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on elimination and retardation that have been presented to the public have done much to create an impetus toward the changing of the content of the curriculum from the practical, utilitarian point of view. Vocational education is coming rapidly to the fore, because it is becoming more and more apparent that the big problem at the present time is the lack of adjustment between the elements in our society. James Munroe, in his book, The Human Factor in Education, shows the influence of this conception upon his attitude toward the problem of education.
The ordinary parent or teacher is very apt to be under the delusion that education is "going to school.” “In the true sense, real education is simply the sum total of the physical, intellectual, and moral forces which, acting and re-acting upon you and me and our neighbors, thereby create what we call our characters." From this point of view, it is not only the schools that are responsible for the education of the child. The schools in the last analysis reflect the demands of society. "That being the case, the final responsibility for the real efficiency of the public schools, lies not with the teachers, but with the citizens.” Society, as now organized, is highly industrial and technical. In addition to the broad cultural phases of education, definite provision must be made for vocational training and the understanding of the relation of the individual to the group.
Manufacturers, professional men, and others outside of the narrow field of education itself are struggling to assist in making adjustments. And as Munroe points out, it is the schools that are making the fewest advances toward the other agencies of education. He speaks of society as "The World of the Penny Wise," and insists that it is a legitimate duty of the schools to educate the parents, the industries, and the community in general, as to what they can do, and ought to do, to help in this most important of all social duties : the preparation of boys and girls for an effective adult life. That there has been a general awakening in this line is evidenced by the Smith-Hughes law for the promotion of vocational education.
Munroe proposes a system of industrial high schools and, for those who cannot reach such a school, a part-time school, which is similar to that which has been established in Michigan.
One finishes the book with a broadened conception of education and a feeling of the size of the problem still before us. One must also feel encouraged by the progress that has been made. Munroe gives one the conviction that he understands the problem of vocational and industrial education and sees its implications.
LEO J. BRUECKNER.
"MODERN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
By George E. Freeland Much of our educational theory is developed at universities and colleges. These institutions are not always prepared to demonstrate the practical application of their views. Among normal schools and other teacher-training institutions, there have developed experimental schools where it is possible for intelligent effort to work out the theories that have been proposed. The recent pressure that has been brought to bear on the socializing and vitalizing of the curriculum has led to scattered attempts in the public schools to bring this about. The inevitable result has been variety of opinion and method.
Freeland, in his Modern Elementary School Practice, presents what he calls the "vital elements of modern practice in the elementary school.” His emphasis is upon the doctrine of interest as the factor in the learning process, and the socialization of instruction. His purpose is quite clearly to show the relation between the theoretical and practical phases of instruction.
As he says, "Theory must lie dormant until it falls into the hands of some one who can apply it or illustrate it in such a way that cthers can use it. On the other hand, experience without theory is blind." With this helpful attitude, he takes up the problem and the project as a means of instruction. He makes them vital and real by showing, from the background of his experience as supervisor, superintendent, and head of an elementary school in a teacher-training institution, numerous applications of the theory in actual classroom teaching. The book abounds in types of carefully worked out projects in all subjects. It should be a most interesting and helpful addition to the library of a teacher attempting to interpret the newer educational theory.
LEO J. BRUECKNER.
"THE PROJECT METHOD IN
By Mendel Branom. Since the leading exponents of the project method do not agree as to what a project is, a project problem, or a project exercise, Mr. Branom quotes such authorities as Kellogg, Snedden, and Kilpatrick to show that this word “project" is not always used to identify one particular concept, but that the specific concepts adopted by the different leader's vary somewhat. Misunderstandings, however, may be avoided by
I Macmillan Co.
trying to associate the word with a definite educationai idea.
The project as an educational concept did not evolve very quickly. At least, it was not recognized until recently as a definite method. Some great masters, as Farraday, Pasteur, illustrated the method in their work and lives.
The project method is really based upon fundamental instincts and tendencies. Those utilized in this method are: 1. The desire to possess; 2. The desire to collect; 3. The desire to construct; 4. The desire to entertain ; 5. The desire to help others; 6. The desire to protect others; 7. The desire to compete; 8. The desire to acquire; 9. The desire to stand high in the esteem of others; 10. The desire to amount to something.
Through the correct application of such instincts as these, each child may be developed into a person of some consequence. The project method if wisely used will make better and more useful citizens. The better schools of the past have used project-questions and they were content if the child showed ability in the use of the project exercise.
It is only within recent years that the significance of the project problem has been emphasized. The value of the project exercise should not be underestimated but rather magnified.
The project problem is a problem of considerable difficulty. It should not be below the mental grasp of the children, but carefully graded. The author warns against any attempt to organize all of the school work about project problems. A course of study consisting exclusively of such would mean that the children are placed in situations which do not dominantly prevail in adult life.
Project problems may be stated in many forms but these forms are immaterial so long as the problems become personal to the pupil. Since history and geography are quite well adapted to the application of the project method, the author goes into considerable detail in showing how these subjects may be successfully treated. He impresses upon the reader the fact that it does make a differenece how the subject matter is “brought home” to the pupil. A comprehensive view of the book
be gained from the following titles from the table of contents: The Nature of the Project Method, Evolution of the Method as an Educational Concept, Relation of the Method to Instincts, Social Basis, Significance of Motivation, Teaching and Learning by Projects—forms and kinds, method applied to history and geography, Reorganization of the Course of Study, and Preparation of the Teachers.
W. G. BRAUN.
RECENT FICTION Alice L. Marsh, Nordstrum High School* “Potterism”—by Rose Macaulay.
Potterism, a clever, amusing satire on smug self-satisfaction, is heralded as “a London best seller" and has had equal vogue on this side of the Atlantic. The author, who is said to have a dozen novels to her credit, defines Potterism as a frame of mind, not a set of opinions. The name is taken from the Potter family, whose father is the proprietor of a chain of "popular” newspapers, his wife being a prolific novel writer, blissfully unaware of her intellectual limitations. There are an older son and daughter who are too colorless to really count, and the twins, Jane and Johnny, who graduate as "firsts" from Oxford and set out to found an "Anti-Potter League,” to down cant and hypocrisy of the sort represented in the literary world by their father and mother. The amusing denouement is that even the members of the League, who so openly congratulate themselves on "not being as other men are," find, from time to time, what has always been true, that we are all more or less Potterites. “Main Street”—by Sinclair Lewis.
Sinclair Lewis, who has many notable short stories to his credit and has attracted much favorable comment on Free Air, has written, in Main Street, what reliable cțitics regard as the novel of the year. Carol Milford is a product of Blodgett College, a co-educational institution on the outskirts of Minneapolis. On graduation, she drifts to Chicago, has a touch-and-go contact with the artist colony and imbibes, at the same time, a taste for "uplift” work. While in this state of pseudo-intellectuality, she consents, after a whirlwind courtship, to marry Doctor Kennicott, the only physician in a small Minnesota town called Gopher Prairie.
The "gritty" train, as she mentally styles it, stops at one after another of the small, drearylooking towns, as she nears the end of the wedding journey. She turns to her husband, alluding to the crowd on the platform:
“These poor people! Why doesn't someone wake them up?
?" "These people? Wake 'em up? What for?”
“But they're so provincial. No, that isn't what I mean. They're--oh, so sunk in the mud.”
"Look here, Carrie, you want to get over your city idea that because a man's pants aren't pressed he's a fool. These farmers are mighty keen and up and coming."
In her new life she finds herself a woman with a working brain and no work to do. She tries to graft a taste for Shaw on a stock that is satisfied with Harold Bell Wright.
It is a fine bit of American realism. Main Street is the continuation of the Main Streets one finds everywhere. The conversations are like phonograph records and the characterswell, one simply can't afford to miss knowing them all, from Ole Jenson, the grocer, to Ezra Stowbody, the banker.
Boni and Liveright.
* Acknowledgment is made to Miss Stark of Burnham's, Mr. Labelle of Macaulay's, and Miss Hill of the Main Library, through whose courtesy these reviews were made possible.
"She Who Was Helena Cass"_by Lawrence Soames Forsythe, now middle-aged, his loves and Rising.
desires, now hold the center of the stage. A first novel which, while crude in spots, is nevertheless gripping, reveals a prominent young
“Our Women-Chapter on the Sex”—by New York woman who has become engaged to
Arnold Bennett. a man of whom neither parent approves, and This book gives quite as close sex-analysis as who disappears mysteriously from an out-of-the- Old Wives' Tales. Those who are fond of these way Spanish inn where mother and daughter
annals of the Five Towns have another treat in have engaged rooms, while the latter is on a
store for them. sketching tour. The mother says "Good night" to the daughter and that is the last seen of her. Helen St. John, Northwestern High School In the morning, distracted, the mother bursts
“Diaries of Court Ladies of Old Japan”. into the room occupied by her daughter, only to find that it bears no resemblance to the one she
translated by Annie Shepley Omori and saw the night before. Moreover, it is occupied
Kochi Doi, with an introduction by Amy
Lowell. by a rough mountaineer who declares he has had it for weeks. The quest is taken up by a young
All three of these diaries, written in the early New York journalist whose success ends the
part of the eleventh century, breathe the delicate tale.
perfume and native charm of old Japan. Their "The Captives"_by Hugh Walpole.
quaintness and charm reflect a civilization in The captives are Maggie Cardinal, aged which women held ascendancy in rank, and to be nineteen, and Martin Warlock, twenty-four, and
a poet was a matter of course. One was casually their chains are forged by a narrow
handed an exquisite poem written on the spur London called the Kingscote Brethren. Maggie,
of the moment, and was expected to, and did, who longs to be a free soul, is well looked after reply immediately in similar verse. We discern by Aunt Ann, a member of the sect, while Mar
an unusual appreciation of nature, and a very tin is dominated by his father, the minister of
highly cultivated aesthetic sense. The costumes the church. The story lies, as the author says, are symphonies in color. When one lady appeared in the tempestuous history of Maggie's youth,
in court with a faulty color scheme at her wrist, the young man with whom she fell in love, and "the nobles and high officials noticed it.” The the man whom she eventually married, including
three diaries are as totally different as the diaries his friends and relations. Both Maggie and Mar
of three women highly gifted in different ways
are bound to be. Murasake Shikilu is famous as tin are trying to escape from the bonds of habit, each in his or her own fashion. And the result? the writer of the first realistic novel of Japan, That is for the reader to determine. Walpole
Genje Monogat ri. Izumi Shikibu is the greatest himself considers it a happy ending.
woman poet that Japan has ever had. The name
of the writer of the third diary is unknown, but “Blind”": --by Ernest Poole.
we have bits of eventful years beginning when "The long thin splinter of German steel which the author is twelve years old and ending when struck in behind my eyes did no
to me she is over fifty, in which a beautiful and gifted than the war has done to the vision of humanity." personality gleams forth. It is thus that the hero, blinded in France, discusses the world's intellectual darkness. The
“Life”3—by Johan Bojer. Translated from the story centers about two young men college
Norwegian by Jessie Muir. mates-Steve, who becomes a doctor, and Larry,
Those who have read The Great Hunger by the newspaper man, who reviews his life after he has become totally blind. The book is interesting
this famous Norwegian writer need not be told and well worth-while.
of the masterful manner in which the reader
is made to breathe the very breath of sturdy, "An Old Chester Secret”—by Margaret De
sunshiny, colorful Norway in Life. The story land.
concerns itself with two families whose life hisMiss Lydia Sampson takes to her heart the tories have been strangely interwoven for more unacknowledged son of Mary, daughter of the than a generation, and the way in which the son rich Mr. Smith. Then a change comes to the of one house and the daughter of the other work father and mother and the growing boy has to out their destinies, under the menace of this decide between the foster mother and his cowardly unknown background, makes a story full of parents.
dramatic interest. The ambitious title is satis
factorily justified, for the story is a true epitome "Spendthrift Town”—by Henry Hudson, Jr.
of human emotions, and of the subtle influences Here one has the story of a modern New
which play so great a part in the working out York family, the Nicholsons, almost as vivid
of each human destiny. and quite as life-like as Galsworthy's Forsythes in A Man of Property. Entertaining but not “Hunger”—by Knut Hamsun. Translated exciting.
from the Norwegian by George Egerto!). “In Chancery”—by John Galsworthy.
With an introduction by Edwin Björkman. A story woven about the same family we A novel conceded to be one of the greatest, learned to know so well in The Man of Property. written by the winner of the Nobel Prize for
1920, is bound to be of unusual interest. Knut George H. Doran. 2George H. Doran. 3 Macmillan Co.
1 George H. Doran, New York. *Harper and Brothers.
Houghton Mifflin Co. "Houghton-Mifflin Co.. Boston.
3 Moffat, Yard and Co. Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York.
4 Alfred A. Knopf.
Hamsun's first great novel, Hunger, is a com- the good will of the king by timely gifts of food; pelling study. The author lived for some time a terrible green dragon destined to devour the in the United States earning his living in various princess; and the disguised prince who saves the humble ways, even serving as a street car con- princess' life. When the madcap princess learns ductor in New York City. He wrote during of her impending doom, she becomes a serious, this time occasional bits of poetry, but this only thoughtful maiden. "What memory would be left proved to his fellow workmen that he was a of me and of my life gone by, but of a head“queer sort." He finally returned to his native strong, unruly child with no thought but of city, Christiania, where, unable to find work, he myself.”. Later when she thinks the prince has roamed the streets with his mind made up to been killed by the dragon, she says: "There is starve himself to death. Unable to accomplish a man that gave his life for me, and he young this, he wrote a minute account of those strange and all his days before him, and shut his eyes weeks, in which sensibilities and mind were on the white world for my sake.
The keenly alert to all impressions. This searching man that died for me whether he is of the noble analysis of the working of his own soul brought or the simple of the world, it is to him I have him an immediate and well-deserved fame and given the love of my soul.” The little princess added another title to the list of the world's has become a woman. great novels.
"Crowding Memories"—by Mrs. Thomas "The Dragoon”-A Wonder Play—by Lady Bailey Aldrich. Gregory.
A more suggestive title than Crowding MemIn the author's note at the end of this fantastic ories could scarcely be imagined for this exceedcomedy we are told that The Dragon was begun ingly readable account, brimming full as it is in 1917 as a serious play to be called “The with interesting glimpses of famous men and Awakening of a Soul," but was later changed women and places. We become acquainted with into a comedy, at first named "A Change of Edwin Booth and his charming bride, and through Heart," and later "The Dragon.” This bit of their eyes and those of the grief-stricken mother history may help us to understand the baffling see intimately the terrible tragedy of the feeling that the end of the play fails to carry murder of Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth. We out the promise of the beginning.
attend a brilliant dinner given in Boston by Nothing can be commonplace in the glorified Charles Dickens, at which Charles Eliot Norton, atmosphere in which the rollicking imagination James Russel Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and gay fantasy of Lady Gregory envelop the and other distinguished people are present. We characters. There are the old king, whose chief listen to amusing incidents in which Mark Twain pleasures in life are meats and drinks and a nap plays a leading role, and catch familiar glimpses after dinner; the capable queen step-mother, of the eccentric Julia Ward Howe and the breezy eagerly engaged in managing the king and hasten- Bret Harte. A six months' sojourn in London ing her troublesome young step-daughter into and on the Continent teems with delightful marriage; the self-willed, mischievous princess, experiences. Then there is a fascinating glimpse seventeen, beautiful, and bewitching, but not at of Whistler, a most amusing account of the all disposed to marry; numerous disappointed visit of Oscar Wilde to this country, and much suitors, who have won their several ways into "G. P. Putnam's Sons.
'Houghton Mifflin Co.
REAL POET OF THE HOME The Path to Home. By Edgar A. Guest. The Reilly & Lee Company, Chicago. This is the fourth delightful bunch of lyrics from this Detroit lover of mankind; already he has given us Just Folks, Over There, and A IIcap o' Livin'. There is no need for Mr. Guest to seek the charın of naturalism by unconventional spelling, for he senses the idealistic hungerings in the everyday man, woman, and child. Moreover, he has a wonderful gift of rhythm. Among the gems scattered through the slim volume, “His Example.” is particularly worth quoting. It begins :
“There are little eyes upon you, and they're
watching night and day; There are little ears that quickly take in every
word you say; There are little hands all eager to do every
thing you do, And a little boy that's dreaming of the day
he'll be like you." The other three stanzas are equally catching.
For a pathetic insight into dog nature at its best, it will be difficult to beai the lyric on page 157, “His Dog"; every one should read it.
JAMES MAN Dixox.
*From The Los Angeles School Journal.
STORIES FOR GROWN-UPS ABOUT
Elizabeth Knapp, Head of the Children's Depart
ment of the Detroit Public Library. Jessie Tompkins, Head of the Schools Division of
the Detroit Public Library. Little Women.....
Alcott, L. M. Story of a Bad Boy.
. Aldrich, T. B. Bob and the Guides .
Andrews, M. R. Marie-Claire...
Audoux, Marguerite Madness of Philip..
Bacon, J. D. Imp and the Angel.
. Bacon, J. D. On Our Hill...
Bacon, J. D. Sentimental Tommy
. Barrie, James David Blaize..
Benson, E. F. Happy Boy.
Bjornson, Bjornstjerne Education of Uncle Paul. Blackwood, Algernon Extra Day..
. Blackwood, Algernon Marjorie Fleming
... Brown, John In the Closed Room.
Burnett, F. H. The One I Knew the Best of All. Burnett, F. H. My Antonia.
Cather, W. S. Whilomville Stories.
Crane, Stephan Gallegher
Davis, R. H. Awakening of Helena Ritchie. Deland, Margaret Iron Woman..
Deland, Margaret Story of a Child..
Deland, Margaret Joseph Vance.
De Morgan, William Alice-for-Short.
De Morgan, William David Copperfield.
Dickens, Charles Nicholas Nickleby.
. Dickens, Charles Little Dorrit..
Dickens, Charles Oliver Twist..
Dickens, Charles Dombey and Son..
Dickens, Charles Rebecca Mary..
Donnell, A. H. Very Small Person.
Donnell, A. H. Mill on the Floss (first part). ... Eliot, George Berit Twig
Fisher, D. C. Understood Betsy.
. Fisher, D. C. My Friend's Book
France, Anatole When I was a Little Girl. .... Gale, Zona Awakening...
.Galsworthy, John Boy Life on the Prairie. Garland, Hamlin Phoebe and Ernest...
Gillmore, I. H The Battleground (first part). . Glasgow, Ellen Dream Days..
Grahame, Kenneth Golden Age.
... Grahame, Kenneth Concerning Paul and Fiametta..Harker, L. H.
Hay, Ian Pettison Twins..
Hill, Marion Boy's Town....
Howells, W. 1). Far Away and Long Ago. .Hudson, W. H. Tom Brown's Schooldays.... Hughes, Thomas The Eternal Boy..
.. Johnson, Owen The Varmint....
. Johnson, Owen Prodigious Hickey.
.. Johnson, Owen Limpy, the Boy Who Felt Neglected....
. Johnston, W. A. May Iverson, Her Book. . Jordan, Elizabeth Little Citizens...
Kelly, Myra Little Aliens.
Kelly, Myra Wards of Liberty.
.. Kelly, Myra Wee Willie Winkie.
Kipling, Rudyard Stalky & Co....
Kipling, Rudyard Kim.....
Kipling, Rudyard Emperor of Portugallia. . Lagerlöf, Selma A Child's Romance.
Loti, Pierre Slow Coach......
Lucas, E. V. Youth's Encounter. Mackenzie, Compton Young Barbarians.
Maclaren, lan Emmy Lou..
. Martin, G. M. Ordeal of Richard Feveral (first part)...
Meredith, George Closed Doors...
Montague, M. P. Anne of Green Gables.... Montgomery, A. Pelle, the Conqueror: boyhood....Nexo, M. A. The Believing Years. Pearson, Edmund The Human Boy..
Phillpotts, Eden From the Angle of 17. . Phillpotts, Eden Christopher.
. Pryce, Richard True Tilda.
Quiller-Couch, Arthur Pirates of the Spring ..
Reid, Forrest Jean Christophe (first part). . Rolland, Romain Elizabeth Bess.....
.Scott, Mrs. E. C. Real Diary of a Real Boy. Shute, H. A. Promise...
Sidgwick, A. D). Katie Gaumer.
Singmaster, Elsie Penrod.
. Tarkington, Booth Seventeen..
Tarkington, Booth Witte Arrives (first part). .Tobenkin, Elias Childhood, Boyhood, Youth .Tolstoi, Leo Adventures of Tom Sawyer. . Twain, Mark Advertures of Huckleberry Finn.. Twain, Mark The Hill..
Vachell, H. A. Very Little Person..
Vorse, M. H. Fortitude..
Walpole, Hugh Golden Scarecrow
.Walpole, Hugh Jeremy...
Walpole, Hugh Being a Boy..
Warner, C. D. Joan and Peter (first part). ... Wells, H. G. The Professional Aunt. . Wemyss, Mrs. George Adventures of Bobby Orde.... White, S. E. Court of Boyville....
.White, W. A. Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm Whitney, A. D. T. Jerome, a Poor Man (first part). Wilkins, Mary
*Changes that are being made in the teaching procedures of the high schools of today make it increas. ingly important for the teacher to be alert and sympathetic in her relations with the pupils. It would seem, therefore, that the reading of books of child life will be of value.
The above list containing books of literary merit has a place in this magazine. Perhaps this list will tempt teachers to turn aside now and then from books of a purely pedagogical character to books of this kind.