Production Chemicals for the Oil and Gas Industry
CRC Press, 19. apr. 2016 - 400 sider
Modern production methods and environmental constraints demand chemical solutions. And as oilfields age, the need for chemicals to ensure steady production increases. Production Chemicals for the Oil and Gas Industry describes classes of production chemicals for use topside and downhole in the upstream oil and gas industry. It includes coverage of their mechanisms, deployment methods, and, where available, environmental properties.
The first chapter gives a general overview of production chemistry issues, the factors that affect the choice of production chemicals, environmental regulations, suggestions for designing greener chemicals, and a brief overview of how to remove mercury and arsenic compounds from production fluids. Each of the remaining chapters begins with an introduction to a problem for which there is a production chemical. The author discusses chemical and non-chemical methods, and then thoroughly details the structural classes of production chemicals and how they can be tested. He includes information on the use of the chemical or technique in the field. References at the end of each chapter provide details on the synthesis, testing, theory, and application of each type of chemical.
Unfortunately, crude oil production is characterized by variable production rates and unpredictable changes to the nature of the produced fluids. Unlike other texts that focus on how products perform in the field and how they are tested, this book focuses on the specific structures of a range of chemicals that are known to deliver the required or desired performance. It also provides an understanding of the issues involved in the use of chemicals and a range of production chemical additives that may be used to rectify issues that would not otherwise be fully resolved.
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Chapter 2 Water and Gas Control
Chapter 3 Scale Control
Chapter 4 Asphaltene Control
Chapter 5 Acid Stimulation
Chapter 6 Sand Control
Chapter 7 Control of Naphthenate and Other Carboxylate Fouling
Chapter 8 Corrosion Control during Production
Chapter 12 Foam Control
Chapter 13 Flocculants
Chapter 14 Biocides
Chapter 15 Hydrogen Sulfide Scavengers
Chapter 16 Oxygen Scavengers
Chapter 17 DragReducing Agents
OSPAR Environmental Regulations for Oilfield Chemicals
Chapter 9 Gas Hydrate Control
Chapter 10 Wax Paraffin Control
Chapter 11 Demulsifiers