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practiced not only by the individual but by the and organized extemporaneous speech on some nation.
subject of general interest. It was agreed at the The judges were a clubwoman, a lawyer, and a outset that the progress of the regular class work newspaper editor, respectively: Mrs. Laura Os- should not be interfered with and that every opborne, President of the Twentieth Century Club, portunity offered by the recitation should be utiland a member of the Detroit Board of Educa- ized. It was surprising, during October, as well tion; Judge Edward Command, of the Probate as later in the term, how much was done in this Court; and Mr. Gerry Hanna, of the Detroit line by• means of topical recitations in literature Journal.
classes, and by means of systematized oral comGilbert Thorne, of Northwestern, won first position preceding the writing of all themes. place; Frank Jones, of Central, second; and The work before the November elections was Howard Clayson, of Northern, third. A beautiful more than fruitful, because the pupils could readily silver loving-cup was presented to the winner of see that being able to speak briefly and convincthe first prize by Miss Alice Louise Marsh, in ingly really functioned in daily life. Moreover, behalf of the Detroit English Club, to be held for a fine spirit of "give and take” developed. The one year in his school. The cup is the gift of ability at least to entertain the other fellow's point four members of the Club, and is to be competed of view grew out of the dawning conception that for twice more, and then to remain in the pos- what most of us need is more light and less heat session of the school winning it in 1923.
in discussion of any sort. A failure to reach Individual awards were made to the winner of his audience led many a boy to attack his probthe first three places. Mr. Edwin L. Miller, prin- lem from a different angle, and use other methcipal of Northern High School, presented to the ods. One inquired earnestly, “How can a fellow winner of first place a copy of Lord Carnwood's learn to put in more 'punch'?” which, after all, is Life of Lincoln, while the Club bestowed upon the kernel of the matter. the winners of second and third places, respec- During the month of November the fifteen setively, Van Dyke's Days Off and Roosevelt's lected topics were used. Clipping bureaus were Letters to His Children.
formed and good team-work developed. From On February 16th the three young men who the first, “Motion Pictures in Modern Life” was were winners in the Discussion Contest were in- a prime favorite, and both sides of the question vited to the luncheon of the Detroit Rotary Club, were presented with a force which argued firstto give before that body of about two hundred hand contact with the subject. “Recreation Facilibusiness men of this city patriotic speeches in ties in Detroit" came next in interest, and the honor of Washington and Lincoln.
"United States Merchant Marine and Aviation,” While the contest this year was an experiment, third. By the end of November, through a seit worked out with such complete success that ries of eliminations, the contestants were reduced it is the intention of the English Club to make the to one representative for each class. Discussion Contest an annual event. There is
In December these representatives used the five no doubt but that it opens up a line of activities
topics selected for the semi-finals and the final that will work advantages to all those taking part,
contest. It was then that feeling ran high and and that it is exactly in line with approved mod- enthusiasm waxed warm. For once, interest in ern methods.
public speaking contests was as strong as that developed by athletics. Contests between the
classes in different groups showed competition, III. NORDSTRUM'S DISCUSSION CONTESTS and the winner was treated as a champion. Many
of these contests were held in the grade rooms at ALICE LOUISE MARSH
record-time, and it was interesting to hear boys
and girls "firing" away at their friends on the Without doubt, the most significant and note- good and bad features of the movies, and the worthy feature of the Better Speech Movement true meaning of physical well-being, or showing this year at Nordstrum was the whole-hearted up the significance of the spirit of fair play in and earnest co-operation of both teachers and the game of life. pupils, manifested steadily from the middle of Then came the culmination in the semi-final October until the conclusion of the contests in the contest on Thursday, December 24th, when the semi-finals, held on the morning of Thursday, whole school met to witness the try-out of the December 24th.
five candidates, three boys and two girls. The The goal to be reached was the development in various "houses” sat in groups and a spirit of each pupil in the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth friendly rivalry was manifest before the speech· grades, of the ability to make a brief, effective, making began. The same procedure was carried
out as was used in the final contest at Northern High School. The speeches were all well done, the winner of the gold medal making a fiery appeal for increased recreational facilities for the people of Detroit, using as an illustration the inadequacy of much that is offered in our section of the city.
The affair took on quite a gala aspect. The presence of Superintendent Cody and Dr. Hall added much to the interest of the occasion, as both spoke humorously of the early days of our locality when they were members of our munity. The judges, practical newspaper and business men, added their testimony as to what it would have meant in their lives to have had this training in youth. The "houses" cheered loudly for their candidates, the school songs were sung with gusto, then all went back
to their classes, well satisfied with the outcome of Nordstrum's first public-speaking contest.
THE DETROIT MATHEMATICS
In the same way we find it impossible to imagine swinging a solid through the fourth dimension and super-imposing it upon another solid. We are in reality as limited as the imaginary two dimensional creatures. The nearest approach we can make to a conception of the fourth dimension is to think of turning a solid inside out. The three dimensions may be stated as direction up and down, direction right and left, and direction out; the fourth dimension, as direction inside out.
If the seeker after truth will hold his two hands in front of a mirror so that the palm of one and the back of the other face the glass, and then look at one hand in the flesh and the reflection of the other, the two are equal and we may say that the reflection has been moved through the fourth dimension. If one glove were swung through the fourth dimension and the other left in its normal state, both gloves would fit the same hand, and one could be super-imposed on the other.
So much for a popular interpretation, which is but wandering in a field of supposition. What of the scientific truth of this theory? This much may be gleaned from the field of pure mathematics.
All geometrical magnitudes may be represented by algebraic functions.
THE FOURTH DIMENSION
A Review of the Discussion by Professor Walter B
Ford, of the University of Michigan
M. C. WOODWARD
President of the Blathematics Club
Western High School
The Detroit Mathematics Club held its first general meeting Friday, November 12, at Central High School. The aim of the Club is to promote a general interest in mathematics and to face and try to solve some of the problems in this field of education. The first meeting was given over to a discussion of the fourth dimension by Professor Ford, of the University of Michigan, who gave a very simple and comprehensible talk on this phase of mathematical research.
Our world is a three dimensional world. We cannot actually experience a fourth dimension any more than a creature living in a flat surface could experience solidity.
One method of proving the equality of magnitudes is that of super-imposing one other. Take, for illustration, two triangles. We can conceive of picking one of these two dimensional objects up and moving it through spacethat is, through a third dimension-and placing it upon the other. Now, if we were creatures living in a two dimensional world, we could not imagine the moving of one of these triangles out through a third dimension and consequently could not always super-impose one upon the other.
If we pass
a plane through a cube, we get a rectangle, or a twodimensional figure. If we perform the necessary operations on the equation of the cube to indicate the intersection of a plane with it, we get a function of the second degree, which is the function of a two-dimensional magnitude. If we take a sphere of the nth degree and pass a plane through if we get a sphere of the (n-1) degree. In other words the results of purely mathematical computations lead us into a realm beyond our experience. Just as the two-dimensional creature, when he passes a plane through the three-dimensional magnitude, that he knows nothing of, gets an equation of the second degree, which is within his grasp, so we, by passing a plane through a fourdimensional figure, get an equation of a threedimensional figure.
Hence, we realize from the cold truths of mathematics, that there are more things in heaven and earth than are dreamed of in our philosophy.
THE CASS TECHNICAL REHABILI
M. P. MONROE
Every two weeks at high noon a group of rather sober looking young men assemble in Room 316 in Cass Technical High School. This is the Rehabilitation Club, whose membership, according to its constitution, is made up of “any disabled
soldier, sailor, or marine who is in training at Cass instruction is, for the most part, individual. It Technical High School, under the Federal Board has always had to appeal to the narrower sense of for Vocational Education." There are now about values of the soldier students, and in this respect three hundred of these "silver button” men tak- the teachers were often the students. But the ing special day courses in vocational education, are remarkably attentive, ambitious, and being trained for new occupations made necessary often make unusual progress in their work. They by their physical handicaps.
are a cheerful, appreciative group, too—these solThe object of their club is "to provide enter- diers. They have a smile in their hearts for tainment and to promote a spirit of co-operation Cass Technical High School, and for their future. among its members.” Its real aim is, of course, Their late experience in school is all too evidentsocial, but one can plainly read a firm purpose in ly satisfactory to them. the faces of its members. They are here in Cass To help them has been a successful experiment Technical High School to learn a skill that will in education. Besides this, does it not point the soon put them back into a productive place in way more strongly to another service and funclife. They are seeking definite, usable training in tion of the public school? a short period of time.
Rehabilitation began with “any disabled soldier, The first twenty-four Federal Board men came sailor, or marine.” Need it end there? in January, 1919. Since then 225 have left the school and 20 are still enrolled. Added to this THE LIBRARY OF TEACHERS group are about 100 foreigners and a few others
COLLEGE of adult age. The character of their previous training made the problem of their classification
MARTHA CAROLINE PRITCHARD difficult. Their education ranged almost from
Librarian of Teachers College illiteracy to senior high-schoo! ability. The majority, however, were of about fifth
It is the desire of Teachers College Library grade standing.
to become as helpful as possible to the entire body Accordingly, they were
classified into four of teachers in the city. The field of education groups, based largely on their special needs and is the special scope of the collection, though genprevious training. Group One was made up of eral reference books, documents, and general litforeigners who are learning English; Group Two erature are also included in sufficient quantity to is learning to read and write; Group Three has form a good working library. It is proposed to mastered the fundamentals of the elementary build up a standard library of children's books to school; and Group Four is made up of those more serve as a reference collection for teachers and advanced. They are nearly all taking trade college students. courses that will fit them to go to work in the A complete set of Year Books of the National shop as soon as possible--courses such as Society for the Study of Education has recently chine shop, tool-making, designing, mechani- been purchased and added to the permanent refcal drawing, auto mechanics, pattern-making, erence shelves so that any of these volumes may electrical construction, and architectural drawing. be found in the library when desired for consultaEnglish, mathematics, and penmanship are taken tion. Additional copies of the year books most in with these courses. The most popular courses demand have also been supplied for reserve use are machine shop, tool-making, and mechanical with classes, or for short time circulation. drawing
Some eighty magazines and newspapers are on The length of the course is determined pretty the subscription list for the current year, of which much by the individual man's desires. It is in- more than half are distinctly professional litertended that these men shall stay in school until ature. Notice of new books and pamphlets they have made satisfactory preparation to con- added from time to time will appear in the Detinue their vocation in the shop, but some troit Educational Bulletin, that the teachers of the main only for a few days while others have been city may be kept in touch with recent accessions. in training as much as two years. While each Supplementary material for aid in teaching, such man is in school he receives from $100 to $170 a as pictures, pamphlets, clippings, courses of month from the government, and after complet- study, and industrial exhibits are being added as ing his course, the Federal Board assists him in fast as money can be secured for such purpose. getting a position along the line of his prep- Some 4,000 pictures are already in use and may be aration. Three men of the Rehabilitation Grour consulted by anyone. are now teaching mechanics in the Detroit schools. While the library is primarily for the use of
Thirteen full-time and seventeen part-time students and faculty of the College, whose interteachers are now teaching these ex-soldiers. The ests in the circulation of books and materials
must necessarily receive first consideration; yet it is the policy of the administration to secure copies of books needed by students of the evening classes in sufficient numbers to meet their requests also, as far as possible. Short-time circulation will facilitate this service and co-operation in this will be much appreciated.
The library is open daily except Saturday and
Sunday from 8:30 a. m. to 5 p. m. and on Saturdays from 9 a. m. to 12 m.
The librarian and her two qualified assistants, one of whom is a trained librarian who has had special experience in children's books, stand ready at any time to assist readers in finding material or in doing any reference work which is within the particular scope of the library.
ENGLISH CLUB PRESENTS BILL OF PLAYS
Lovers of the one-act play are promised a treat in the bill of short plays to be presented at the Arts and Crafts Theatre on April 8th and 9th, by the Detroit English Club in co-operation with the Society of Arts and Crafts.
The three plays to be given are:
These titles speak their own recommendation. Individually, they are of recognized merit; but credit must be given to the manager, Mr. Frank G. Thompkins, for selecting plays which constitute so attractive a group.
The first is a delightful satire, in poetic form, on the superficialities of life. It was inspired, perhaps, by the war-at least it was written immediately after the war, in 1920--and into its incidents we can read a picture of the shallow life in our great cities before the war, the interruption of the war, the nobility it cailed forth, and the horrors-and the immediate return of society to forgetfulness and froth again.
This play was first staged by the Provincetown Players and evoked from New York critics flattering comment as the year's best play. Its great success was one of the triumphs which has brought to Miss Millay her laurels as poet, playwright, and actor; and has awarded her the title of "the most distinguished poet of the younger generation." The author's rise to fame. in her three short years since graduation from Vassar College; is almost as miraculous as her career-the childhood spent in the little village of Camden, Maine; her discovery by a wealthy summer visi
to the town; the college course provided by this same lady; and her consequent welcome into the circle of artists and actors of Greenwich Village.
The part of Columbine in this play, Miss Millay very evidently wrote for herself, and in the first production, her younger sister took this part. Later Miss Millay acted it herself. In the production at the Arts and Crafts Theatre Mrs. Leo Dretzka will act as Columbine, and Mr. Gordon Mendelssohn will act opposite her as Pierrot. Both are professional actors. Mr. Frank Storer and Mr. Russell Kingston, both of Detroit, will also appear in this play. Miss Katherine McEwen is responsible for the stage-sets; and Miss Mabel Tuomey is directing the play.
The Playgoers is also satirica!, but in this case the satire turns on the incompetence of the average audience to comprehend the play put before
them, and the problem of managers to choose plays on a level with their audience's intelligence. A young married couple of London decide to give their servants the pleasure of an evening at the theatre. Secretly the servants much prefer movies, and after sitting through a few scenes, get up and leave. Miss Grace Robinson takes the part of the leading lady, the mistress of the servants; while Mr. McKee and Mr. Hillard play opposite her. Mr. McKee has frequently app-zred to Detroit audiences with Mr. Sam Hume, and Mr. Hillard is a talented amateur, a student at the present time at the Junior College of Detroit, who next year will join the Bonstelle Company. The parlor-maid is played by Miss Clarissa Felt, the cook by Miss Gertrude Terry, the housemaid by Miss Florence Apel, the youthful maid by Miss Marion Moon, and the kitchen maid by Vida Walker. Miss Eloise Ramsey of Teachers College is directing the play.
The Boy Comes Home will be hailed as a new play by the same author who gave us Belinda, in which Ethel Barrymore starred in New York. Another play of Mr. Milne's entitled Mr. Pyon, is to be presented in the very near future in New York by Belasco, in which Phyllis Povah of Detroit will star. Miss Povah made her debut on Broadway last year in the role of the maid in John Drinkwater's play, Abraham Lincoln. The play which is to be presented at the Arts and Crafts Theatre is a contrast to the first two plays on the program in that it is of a little more serious trend. The problem is that of the younger generation, who during the years of war have had the experience of managing men, and have had responsibilities forced upon them. Shall they now submit to the dictation of their elders? The parts will be taken by Miss Bertha Barney, Vliss Mabel Woodward, Mrs. Beatrice E. Roberts, Mr. Al. Weeks, and Mr. Frazer Clark. Miss Mary Farnsworth, president of the Detroit English Club, is directing this play.
Members of the English Clui) and of the Society of Arts and Crafts will be issued complimentary tickets upon application at the Playhouse, 47 Watson St. For persons not members of either of these organizations, admission will be $1.00. Tickets are on sale at the Playhouse or may be procured at the door on the day of the performance.
Three performances are scheduled : Friday evening, April 8th ; Saturday evening, April 9th; and Saturday matinee, April 9th.
C. S. I.
accurately measure his best. And he has attained a great measure of success. All who read his book ought to be, and many will be, profoundly grateful to him for enriching literature by this truly great portrait.
EDWIN L, MILLER, Principal Northern High School.
By Lord Charnwood First printed in 1916, Lord Charnwood's Lincoln seems to have been especially welcome to Englishmen in those days when their hearts were searched and the fate of the world hung in the balance. Then, probably, they could understand, as they never had before, the philosophy of the great President. At all events, Charnwood's book has already been reprinted nine times and appears to have inspired John Drinkwater's play on Lincoln, which, published May, 1918, has likewise won a great place in the hearts of folks on both sides of the Atlantic.
Charnwood's book has been called the best of the biographies of Lincoln. While this high praise may be questioned, several things are sure. As an English aristocrat and statesman, Charnwood brings to the study of the greatest and most democratic of Americans a point of view unattainable by an American. Entirely free from the political and sectional affiliations which must color an American's judgment, he is in a position to be, and is, pre-eminently fair to North and to South alike. To a superficial reader, his style is apt to appear simple. It is, indeed, transparently clear, but the student of rhetoric will at once perceive that it is in a high degree subtle and artistic. He wastes no words. He has a great faculty for epigram. His power of drawing a picture or summing up a situation in a few words marks him as a literary kinsman, in this important respect, to Tennyson and to Lincoln himself. Instances of this faculty are found in his portraits of Thomas Lincoln, “chastising not too often or too much, but generally on the wrong occasion"; of Calhoun, “undisturbed in his logical processes by good sense"; of certain abolitionists who sought “salvation by repenting of other men's sin"; of Lincoln's reputation for honesty, “which rested on the only conclusive authority, that of his creditors"; of Horace Greeley, “whose omniscience was unabated by the variation of his own opinion”; and of Chase, “who must have been a good man in the days before he fell in love with his own goodness.” The book, indeed, is intensely human. Charnwood dwells with relish on the weight in pounds of Lincoln's sweethearts, on his propensity to tell unseemly stories, and on his backwoods appearance.
He tries to tell the worst of Lincoln, he says, so that he may
By John Drinkwater Not the least important fruit of Charnwood's book is John Drinkwater's play. Dedicated to Lord Charnwood, it was first produced in Birmingham, where it was discovered by Arnold Bennett, and was by him transplanted to an obscure London playhouse. Here its success was
In New York and Chicago it has met with equal approval. As a work of art, it challenges comparison with the great English chronicle plays-Marlowe's Edward II, Shakespeare's Henry V, Tennyson's Becket. Unlike them, it is written in the simplest prose, but it has poetic interludes of great beauty and power. It defies analysis. While its appeal to Americans familiar with Lincoln can be easily understood, its effect on Englishmen must be due to those rare qualities which characterize great literature. One thing is certain. Here is at least one modern book that we should have, and with the least possible delay, in our high schools.
Both Charnwood and Drinkwater, by writing those books on Lincoln, it should be added, have made worthy contributions to the great cause of the unity of the English-speaking nations.
EDWIN L. MILLER, Principal Northern High School.
"THE HUMAN FACTOR IN
By Walter S. Munroe The doctrine of disciplinary education has such a firm hold upon our thinking that it is very difficult to bring to the front the more human conception of the purpose of education. Under the hallucination of the value of disciplinary education, it has been believed that the mind of the individual is kept in condition by doing hard, dry, and disagreeable tasks. The startling facts
Houghton Mifflin Company, R. L. S. No. 269.
'Henry Holt & Co., pp. 435,