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STUDENT'S

HISTORY OF ENGLAND

FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO 1885

BY

SAMUEL RAWSON GARDINER

FELLOW OF ALL SOULS COLLEGE, OXFORD

ETC.

VOL. III.

A.D. 1689—1885

SECOND EDITION

LONDON
LONGM ANS, GREEN, AND CO..
AND NEW YORK : 15 EAST 16th STREET

1892

All rights reserved

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PREFACE

In bringing this book to a close I have treated the last eleven years, 1874 to 1885, in a manner which precludes all expression of my own views, either on the characters of the actors or on the value of the work performed by them ; and something of the same reticence will be observed in the pages dealing with the years immediately preceding 1874. We have not the material before us for the formation of a final judgment on many points arising in the course of the narrative, and it is therefore better to abstain from the expression of decided opinion, except on matters so completely before the public as to leave no room for hesitation. Especially is this rule to be observed in a book addressed to those who are not yet at an age when independent investigation is possible.

I hope it will be understood that in my mention of various authors I have had no intention of writing a history of literature, however brief. My object has been throughout to exhibit that side of literature which connects itself with the general political or intellectual movement of the country, and to leave unnoticed the purely literary qualities of the writers mentioned. This will explain, for instance, the total omission of the name of Roger Bacon, and the brief and, if regarded from a different point of view, the very unsatisfactory treatment of writers like Dickens and Thackeray.

Those of my readers who have complained that no maps were to be found in the book may now be referred to a School Atlas of English History,' recently edited by me for Messrs. Longmans & Co. To include an adequate number of maps in these volumes would have increased their size beyond all fitting limits.

In the spelling of Indian names I have not adopted the modern and improved system of transliteration. Admirable as it is when used by those who are able to give the right sound to each letter, it only leads to mispronunciation in the mouths of those who are, as most of the readers of this volume will be, entirely in the dark on this point. The old rough method of our fathers at least ensures a fair approximation to the true pronunciation

For the illustrations I have still to express my great obligation to Mr. ST. JOHN HOPE, to whom Mr. SCHARF has continued to render valuable assistance in the selection of portraits.

My thanks are also due to Messrs. VALENTINE & Sons of Dundee for permission to engrave from their photographs the illustrations which appear on pp. 662, 666, 668, 683, 907, 919, 937, and 942.

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