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These columns, however, are by many supposed to have belonged to the Pantheon.
9.-Stanza xi, line 9. And bear these altars o'er the long-reluctant brine The ship was wrecked in the Archipelago.
10.--Stanza xii., line 2. To rive what Goth, and Turk, and Time hath spared: At this moment (January 3, 1810), besides what has been already deposited in London, an Hydriot vessel is in the Pyræus to receive every portable relic. Thus, as I heard a young Greek observe, in common with many of his conntrymen-for, lost as they are, they yet feel on this occasion-thus may Lord Elgin boast of having ruined Athens. An Italian painter of the first eminence, named Lusieri, is the agent of devastation; and like the Greek finder of Verres in Sicily, who followed the same profession, he has proved the able instrument of plunder. Between this artist and the French Consul Fauvel, who wishes to rescue the remains for his own government, there is now a violent dispute concerning a car employed in their conveyance, the wheel of which-I wish they were both broken upon it!-has been locked up by the Consul, and Lusieri has laid his complaint before the Way. wode. Lord Elgin has been extremely happy in his choice of Signor Lusieri. During a residence of ten years in Athens, he never had the curiosity to proceed as far as Sunium (now Cape Colonna), till be accompanied us in our second excursion. However, his works, as far as they go, are most beautiful : but they are almost all unfinished. While he and his patrons confine themselves to tasting medals, appreciating cameos, sketching columns, and cheapening gems, their little absurdities are as harmless as insect or fox-hunting, maiden speechifying, barouche driving, or any such pastime; but when they carry away three or four shiploads of the most valuable and massy relies that time and barbarism have left to the most injured and most celebrated of cities: when they destroy, in a vain attempt to tear down, those works which have been the admiration of ages, I know no motive which can excuse, no name which can designate, the perpetrators of this dastardly devastation. It was not the least of the crimes laid to the charge of Verres, that he had plundered Sicily, in the manner since imitated at Athens. The most unblushing impudence could hardly go farther than to affix the name of its plunderer to the walls of the Acropolis; while the wanton and useless defacement of the whole range of the basso-relievos, in one compartment of the temple, will never permit that name to be pronounced by an observer without execration.
On this occasion I speak impartially: I am not a collector or admirer of collections, consequently no rival; but I have some early prepossession in favour of Greece, and do not think the honour of England advanced by plunder, whether of India or Attica.
Another noble Lord has done better, because he has done less: but some others, more or less noble, yet "all honourable men," have done best, because, after a deal of excavation and execration, bribery to the Waywode, mining and countermining, they have done nothing at
all. We had such ink-shed, and wine-shed, which almost ended in bloodshed! Lord E.'s “ prig"-see Jonathan Wild for the definition of “priggism"-quarrelled with another, Gropius * by name (a very good name too for his business), and muttered something about satisfaction, in a verbal answer to a note of the poor Prussian: this was stated at table to Gropius, who laughed, but could eat no dinner afterwards. The rivals were not reconciled when I left Greece. I have reason to remember their squabble, for they wanted to make me their arbitrator.
11.-Stanza xii., line 3.
Cold as the crags upon his native coast, ["Cold and accursed as his native coast."-MS.]
12.--Stanza xii., line 8.
Yet felt some portion of their mother's pains, I cannot resist availing myself of the permission of my friend Dr. Clarke, whose name requires no comment with the public, but whose sanction will add tenfold weight to my testimony, to insert the following extract from a very obliging letter of his to me, as a note to the above lines :-"When the last of the Metopes was taken from the Parthenon, and, in moring of it, great part of the superstructure with one of the triglyphs was thrown down by the workmen whom Lord Elgin employed, the Disdar, who beheld the mischief done to the building, took his pipe from his mouth, dropped a tear, and, in & supplicating tone of voice, said to Lusieri, Tías!-I was present." The Disdar alluded to was the father of the present Disdar.
13.-Stanza xiv., line 2.
Stern Alario and Haroc on their way? According to Zosimus, Minerva and Achilles frightened Alaric from the Acropolis; but others relate that the Gothic king was nearly as mischievous as the Scottish peer.--See Chandler.
14.-Stanza xviii., line 2.
The well-reered guns, the netted canopy,
• This Sr. Gropius was employed by a noble Lord for the sole purpose of sketching, in which he excels; hut I am sorry to say, that he has, through the abused sanction of that most respectable name, been treading at humble distance in the steps of Sr. Lusieri.-A shipful of his trophies was detained, and I believe confiscated, at Constantinople, in 1810. I am most happy to be now enabled to state, that "this was not in his bond;" that he was employed solely as a painter, and that his noble patron disavows all connection with him, except as an artist. If the error in the first and second edition of this poem has given the noble lord a
15.-Stanze xix., line 9. From law, however stern, which tends their strength to nerve. ["From Discipline's stern law," &c.—MS.]
16.-Stanza xxi., line 6.
Wakes the brisk harmony that sailors love ; 1“ Plies the brisk instrument that sailors love."-MS.)
17.-Stanza xxiii., line 4.
18.-Stanza xxvii., line 2.
Such as on lonely Athos may be seen, [One of Lord Byron's chief delights was to seat himself on a high rock above the sea, and there remain for hours gazing upon the sky and the waters.)
19.-Stanza xxix., line 1.
But not in silence pass Calypso's isles, Goza is said to have been the island of Calypso.—[Some think that the poets had Goza in their eye,-others that the nymph's habitation was Malta.)
20.-Stanza xxx, line 5.
Sweet Florence ! could another coer share [Mrs. Spencer Smith, an accomplished but eccentric lady, whose acquaintance the poet formed at Malta. From his other notices of her, it appears that he was more the captive of her charms than he pretends in these stanzas.]
21.-Stanza xxxi., line 1.
Thus Harold deem'd, as on that lady's eye ("Thus Harold spoke," &c.-MS.)
moment's pain, I am very sorry for it: Sr. Gropius has assumed for years the name of his agent; and though I cannot much condemn myself for sharing in the mistake of so many, I am happy in being one of the first to be undeceived. Indeed, I have as much pleasure in contradictine, this as I felt regret in stating it.--Note to third edition.
22.-Stanza xxxiii., line 3.
Was not unskilful in the spoiler's art, [Against this line it is sufficient to set the poet's own declaration, in 1821 — * I am not a Joseph, nor a Scipio; but I can safely affirm that I never in my life seduced any woman."]
23.–Stanza xxxiv., line 8.
Brisk Confidence still best with woman copes : (“Brisk Impudence," &c.—MS.]
24.-Stanza xxxviii., line 5.
Land of Albania ! let me bend mine eyes Albania comprises part of Macedonia, Illyria, Chaonia, and Epirus. Iskander is the Turkish word for Alexander; and the celebrated Scanderbeg (Lord Alexander) is alluded to in the third and fourth lines of the thirty-eighth stanza. I do not know whether I am correct iu making Scanderbeg the countryman of Alexander, who was born at Pella in Macedon, but Mr. Gibbon terms bim so, and adds Pyrrhus to the list, in speaking of his exploits.
Of Albania Gibbon remarks that a country "within sight of Italy is less known than the interior of America." Circumstances, of little consequence to mention, led Mr. Hobhouse and myself into that country before we visited any other part of the Ottoman dominions; and with the exception of Major Leake, then officially resident at Joannina, no other Englishmen have ever advanced beyond the capital into the interior, as that gentleman very lately assured me. Ali Pacha was at that time (October, 1809) carrying on war against Ibrahim Pacha, whom he had driven to Berat, a strong fortress, which he was then besieging: on our arrival at Joannina, we were invited to Tepaleni, his highness's birthplace, and favourite Serai, only one day's distance from Berat; at this juncture the Vizier had made it his head-quarters. After some stay in the capital, we accordingly followed; but though furnished with every accommodation, and escorted by one of the Vizier's secretaries, we were nine days (on account of the rains) in accomplishing a journey which, on our return, barely occupied four. Un our route we passed two cities, Argyrocastro and Libochabo, apparently little inferior to Yanina in size; and no pencil or pen can ever do justice to the scenery in the vicinity of Zitza and Delvinachi, the frontier village of Epirus and Albania Proper.
On Albania and its inhabitants I am unwilling to descant, because this will be done so much better by my fellow-traveller, in a work which may probably precede this in publication, that I as little wish to follow as I would to anticipate him. But some few observations are necessary to the text. The Arnaouts, or Albanese, struck me forcibly by their resemblance to the Highlanders of Scotland, in dress, figure, and manner of living. Their very mountains seemed Caledonian, with a kinder climate. The kilt, though white; the spare, active form ; their dialect, Celtic in its sound, and their hardy habits, all carried me back to Morver. No nation are so detested and dreaded by their neighbours as
the Albanese; the Greeks hardly regard them as Christians, or the Turks as Moslems; and in fact they are a mixture of both, and some times neither. Their habits are predatory-all are armed; and the redshawled Arnaouts, the Montenegrins, Chimariots, and Gegdes, Are treacherous; the others differ somewhat in garb, and essentially in character. As far as my own experience goes, I can speak favourably. I was attended by two, an Infidel and a Mussulman, to Constantinople and every other part of Turkey which came within my observation; and more faithful in peril, or indefatigable in service, are rarely to be found. The Infidel was named Basilius, the Moslem, Dervish Tabiri ; the former a man of middle age, and the latter about my own. Basili was strictly charged by Ali Pacha in person to attend us; and Dervish was one of fifty who accompanied us through the forests of Acarnania to the banks of Achelous, and onward to Messalonghi in Ætolia. There I took him into my own service, and never had occasion to repent it till the moment of my departure.
When, in 1810, after the departure of my friend Mr. Hobhouse for England, I was seized with a severe fever in the Morea, these men saved my life by frightening away my physician, whose throat they threatened to cut if I was not cured within a given time. To this consolatory assurance of posthumous retribution, and a resolute refusal of Dr. Romanelli's prescriptions, I attributed my recovery." I had left my last remaining English servant at Athens; my dragoman was as ill as myself, and my poor Arnaouts nursed me with an attention which would have done honour to civilisation. They had a variety of adventures; for the Moslem, Dervish, being a remarkably handsome man, was always squabbling with the husbands of Athens; insomuch that four of the principal Turks paid me a visit of remonstrance at the Convent, on the subject of his having taken a woman from the bath-whom he had lawfully bought, however-a thing quite contrary to etiqnette. Basili also was extremely gallant amongst his own persuasion, and had the greatest veneration for the church, mixed with the highest contempt of churchmen, whom he cuffed upon occasion in a most heterodox manner. Yet he never passed a church without crossing himself; and I remember the risk he ran in entering St. Sophia, in Stambol, because it had once been a place of his worship. On remonstrating with him on his inconsistent proceedings, he invariably answered, "Our church is holy, our priests are thieves :" and then he crossed himself as usual, and boxed the ears of the first “papas" who refused to assist in any required operation, as was always found to be necessary where a priest had any influence with the Cogia Bashi of his village. Indeed, a more abandoned race of miscreants cannot exist than the lower orders of the Greek clergy.
When preparations were made for my return, my Albanians were summoned to receive their pay. Basili took his with an awkward show of regret at my intended departure, and marched away to his quarters with his bag of piastres. I sent for Dervish, but for some time he was
• [The Albanians, in the first instance, forced Dr. Romanelli on Lord Byron, and his life was almost physicked out of him in conse. quence. It was when these poor fellows saw the effects of their ofliciousness, that they threatened to retaliate, and exact life for life.)