the spread of those syllables that the old alphabetical names are almost wholly superseded. It matters little in speaking of a sound what name is used so that the sound is known; but in singing, the letters are decidedly inferior to the syllables.

2. “ Write down the shapes of the notes and explain their relative value.”

The notes,

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placed upon the stave in the accompanying figure, are shown in the order of their relative value, and according to the order of the shape-names referred to in the answer to the preceding question. The shape of the note determines the length of time its sound, when produced, is to continue; as the notes are written above, the shape of each succeeding one indicates one half the length in time of that which precedes it, whatever the time of the first may happen to be : for the absolute time of notes differs, but the relative time is constant.

3. “ Explain the Diatonic scale, and show what are the intervals between each successive note in the major mode."

A scale in music is a succession of sounds, not less than eight in number ; which succession terminates upon the octave of the particular sound upon which it commenced. The Diatonic scale is one in which the number of sounds, when considering the scale only, is limited to eight; and those sounds following each other at defined intervals, according to the mode. In the major mode of the Diatonic scale, the intervals, tone

and semitone, succeed each other in the following order ascending; two tones, a semitone, three tones and a semitone, and vice versa in descending.

SECTION II. 1. “Write down the different rests, and show their respective values."

The following are the rests corresponding in time with the notes whose names they bear. Rests are often used in music in the place of notes to indicate that the performer is to make a temporary cessation; the length of time being denoted by the shape of the rest employed.

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5. 3 6. ?

The Semiquaver Rest 7. 3

The Demisemiquaver Rest 8. Ę

The Hemidemisemiquaver Rest. 2. “Write down the Treble, Tenor, and Bass Clefs, and explain their meaning."

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3. 5: The Bass, Fa, or F Clef Clefs are placed at the commencement of music to indicate by what class of voice the piece is to be executed. All the vocal sounds cannot be produced by a single voice; but all which the range of that voice will in general include, can be placed upon a stave of five lines, while the sounds which the different classes of voices can together produce, range over a stave of eleven lines. Now, when the first or upper five of those lines are used, the Sol clef is employed to show the same; when the middle (or about the middle) five, the Do clef is used; and when the lower five, the Fa clef. See Hullah's Manual.

3. “Explain what is meant by unison, interval, a sharp, a flat, a dotted note, and a bar."

A unison is produced by the successive recurrence of any particular sound; and is in contrast with an interval, which is the distance between any two such sounds. A sharp (H) is a character used to show that a note which follows it upon the stave, is raised a semitone above its usual pitch ; a flat (b) denotes a depression to the same extent. To protract the sound of any note to one half more than its usual length, a dot is placed after it, when it is termed a dotted note.

A bar was originally the short line employed to divide the music into portions in reference to time ; and is now used to designate one of those portions itself.

SECTION III. 1. What is meant by time, and what is the distinction between common and triple time?" Explain the meaning of compound time."

The time of a piece of music is decided by the length

and accent of its bar, and not wholly by the duration of the execution of the bar; a piece of music with three beats in the bar may take as long to execute as a piece of an equal number of bars with four beats in each ; but the former would be in triple time, and the latter in common. A bar of common time may be represented by a square ; whatever the common note placed at each corner, if the four or their equivalents were transferred to a bar, it would be one of common time. In the same manner, a triangle will represent a bar of triple time. The signs of common time are C, 2

, 4 used as in all other cases, would be represented by 4 2

- and The compound time is also common and 4 2 triple. Compound common time is a combination of triple with common, and may be represented by the square with three notes at each corner; thus, when


2 6 made compound, C would become and and

8 4, 8. Compound triple is a doubly triple time, and may be represented by a triangle with three notes at each cor3 3

9 9 ner; thus - and would respectively become and 4 8




2. “What is meant by accent, and in what does it differ from time ?"

Accent is a stress laid upon particular notes in a bar defined by the movements of the passage. Time is dependent upon accent; but not identical with it, because accent is not at all influenced by the length of time in which a bar of music is performed. In common time the accent is on the first and third beat in the bar; in triple, on the first only.

SECTION IV. 1. “What is transposition ?"

Transposition is changing the tonic of a piece of music, so that the whole piece may be performed at a higher or lower pitch with exactly the same intervals as previously. (See Hullah's Manual).

2. “How is the use of sharps and flats rendered necessary by it?" (i.e. transposition).

A musical passage in the natural, or Do scale, has, upon every recurrence of the interval between the third and fourth, and seventh and eighth, a semitone in those positions; as well as in certain others, major or minor thirds, perfect fourths, or tritones, and so on, through the whole class of intervals. Now, if it be thought necessary to change the tonic of a passage to a higher pitch, or key, say Re, it is evident that we shall come to the minor second, &c. in ascending the scale, an interval earlier than before ; inasmuch, as we shall have the tone between the second and third steps change place with the semitone of the third and fourth steps. We must therefore fall upon some method of rectifying the discrepancy. It is obvious that both intervals will accord with those of the previous scale, if we can raise the third sound of the new scale a semitone. Now the province of the sharp is to do so. For the same reason a sharp must be placed before the seventh sound of the scale. Thus we see the scale of re requires two sharps. In a similar manner we may show the necessity of employing flats. Suppose we wished to make fa the tonic; then, in order to have a semitone between the third and fourth of the scale, and a tone between the fourth and fifth, si must be flattened.

3. Explain the order in which the scales follow each other, and how they give rise to the use of the different semitones on the chromatic scale.”

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