the subject of speech, now In this guide, of course, such figures as the this fact is lost sight of in such typical develop- farmer and his lost turkey figure conspicuously. ments as the following: Last spring the presi- Detroit and other cities this winter are offering dents of the women's clubs in Chicago and evening courses in speaking for teachers. vicinity, just before they went into office, had Within the schools the pupils are carrying on as a group a course in public speaking with one

their activities for improvement in talking by whom they regarded most capable. A reader of

having not only a week, but a year for this purnational reputation, who has touched recently all

pose. In many schools there are now Better Enparts of our country, says that she notices a

glish Clubs, representing joint activities of pupils decided impetus among women toward interest in

and teachers. In Phoenix, Arizona, the boys and training for speaking, and she attributes this

girls of the whole city have organized a Junior quickened interest primarily to the entrance of

Better English Club. It is hoped by the leaders woman into politics.

of the National Council of the Teachers of EnIn September of this year, over a hundred glish that these clubs will grow and increase in women of the Cincinnati Woman's Club organ- number so that finally there may be established ized a Better English Circle, and prepared four- a National Junior English Council. teen programs upon the following subjects: Sym- A most encouraging feature in the development posium in Preparation for Better Speech Week,

of the Speech Movement is the growing readiNov. 1-8; Diction, or Use of the Best Words;

ness of the press to co-operate. Whereas four Misusages, notably Slang; Pronunciation and

years ago an inch space in a large daily newsEnunciation; Posters and Slogans; Incorrect paper was considered a boon, now one finds such Forms; “Brevity is the soul of wit”; Synonym; papers as “The Detroit News" willing to devote Letter-writing and Postal Information; Com- a page to the subject, and newspapers such as mon Errors; Phonetics; Literature as a Neces- “The New York Times," "The Christian Science sity; Charades or Play or Pageant. The Illi

Monitor," the chief papers of St. Louis and Los nois Federation of Women's Clubs has a stand- Angeles, ready to print at length accounts with ing committee on speech betterment. Since the

reference to the Movement. Recently popular American Federation of Women's Clubs has in- writers of the Associated Press have sought indorsed the movement, and since, in all parts formation, and are discussing such topics of the country, state, and community, groups of “Teach Speaking,” “Speech Efficiency,” and women are paying their respects to the Speech "Your Use of Words.” Four years ago, upon Movement, there is quite a possibility that soon examining any magazine monthly index, one could there will be a national committee organized for find about once or twice a year an article relatthis purpose.

Since The Drama League of ing to matters of speech. During the summer America, which has in its membership many emi- alone, of this year, there appeared these articles : nent playwrights, actors, and writers of dramatic

Life's Story Can be Told in Short Words. criticism, has indorsed the movement, and since Lit. Digest 65:75, June 5, 1920. one of the most pronounced interests of workers Our Great Possession, H. Hawthorne. St. concerns the spoken word in drama, there is

Nicholas 47:65, June, 1920.

Good News for Stutterers and Other Defecevery promise of definite support for the Move

tives in Speech. American Magazine 90:34. ment from this source.

English as She is Spoken. R. Burton. Bookman Among the schools the teachers are responding

61:513, June, 1910.

Latest Novelties in Language. B. Matthews. to the need of incorporating training in speech

Harper's Magazine 141:82. June, 1920. in all courses by seeking instruction for them- Our Statish Speech. R. Hughes. Harpers' selves. Word comes from workers in states as 140:846, May, 1920. widely separated as California, New York, and

On Accent. H. Belloc. Liv. Age 305 :730,

June 19, 1920. Louisiana, that more teachers have sought the

The Art and the Practice of Swearing. W. summer-school courses in speech than ever be- Rendall. Liv. Age, Aug. 31,1920, p. 473. fore. The state universities, notably the Univer- Within the last few weeks two of the leading sity of Kansas and the University of Maryland, magazines, the “Literary Digest” and the “Atlanhave made the Speech Movement quite a feature tic Monthly," have given assurance, through their in their courses in methods. During the past editorial departments, of their readiness to supsummer, at the University of Maryland, a class

port the Speech Movement. in Methods, under the supervision of Miss Nellie The aims of the Movement are widening and

as

errors

extending themselves to basic principles. At first, much to the resentment of specialists in speech, the teachers of English seized upon the most obvious obstruction to pleasantness in talking, by seeking merely the elimination of

in grammar. Now several of these communities of teachers are emphasizing matters pertaining to pronunciation, enunciation, vocabulary building, the training of the speaking voice, and power in speaking. On the whole, oral composition has become as conspicuous in the English course as at one time was written composition. Indeed, they stand now side by side, as is indicated in the title often used-Better English Week. Interest in the problem of eliminating lingering foreign accent is conspicuously engaging, notably in New York and California.

In short, there is every indication that the Speech Movement, by its own momentum, will enlarge greatly upon the original aim as expressed in the popular slogan:

"One Country, One Language, One Flag.”

NEW COURSE IN BANKING The bankers have waked up to the need in the lower grades of our public schools of a practical course in banking: As a rule, such banking as is now taught in the schools is in the higher grades, which are never reached by many children. Accordingly, at their St. Louis convention in October, 1919, the bankers appointed a special committee to consider this matter and to report what relief, if any, could be afforded, particularly what simple, practical work in banking could be prepared.

This committee met in New York in March of this year.

There were representatives from Montana, Nebraska, Tennessee, Washington, and New York, as well as from Detroit. To the conference were invited Professor E. W. Kemmerer, of Princeton University, Mr. Frank A. Vanderlip, of national bank fame, and Mr. Arthur W. Page, editor of the "World's Work,” and, in addition, representatives of several publishing houses.

The committee decided that their first duty was to provide, if possible, a carefully arranged, economically sound, plan of banking study, calcu

lated to correct many false ideas now prevalent regarding banks and banking.

In their investigation the committee found that there were about twelve text books in elementary economics, all treating in part of money, investments, and banking. These books were not considered entirely available for the lower grades, and a new text was deemed desirable; but, as a new book would be long in preparation, it was deemed best to recommend the use of one of the present books, to be supplemented by addresses from bankers and by practical visits to banks. To this end, of course, the aid of bankers would be desirable, and the committee has recommended that sub-committees be formed in the banking associations of the states, and of the smaller communities. The committee in this state consists of:

William J. Gray, Chairman, Detroit
Clay H. Hollister, Grand Rapids
E. S. Rice, Marquette
Hon. John Q. Ross, Muskegon
Judge O. S. Cross, Allegan

It is reported that one or two book companies already have new text books in the press, and the American Institute of Banking has been requested to prepare syllabi of the main topics to be stressed and to take general charge of the educational campaign.

A few months ago the bankers of Detroit met with Superintendent Cody and pledged their support. They will provide speakers and open their institutions to the banking classes.

The subject was also introduced by the superintendent at the principals' meeting held at the Board of Commerce on October 2, and William J. Gray, vice-president of the First and Old Detroit National Bank, delivered an address, in which he outlined the object desired, but confessed that in putting the plan into practice his ideas were nebulous; however, he had been assured that the superintendent and his assistants would do practically whatever was required.

There seems little doubt but that there will soon be in our schools this more intensive practical course on banking.

AND ACTIVITIES

AN OPEN LETTER*

EDWIN L. MILLER

To the Faculty, Pupils, and Friends of Northern

High School. “And though the Lord give you the bread of adversity and the water of affliction, yet shall not thy teachers be removed into a corner any more, but thine eyes shall see thy teachers; and thine ears shall hear a word behind thee, saying, 'This is the way, walk ye in it, when ye turn to the right hand, and when ye turn to the left.” Isaiah xxx-20 and 21.

I am sorry to leave Northwestern, but glad to come to Northern.

Nobody can ever know with how much regret I leave Northwestern, for the simple reason that I lack the vocabulary to tell. The teachers, the pupils, and the parents of that district are my good and dear friends, and I contemplate with especial regret a change that will render my relations with them less direct and intimate. Northwestern's faculty is distinguished by great ability, high professional ideals, and a spirit of devoted loyalty to the school. The pupils are of that good American type which has made of the United States a nation without a peer and which is destined to preserve and enlarge its greatness. The community as a whole is sound in morale, industrious, ambitious, earnest. For these and a hundred other good and sufficient reasons, I 'regret to leave Northwestern.

I am glad to come to Northern because I know, admire, and like the teachers, pupils, and community. I do not come a stranger. For thirteen years I have lived in the Northern district. In consequence, the welfare of the school means more to me than would otherwise be the case. It is possible, too, that I am well acquainted with more people, old and young, in this than in the Northwestern district. In a way, then, coming to Northern is to me like coming to live among mine own people. We have here not only all the elements of a great school, but a great

*Mr. Miller's letter to the pupils and friends of Northern High School is reprinted because of the interesting way in which he utilizes the cardinal principles of education as a basis of common understanding between the high school and the community. He has succeeded in treating these principles in an informal manner that makes them attractive to pupils and parents alike.

The letter was written on the occasion of Mr. Miller's transfer to the principalship of the Northern High School.

school already. It is a great thing to belong to a great institution. To make Northern truly great we must ourselves believe it to be great. In order to believe it to be great we must hold firmly in our own minds a clear idea of those things for which the school should stand.

These things are seven in number—the pupils' health, their mastery of the fundamental proccsses on which civilization is based, worthy home membership, good citisenship, vocational guidance and training, education in the worthy use of leisure, and sound morals.

The health of the pupils should be a principal's first care. It takes precedence. A good lunch room, a spotless building, a yard free from rubbish, proper heating and ventilation, instruction in right living, physical training, and athletics are, therefore, to be regarded not as frills but as fundamentals. Pupils should seldom or never leave school on account of their health. If they are ailing, their programs should be readjusted in such a way that their health will be restored. In other words, they should not leave school to get well, but go to school to get well.

The fundamental processes are readin', 'ritin', and 'rithmetic. Our ancestors thought that they constituted the whole of education. Though this was not a philosophic view, they still constitute the backbone, so to speak, of education. This means that in high school, every pupil must learn to speak and write plain English with fluency and precision, must become familiar with many great books, and must take as much training as he can in mathematics. The study of a foreign language is of incalculable value in the mastery of one's own. For this purpose Latin has no peer, though French and Spanish, which, after all, are only modernized forms of Latin, are excellent.

The study of music, literature, domestic art, domestic science, household mechanics, drawing, and art contributes to training in worthy home membership. The school should make boys and girls more useful, agreeable, and thoughtful about their homes, not only in the future, but

If it fails in this, there is a fault somewhere, which can and should be discovered and corrected.

Training in citizenship is one of the chief duties of a school. Respect for law and constituted authority should be taught in all classes, though this is the more particular function of

as

now.

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