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PROHIBITION OF SLAVERY IN THE TERRITO-
Resolves of N. J. and Pa...
Resolves of Delaware; Counter Resolves of
Kentucky Legislature; Compromise proposed
The third Missouri Struggle ; Enlargement of
Missouri in 1836; Annexation of Texas..
Address of John Q. Adams and other Whig
members against such Annexation....
Mr. Calhoun's dispatch to Mr. King; Mr. John
P. Hale proposes a division of Texas..
Rusk, Gen. Thomas J., of Texas, beaten
Senate agrees, but House refuses; The Compro-
mise of 1850; Gen, Taylor's' recommenda-
feated for President at Harrisburg, 1889..
12 Objections to Mr. Clay's scheme by Foote of
15 Ditto by Jefferson Davis of Miss. ; Mr. Clay
18 in reply; Messrs. Downs of La., King of Ala.,
and Butler of 8. C., in further opposition to
Defeated for President, 1852.
92 Mr. Foote of Miss. moves a Committee of Thir-
teen; Mr. Clay reports from said Committee;
Mr. Jefferson Davis's Amendment...
SECEDERS' CONVENTION at Baltimore nomi.
very; The Omnibus defeated as a whole, but
passed in separate bills; The Kansas-Nebraska
SEWARD, WM. H., of New-York, candidate
Pierce protests against the renewal of agita-
tion; Mr. Douglas's first Nebraska Report...
SERGEANT, John, of Pennsylvania, beaten
las, etc., and defeated.
Defeated for Vice-President in Whig National
Chase moves that the people of the Territory
be authorized to elect their own Governor;
172 The Kansas-Nebraska bil passes the Senate..
SUMNER, CHARLES, of Massachusetts, de-
Wirt, William, of Maryland, Anti-Ma-
SUPREME COURT, POWER AND Duties OF-
Wilkins, WILLIAM, of Pennsylvania, sup-
Opinions of John Taylor of Caroline, Va., John WISCONSIN declares for Free Territory,
through Legislative Resolves...
Opinions of John J. Crittenden, Nathaniel Macon,
WOODBURY, LEVI, of New-Hampshire, beaten
Opinions of Mahlon Dickerson, Richard M. Juhn-
for Vice-President by Democratic National Con-
vention of 1844, but declined..
TAYLOR RATIFICATION MEETING at Phila-
non-interference" resolve in Democratic Con-
A POLITICAL TEXT-BOOK FOR 1860.
NATIONAL CAUCUSES, CONVENTIONS, AND
National Conventions for the nomination of a potent influence over such questions, being, candidates are of comparatively recent origin. on this occasion, unable to agree as to which of In the earlier political history of the United her favored sons should have the preference. States, under the Federal Constitution, candi- Ninety-four of the 136 Republican members of dates for President and Vice-President were Congress attended this caucus, and declared nominated by congressional and legislative their preference of Mr. Madison, who received caucuses. Washington was elected as first 83 votes, the remaining 11 being divided bePresident under the Constitution, and reëlected tween Mr. Monroe and George Clinton. The for a second term by a unanimous, or nearly Opposition supported Mr. Pinckney; but Mr. unanimous, concurrence of the American people; Madison was elected by a large majority. but an opposition party gradually grew up in Toward the close of Mr. Madison's earlier Congress, which became formidable during his term, he was nominated for reëlection by a second term, and which ultimately crystalized Congressional Caucus held at Washington, in into what was then called the Republican May, 1812. In September of the same year, a party. John Adams, of Massachusetts, was convention of the Opposition, representing prominent among the leading Federalists, while eleven States, was held in the city of NewThomas Jefferson, of Virginia, was preëmi- York, which nominated De Witt Clinton, of Qently the author and oracle of the Republican New-York, for President. He was also put in party, and, by common consent, they were the nomination by the Republican Legislature of opposing candidates for the Presidency, on New-York. The ensuing canvass resulted in Washington's retirement in 1796-7.
the reëlection of Mr. Madison, who received Mr. Adams was then chosen President, while 128 electoral votes to 89 for De Witt Clinton. Mr. Jefferson, having the largest electoral vote In 1816, the Republican Congressional Caucus next to Mr. A., became Vice-President. nominated James Monrue, who received, in the
The first Congressional Caucus to nominate caucus, 65 votes to 54 for Wm. H. Crawford, candidates for President and Vice-President, is of Georgia. The Opposition, or Federalists, said to have been held in Philadelphia in the named Rufus King, of New-York, who receiveá year 1800, and to have nominated Mr. Jeffer- only 34 electoral votes out of 217. There was son for the first office, and Aaron Burr for the no opposition to the reëlection of Mr. Monroe second. These candidates were elected after a in 1820, a single (Republican) vote being cast desperate struggle, beating John Adams and against him, and for John Quincy Adams. Charles C. Pinckney, of South Carolina. In In 1824, the Republican party could not be 1804, Mr. Jefferson was reëlected President, sinduced to abide by the decision of a Congres. with George Clinton, of New-York, for Vice, sional Caucus. A large majority of the Repubencountering but slight opposition: Messrs. lican members formally refused to participate Charles C. Pinckney and Rufus King, the op- in such a gathering, or be governed by its deciposing candidates, receiving only 14 out of 176 sion; still, a Caucus was called and attended by Electoral Votes. We have been unable to find the friends of Mr. Crawford alone. Of the 261 any record as to the manner of their nomina- members of Congress at this time, 216 were tion. In January, 1808, when Mr. Jefferson's Democrats or Republicans, yet only 66 ressecond term was about to close, a Republican ponded to their names at roll-call, 64 of whom Congressional Caucus was held at Washington, voted for Mr. Crawford as the Republican nomito decide as to the relative claims of Madison nee for President. This nomination was very and Monroe for the succession, the Legisla extensively repudiated throughout the country, ture of Virginia, which had been said to exert land three competing Republican candidates
Tere brought into the field through legislative New-York, presided over the delil erations of the and other machinery-viz., Andrew Jackson, Convention, and the nominees received each Henry Clay, and John Quincy Adams. The re-i 108 votes. The candidates accepted the nomi. sult of this famous "scrub race" for the Presi. nation and received the electoral vote of Verdency was, that no one was elected by the mont only. The Convention did not enunciate people, Gen. Jackson receiving 99 electoral any distinct platform of principles, but apvotes, Mr. Adams 84, Mr. Crawford 41, and Mr. pointed a committee to issue an Address to the Clay 37. The election then devolved on the people. In due time, the address was published. House of Representatives, where Mr. Adams It is quite as prolix and verbose as modern powas chosen, receiving the votes of 13 States, litical addresses'; and, after stating at great against 7 for Gen. Jackson, and 4 for Mr. Craw. length the necessary qualifications for the ford. This was the end of “King Caucus." Chief of a great and free people, and presentGen. Jackson was immediately thereafter put ing a searching criticism on the institution of in nomination for the ensuing term by the Le- free-masonry in its moral and political bearings, gislature of Tennessee, having only Mr. Adams somewhat intensified from the excitement for an opponent in 1828, when he was elected caused by the (then recent) alleged murder of by a decided majority, receiving 178 Electoral William Morgan, for having revealed the secrets Votes to 83 for Mr. Adams. Mr. John C. Cal. of the Masonic Order, the Address comes to the houn, who had at first aspired to the Presidency, conclusion that, since the institution had bein 1824, withdrew at an early stage from the come a political engine, political agencies must canvass, and was thereupon chosen Vice-Presi- be used to avert its baneful effects--in other dent by a very large electoral majority-Mr. words," that an enlightened exercise of the Albert Gallatin, of Pennsylvania, (the caucus right of suffrage is the constitutional and candidate on the Crawford ticket,) being his equitable mode adopted by the Anti-Masons is only serious competitor. In 1828, Ms. Calhoun necessary to remove the evil they suffer, and was the candidate for Vice-President on the produce the reforms they seek.” Jackson ticket, and of course reëlected. It was currently stated that the concentration of the Crawford and Calhoun strength on this DEMOCRATIC OR JACKSON NATIONAL ticket was mainly effected by Messrs. Martin
CONVENTION-1832. Van Buren and Churchill C.Cambreleng, of New. York, during a southern tour made by them in There was no open opposition in the Demo1827. In 1828, Richard Rush, of Pennsylvania, cratic party to the nomination of Gen. Jackson was the candidate for Vice-President on the for a second term; but the party were not so Adams ticket.
well satisfied with Mr. Calhoun, the Vice-Presi. dent; so a Convention was called to meet at Baltimore in May, 1832, to nominate a candi.
date for the second office. Delegates appeared U. S. ANTI-MASONIC CONVENTION-1830. and took their seats from the States of
The first political National Convention in this Maine, New-Hampshire, Vermont, Massachucountry of which we have any record was held setts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New-York, at Philadelphia in September, 1830, styled the New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Mary. United States Anti-Masonic Convention. It was
land, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, composed of 96 delegates, representing the Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Ten. States of New-York, Massachusetts, Connecti- nessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. cut, Vermont, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania,
Gen. Robert Lucas, of Ohio, presided, and New.Jersey, Delaware, Ohio, Maryland and the the regular proceedings were commenced by Territory of Michigan. Francis Granger of the passage of the following resolution : New-York presided; but no business was trans- Resoloed, That each State be entitled, in the nominaacted beyond the adoption of the following tion to be made for the Vice-Presidency, to a number of
votes equal to the number to which they will be entitled resolution:
in the electoral colleges, under the new apportionment, Resoloed, That it is recommended to the people of the in voting for President and Vice-President; and that United States, opposed to secret societies, to meet in two-thirds of the whole number of the votes in the Conconvention on Monday the 26th day of September, 1831, vention shall be necessary to constitute a choice. at the city of Baltimore, by delegates equal in number This seems to have been the origin of the to their representatives in both houses of Congress, to famous “two-thirds” rule which has prevailed of President and Vice-President, to be supported at the of late in Democratic National Conventions. next election, and for the transaction of such other The Convention proceeded to ballot for a canbusiness as the cause of Anti-Masonry may require.
didate for Vice-President, with the following In compliance with the foregoing call, a Na- result: tional Anti-Masonic Convention was held at Balti.
For Martin Van Buren: Sonnecticut, 8; Illinois, 2; more, in September, 1831, which nominated Ohio, 21; Tennessee, 15 ; North Carolina, 9; Georgia, 11; William Wirt, of Maryland, for President, and Louisiana; 5; Pennsylvania, 80 ; Maryland, 7 New! Amos Ellmaker, of Pennsylvania, for Vice-Pre-Mersey, 18 Mississippi, 4; Rhode Island, 4; 'Maine, 10; sident. The convention was attended by 112 de- New-York, 42; Vermont, 7 ; Alabama, 1-Total, 208. legates from the States of Maine, New-Hampshire,
For Richard M. Johnson: Illinois, 2; Indiana, 9;
Kentucky, 15—Total, 26. Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con.
For Philip P. Barbour: North Carolina, 6; Virginia, necticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, 28; Maryland, 8; South Carolina, 11 ; Alabama, & Ohio, Indiana, Delaware and Maryland-only Total, 49. Massachusetts, New-York and Pennsylvania Mr. Van Buren, having received more than being fully represented. John C. Spencer, of|two-thirds of all the votes cast, was declared
make nominations of suitable candidates for the office
duly nominated as the candidate of the party diate predecessor (J. Q. Adams) by Gen. Jack. for Vice-President.
son in his Inaugural Address, and adds : The Convention passed a resolution cordially The indecorum of this denunciation was hardly less concurring in the repeated nominations which glaring, than its essential injustice, and can only be Gen. Jackson had received in various parts of paralleled by that of the subsequent denunciation of the
same Administration, on the same authority, to a foreign the country for reëlection as President.
government. Mr. Archer, of Virginia, from the committee
Exception is taken to the indiscriminate re. appointed to prepare an address to the people, moval of all officers within the reach of the Pre. reported that
sident, who were not attached to his person or The committee, having interchanged opinions on the party. As illustrative of the extent to which subject submitted to them, and agreeing fully in the this political proscription was carried, it is stated principles and sentiments which they believe ought 10 be that, within a month after the inauguration of address were to be made, nevertheless deem it advisa- General Jackson, more persous were removed ble under existing circumstances, to recommend the from office than during the whole 40 years that adoption of the following resolution : Resolved, That it be recommended to the several de
had previously elapsed since the adoption of the legations in this Convention, in place of a General Ad. Constitution. Fault is also found with the Address from this body to the people of the United States, ministration in its conduct of our foreign affairs. to make such explanations by address, report, or other. Again the Address says: wise, to their respective constituents, of the object, proceedings and result of the meeting, as they may deem On the great subjects of internal policy, the course expedient.
of the President has been so inconsistent and vacillating,
that it is impossible for any party to place confidence in The result of this election was the choice of his character, or to consider him as a true and effective General Jackson, who received the electoral friend. By avowing his approbation of a judicious tariff,
at the same time recommending to Congress precisely the vote of the following States :
same policy which had been adopted as the best plan of Maine. 10; New-Hampshire, 7 ; New-York, 42 ; New- attack by the opponents of that measure; by admitting Jersey, 8; Pennsylvania, 80 ; Maryland, 8; Virginia, the constitutionality and expediency of Internal Improve 29; North Carolina, 15; Georgia, 11 ; Tennessee, 15; ments of a National character, and at the same moment Ohio, 21; Louisiana, 5; Mississippi, '4 ; Indiana, 9; negativing the most important bills of this description Illinois, 5'; Alabama, 7, Missouri, 4-Total, 219.
which were presented to him by Congress, the President For Mr. Clay : Massachusetts, 14; Rhode Island, 4; has shown that
he is either a secret enemy to the system, Connecticut, 8 ; Delaware, 3 ; Maryland, 5; Kentucky, or that he is willing to sacrifice the most important na15--Total, 49.
tional objects in a vain attempt to conciliate the conflictFor John Floyd, of Virginia : South Carolina, 11.
ing interests, or rather adverse party feeling and opinions For William Wirt, of Maryland: Vermont, 7.
of different sections of the country. Mr. Van Buren received only 189 votes for the United States Bank, and the necessity and
Objection is taken to Gen. Jackson's war on Vice-President, Pennsylvania, which cast her vote for Jackson, having voted for William usefulness of that institution are argued at conWilkins of that' State for Vice-President. treatment of the Cherokee Indians by the State
siderable length. The outrageous and inhuman John Sergeant, for Vice-President, received the of Georgia, and the failure of the National Adsame vote as Mr. Clay for President. South ministration to protect them in their rights, Carolina voted for Henry Lee of Massachusetts, acquired by treaty with the United States, for Vice-President.
is also the subject of animadversion in the
the Address. NATIONAL REPUBLICAN CONVENTION
A resolve was adopted, recommending to the 1831.
young men of the National Republican Party to
hold a Convention in the city of Washington on The National Republicans met in convention the following May. at Baltimore, Dec. 12, 1831. Seventeen States Such a Convention was accordingly held at and the District of Columbia were represented the Capital on the 11th of May, 1832, over by 157 delegates, who cast a unanimous vote which William Cost Johnson, of Maryland, prefor Henry Clay, of Kentucky, for President, and sided, and at which the following, among other John Sergeant, of Pennsylvania, for Vice-Pre- resolves, were adopted: sident. James Barbour, of Virginia, presided, Resoloed, That an adequate Protection to American and the States represented were : Maine, New. Industry is indispensable to the prosperity of the coun. Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Cou- try; and that an abandonment of the policy at this
period would be attended with consequences ruinous to necticut, Vermont, New York, New Jersey, the best interests of the Nation. Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Resolved, That a uniform system of Internal ImproveNorth Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Obio, ments, sustained and supported by the General GovernLouisiana and Indiana. The Convention adopted harmony, the strength and the permanency of the Re
ment, is calculated to secure, in the highest degree, the no formal platform of principles, but issued an public. Address, mainly devoted to a criticism on the Resolved, that the indiscriminate removal of public Administration of Gen. Jackson, asserting, gross abuse of power; and that the doctrine, lately
officers, for a mere difference of political opinion, is a among other things, that
boldly preached in the United States Senate, that “to the
victors belong the spoils of the vanquished," is detriThe political history of the Union for the last three mental to the interest, corrupting to the morals, and years exhibits a series of measures plainly dictated in all dangerous to the liberties of the people of this countheir principal features by blind cupidity or vindictive try. party spirit, marked throughout by a disregard of good policy, justice, and every high and generous sentiment, and, terminating in a dissolution of the Cabinet under DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION, circumstances more discreditable than any of the kind to be met with in the annals of the civilized world.
1835. The address alludes to the charge of incapa- In May, 1835, a National Convention reprecity and corruption leveled against his imme- senting twenty-one States, assembled at Balti