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This has for its foundation the private library of Hon. Clarence M. Burton, which he presented to the city of Detroit in March, 1914. The gift included Mr. Burton's residence at 27 Brainard Street and the two lots upon which it stands. The library at that time was estimated to consist of 30,000 volumes, 40,000 pamphlets, 500,000 unpublished documents, besides a large number of maps and prints. It is one of the largest collections of Americana in the country, being especially strong in the history of Detroit and the Old Northwest.

Since it became an integral part of the Detroit Public Library system a regular appropriation has been made each year for the purchase of additional books and for subscriptions to historical magazines. This appropriation has been more than doubled by Mr. Burton's purchases which are made as systematically as though the library were still his own property.

The record of accessions shows the total number of titles to be about 100,000. There are 1,200 maps and about 4,000 prints.

By a ruling of the Michigan Historical Commission, November 14, 1917, the responsibility for the collection of private and personal records of Michigan citizens is placed upon the Burton Collection.

Pending removal to the new Main Library building, the reading rooms at 27 Brainard Street are open every week day from 9:00 a. m. to 5:30 P. m.

An assembly room, seating 45 persons, is available for classes or club meetings. Evening use of this may be obtained if desired.

Junior high-school, high-school, and college students, and all teachers will find the Burton Collection helpful in their study of American history.

CO-OPERATION WITH THE DE

TROIT ART INSTITUTE

A great quantity of illustrative material which has been collected especially for the use of teachers is available at the Children's Museum of Art Institute on Jefferson and Hastings Streets, and may be borrowed for one or two weeks.

Besides material for all sorts of projects in the grades, there will be found for the high school still-life, textiles, etc., for the art and manual training departments; birds, animals, insects, shells, etc., for the biology department; illustrative material of all kinds to be used in

"THE CLASS ROOM TEACHER"*

By Strayer and Engelhardt

teacher, there is much that will be of great value to the intermediate and high school instructor. Surely he needs to know the type of administration and organization of the school department of which he is a part. The problems of individual differences, citizenship training, measurements of achievement, class or anization, health, records and reports, and problems of the relationship of the school to the community, concern him as much as they do the elementary teacher. The scientific means by which these problems are solved should be known by every school teacher. These are all so well illustrated that they can easily be transferred for use in solving school problems and in conducting educational investigations and research. “The Class Room Teacher" is recommended as a book well worth adding to your library.

C. L. THIELE,

Supervisor of Arithmetic.

The modern educational policy demanding that every policy and practice be, in the last analysis, subordinated to the needs and welfare of the child, calls for a new interpretation of our present form of education. It means that we must analyze our present policies and practices to ascertain the extent to which we are serving the child and incidentally insuring the future success of our Democracy.

It means, that all new measures should be tested by the same standard. Whether the field in which we are working be the elementary, intermediate, or secondary, this criterion holds true.

Strayer and Engelhardt, in their recent publication, "The Class Room Teacher," have brought together the best of present-day procedure in the school world, realizing that the classroom teacher cannot hope to function properly without a full understanding of the different phases of educational endeavor. In order that the child may receive the education to which he has an inherent right and just claim, they rightly contend that the teacher must know something concerning the organization and administration of public education as well as the technique employed by the teacher in his daily work. There must be an intelligent co-operation between all of the forces that control in any way the final product of our school work.

The authors have first seen fit to define the purpose of education in a democratic society, and have outlined its organization therein. They have related the supervisory functions to the work of the teacher, and then treated at lenth the different phases of the teacher's work. Thereunder, such items as variability among individuals, types of teaching, training for citizenship, teaching children how to study, classification and progress of children, measuring achievements of children, class organization, health problems, records and reports, auxiliary educational agencies, the physical features of the school plant, the teacher and the community, and finally the realization of professional aims have been treated.

Although the book was written from the point of view of the needs of the elementary

“EXPERIMENTAL EDUCATION”+

By Frank N. Freeman One of the outstanding developments of the past ten years in the field of education is the attempt to attack experimentally the problems connected with classroom teaching. Many independent investigations have been made and results of varying value published. A thorough knowledge of what is meant by scientific method lias been lacking. This has led to the organizing of courses in experimental education, to enable students to develop the proper technique, and to make the results of their investigation more reliable.

One of the first books published (1916) in this field was “Experimental Education" by Frank N. Freeman. Its purpose is to supply material for the training of pupils in scientific methods. It consists of a series of sixteen simple experiments. They are divided into three groups.

The first group deals with the analysis of various types of the learning process. The second group takes up a study of various phases in the learning process connected with elementary-school subjects.

The third group is made up of tests of visual defects, auditory acuity and maturity, and correlation of tests. Each experiment gives details of procedure, a brief discussion of the results and of the pos

Houghton Mifflin Company, 1916.

* American Book Company, 1920.

“EXPERIMENTAL EDUCATION” *

new

sible extension of its scope.

The author has

the movement for reorganization is well under attempted to open up for pupils the possibili- way in both urban and rural districts. The ties in experimental education, without doing physical redistribution of the grades seems asinto the more complicated study of controlled sured, but if, having accomplished that, schoolgroup experiment.

men rest content, they will have missed the one LEO J. BRUECKNER. great educational opportunity of their genera

tion for real educational reform. There is a

demand for purposes so clear and so cogent that "THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL” |

they will result in a new spirit which will make By Thomas H. Briggs

the intermediate years not only worth while The need of a new type of educational organ- in themselves, but also an intelligent inspiraization for the adolescent years has gained gen- tion for every child to continue as long as eral recognition throughout the country, and profitable the education for which he is by the hundreds of junior high schools that have inheritance best fitted." been established are witnesses of the attempt to

H. L. HARRINGTON, meet that need. The widest divergence in char

Supervisor of Intermediate Schools. acter exists among these schools, from those in which the departmentalization of the seventh and eighth grades marks about the only change from the old organization, to those which at

By Robert R. Rusk tempt to present a new curriculum, a

Teachers who are confused by the manifold administration, adapted as well as may be to investigations in scientific education, ranging individual differences, and a new social or an- from the study of eye movements in reading to ization. On this account, it is especially impor- controlled group experiments, will do well to tant at this time that a survey of the junior read “Experimental Education" by Robert R. high-school situation be made, the dangers Rusk (1919). Mr. Rusk has attempted to orpointed out, the good features selected from the anize the scattered results of reported invesbad, and a common point of departure estab- tigations in Europe and America and to make lished for future progress.

tentative conclusions and recommendations in Dr. Briggs, professor of education at Teach- regard to classroom procedure. The discusers College, Columbia, has been a leader the sion is clear and concise, and is not too technical junior high-school field since its beginning. In for the average reader. The teacher who is this book he gives the current criticism of the looking for help in specific problems will find traditional 8-4 system, sets forth the claims for a wealth of material for study and reference. and objections to the 6-3-3 plan, outlines the Mr. Rusk, although an Englishman, has a typical organization of the junior hi h school, comprehensive knowledge of what has been done its special functions, curricula, methods of teach- in America in the field of scientific education. ing, administration, social control, comparative It is interesting to know the viewpoint of the costs, and results to be expected. He has European investigators and their attitude toward drawn very liberally upon the literature of the

the work done here. Mr. Rusk points out that subject, and supplemented it with a wide per- American investigators have stressed the study sonal knowledge gained from actual work in

of skil's rather than the more general phases the field, from personal visits to a large num- of development, as memory, imagination, and ber of junior high schools throughout the entire aesthetic appreciation. He shows that he is country, and from an extensi questionnaire in- heartily in sympathy with the movement and vestigation.

that the need of this type of study is very As a statement of the present status of the keenly feit in Europe. junior high school, the book is excellent. The

LEO J. BRUECKNER. author, though a strong exponent of the movement, is in no sense a propagandist. He records

"THE PROBLEM OF MATHEMATICS progress that has been made, is not blind to

IN SECONDARY EDUCATION” possible dangers, but does not attempt to outline what future development should be. The The Commission of the National Education book is an excellent summary for the student A sociation the Reor anization of Secondary of intermediate education. His concludin Education has had one of its committees at work statement gives the spirit of the work.

on the prob em of mathematics in secondary edu"The junior high school is accepted in theory, cation. This committee has prepared “an ad. and its possibilities have proved so alluring that mitted y preliminary report” in the hope that † Houghton Mifflin Company, 1920, pp. x-348.

Longmans, Green & Co.

it will give rise to discussion and experiment- of any new material implies “the presence and ing, which may afford definite suggestions in functioning of already existent purposes and the planning of new courses of study. The re- interests,” the committee believes that introducport appears as Bulletin, 1920, No. 1, United tory mathematics, ordinarily treated as algebra, States Bureau of Education.

geometry, and trigonometry, in separate courses, In this report the committee “proposes to lay should be given in connection with the solving before the American educational public (1) of problems and the execution of projects in some of the considerations that demand a fresh fields where the pupils already have both knowlstudy of the problems involved, (2) some of edge and interest. Such treatment of mathethe factors that bear upon the solution of the matics would give best results throu h someproblem, and (3) certain tentative suggestions what of a laboratory method. Its decided gain for experimentation to develop new and better would be in the utilization of ideas and intercourses.”

ests already present with the pupils. To secure In the discussion of the demand for an inquiry results "there must be made a selection of coninto the advisability of reorganizing and recon- ceptions and processes which can serve the stituting mathematics, five considerations are pupils as instruments to the attainment of the set forth. The first consideration arises from ends set before them in the projects or probthe growing insistence in educational discus- lems upon which they are at work." This insions that each subject and each item in the strumental character becomes the essential facsubject justify itself. Mathematics must be tor in any introductory course and it, and not tested by this standard just as all other subjects "logical” interconnectedness, must give unity to of the curriculum. A second consideration

the course Such procedure would serve well grows out of the scientific scrutiny of the condi- the needs of both those who go on to advanced tions under which "transfer" of training takes study in mathematics and those who would

not. place and, as a result of this scientific study, ü questioning of the value of mental discipline The second topic in the "Analysis of the so long held as a justification for the study of

Situation” discusses briefly the several needs arithmetic, algebra, and geometry. A third con- for mathematics and indicates four groups of sideration is found in the now generally accepted users of mathematics—the general readers, those belief that "the principles of adaptation to in- whose work in certain trades will make demand dividual differences, that is, to individual needs for "practical" use of mathematics, those whose and capacities," demand a reconsideration of practical work as engineers, for example, will the customary mathematics courses. A fourth

require considerable knowledge of mathematics, reason is based upon the insistent question and those who will specialize in the study of whether a content chosen to furnish preparation mathematics. for further but remote study, necessarily in- Following this classification of users, there cludes the wisest selection of knowledge useful naturally appears as the third topic a discussion for those who do not reach that advanced stage of the basis for selection of topics to be inof study. The fifth consideration associates it- cluded in the mathematics for the several groups. self with the problem of method. Is the subject The test for each topic would be: "No item matter of mathematics arranged in the best form shall be retained for any specific group of pupils for appropriation? From this would arise ques- unless, in relation to other items and to time tions as to reorganizations, in whole or in part, involved, it; (probable) value can be shown." of mathematics, in a way to run across the cus- The fourth topic sets forth briefly the reason tomary lines of division, and of a further ques- the committee has for not using the factor of tion as to whether such reorganizations may "iormal discipline” in determining the content not be necessary for certain groups of pupils of the mathematics courses to be recommended and not necessary for others.

in the report. In the “Analysis of the Situation," the report The fifth topic is a general discussion of the discusses first the problems of "presentation.” needs of the five groups of users of mathematics It gives a brief analysis of the three factors in

and of the general type of course, or courses, learning-repetition, an inclusive “set” which suited to each group. The committee believes shall predispose the attention, and the accom- that the “general readers" group will require á panying satisfaction to foster habit-outlining course which will include ordinary arithmetic briefly the principle that, other things being

and mensuration and only a few of the algeequal, any item is more readily learned if its braic ideas, such as literal formula, the equation bearing and need are definitely recognized. By of one unknown, negative numbers in such simneed, psychologic, and not economic, need is ple cases as temperature, latitude, and stock meant. Since to speak of the bearing and need fluctuations, the simple conception of space reWhat, then, is the vision of today, and how

a

lations, the idea of function, and the graph as

means of interpreting statistical information.

This “general readers” course might be used as the introductory course for each of the other three groups of users of mathematics, to be followed by such differentiation as would be needed for the separate groups. It seems probable that those whose study of mathematics is directed toward the engineering schools and those who "like" mathematics might well have certain courses in common, differentiation coming later than immediately following the introductory courses.

The sixth topic treats briefly of the necessity for further psychological study in the field of disclosing specific ability or lack of ability, in order to aid in the making of intelligent choice.

The last division of the report takes up some general “Suggestions as to Courses,” and outlines briefly some tentative suggestions of the committee as possible lines along which research and trial might prove profitable. The first of the sug estions deals with the work of the junior high school, the second with trade mathematics, the third with the preliminary engineering group, and the fourth with those who will specialize in mathematics.

A review of this report of the mathematics committee of the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education must sarily be fragmentary and must omit almost wholly discussions and illustrations which support the general statements of principles. The report is deserving of most careful study * and thought by every teacher of mathematics in the intermediate and high schools.

J. V. McNALLY,
Head of Dept. of Mathematics,

Northwestern High School.

instruction, reports of city superintendents, school directories, etc. In addition to this, it subscribes to forty-one of the best educational magazines, as follows:

American Education
American School Board Journal
American School Master
Atlantic Monthly
Education
Educational Foundations
Educational Review
Educational Administration & Supervision
Educational Film Magazine Co.
Elementary School Journal
English Journal
Supplementary Educational Monographs
Good Housekeeping
Industrial Arts Magazine
Journal of Education
Journal of Education & School World (London)
Journal of Educational Psychology
Journal of Home Economics
Moderator Topics
Manual Training Magazine
Moving Picture World
National Geographic
National School Building Journal
North American Review
Outlook
Pedagogical Seminary
Psychological Clinic
Reel & Slide
School & Home Education
School Arts Magazine
School & Society
School Review
Teachers College Record
Journal of Educational Research

Journal of Experimental Pedagogy & Training College Record (London)

Journal of Geography
Library Journal
Training School Bulletin
Weekly Review
New York Times
World's Work

The library is for the use of anyone connected with the school system.

neces

THE REFERENCE LIBRARY OF

EDUCATION
MAUDE ALLEN,

Librarian At the Board of Education, 50 Broadway, there has been started a reference library of education. It aims to purchase the most recent books on the subjects that are being discussed by educators today. It also contains surveys, reports of the commissioner of education, the N. E. A. proceedings, the bulletins of the U. S. Bureau of Education, catalogs of the leading colleges and universities, reports of state superintendents of public

SOME COMMENTS ON CONTEM

PORARY POETRY*

N. Octavia Plee
Head of Department of English

Northeastern Hi h School We speak of modern poetry as if it were something entirely different from the poetry of preceding periods, and therein we The spirit of poetry remains unchanged throughout the ages; the vision alone changes.

No one can read the poetry of the past decade and not be impressed with the fact that contemporary poetry touches modern life

earlier poetry touched earlier life.

err.

as

even

* The report, Bulletin, 1920, No. 1, The Problem of Mathematics in Secondary Education, may be obtained at five cents per copy from the Superintendent of PrintIng, Bureau of Education, the Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C.

* Read before the English section, Teachers' Institute, Detroit, September, 1920.

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