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“Who hath saved us-according to his own purpose, and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus." (pro chronon aio: sõn, Lat. ante tempora secularia,) before the times of ages, or ancient periods." Titus i. 2, In hope of eternal (ajóniou) life which God, that cannot lie, promised, (pro chronon aiunion before the ancient periods.
Parkhurst' considers these phrases to signify. "the ages of the world, the times sinoe the beginning of its existence.” Should we renıler them as the same words are rendered in other places, tho not in connexion, they would be eternal times.
The most usual Hebrew word which is translated for ever is Lo-volem. The L is barely a prefix, answering to the Greek eis, and the English for. 0-oolem signifies “time indefinite. hiddin or concealed
from man as to its duration or length, ever, perpetual, of old everlasting ages."
Puke's Heb. LEXICON, “Time hidden or concealed from man, as well indefi.
nite und eternal as finile; as well past, as future. It seems to be more frequently used for an inile finile, than foor infinite time.”
PARKHURST's HEB LEXICON. These definitions appear very natural. when we consider that o.ovlem is derived from the verb olem, to hide. It is frequently rendered into English by eternal and everlasting, as well as ever, and answers to both the Greek words aion and nionios. Another Hebrew word, answering to these Greek and English words is on As a particle and noun, it is thus explained: "Unto a place, or until a time : while, as yet ; for ever, eternity. The radical idea seems to be to pass on either to a specified time, or to pass without any limited end, when no period is mentioner)."
PIKE. * The Hebrew scholar will notice that these words are spelt in our letters, without any egal to the Masoretical points. The Hebrew Vau is rendered by 00.
* As a noun, Time onward. futurity, cicrnily io come: Also, Time backward. aforetime. Job xx. 4."
PARKHURST. A third Hebrew worel. not very frequently used, is
As a noun and particle it denotes, “Beyond, onward, enduring, continuing, persevering."
The use and application of these words may he acquired from the following scriptures : Gen sii: 15, “For all the land which thou seest, to thre wiil [ give it, and to thy seed, (OD C-VOLON, Gr.* heÕs aio:0€, Lat. usque ad seculum,) for ever." Exodus sii. 14, “And ye shall keep it a feast, (sicquer 0.00LEM, Gr. nominnon aonion, Lat. statulo seculi or perpetuo,) logy an or:linance for ever." Lev. xvi. 31, . And this shall be, (1.CHEQUCT O-COLCM, Gr. nomimon aiðnion, Lat. in star:lum sccuii.) an everlasting statute unto rou's 'Tlie rearr will here perceive that the translators bive rerdered the Hebrew 0.00Len and the Greek aionios in one passage, for ever, and in another, everlasting, when connected with the same Hebrew an! Greek words in both passages. By this we learn th:ri: opinion, that everlasting expresses continuance of duration, in the same manner as for ever ; aionios as alon; all of which are used to express the meaning of the Hebrew 0-051CM. Lev. 3. 17, “It shall be, (urquet 0-00bcn, Gr. pomimon eis ton aionā.) a per. pitual slulutc for your generations." Here the reader will notice, that 0.00lem is rendered, by the I.XX, eis fon aiona, whereas in the other texts this word in the same connexion is translated aionios. By this, Tre lizni Uiey considereil the meaning of aionios as near like aio.l, as ihe Latin lemporalis is like tcmpus, or the English trmporal like time.
The possession of the land of Canaan, to be, to
* These Greek phrases are taken from the Septuagint, and the Latin from Jontanus' Interlinear Bible.
Abraham and his seed, an everlasting possession, is called 0-00lem, aiõpios, Gen. xvii. 8. xlviii. 8.
The covenant of circumcision is called an everlasting (0-00lem, aionios) covenant, Gen. xvii. 13. 19. But St. Paul says, “In Jesus Christ neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision; bot faith which worketh by love." Gal. v. 6. “As many as desire to make a fair show in the flesh, they constrain you to be circumcised," Gal. vi. 12. Here we find those Hebrew and Greek words limited by scripture.
The priesthood of Aaron and his song is called an everlasting (0-oolem, eis ton aiona priesthood, Ex xl. 15 ; an everlasting (0.00lem, aionios) priesthood, Num. xxv. 13 : but St. Paul says, "For the priesthood be. ing changed, there is made of necessity a change also of the law,” Heb. vii. 12 This affords another scriptural limitation to these original words. The Jews, we find, have as good ground to plead for the endless continuance of circumcision, the priesthood of Aaron and his sons, and all the ordinances and statutes ini the Mosaic law, which were to be for ever and everlasting, as Christians have to plead for endless misery, from the force of the same words.
In Gen. vi. 4, The giants were said to be of olid, Heb. MO.OOLEM, Gr. ap' aionos; yet there is an account of their origin, and it is said they became mighty. To translate these words from eternity, must be very far from their true meaning. The same Hebrew is applied to the nations of the Geshurites, Gezrites and Amalekites, which David and his men invaded, 1Sam. xxvii. 8.
0-00lem is rendered, besides the places beforementioned,
Of old, Deut. xxxii. 7, days of old; Job xx. 4,
ranslations of o.onless in the Old Testament; but ometimes of Od and nezah. Everlasting in the New Testament is always a translation of aiônios ; likewise eternal, except Rom. i. 20, and two other places, mentioned in this No. Ever with for prefixed, is uni-. formiy a translation of aion, except Philemon, 5.
Heb. od, Gr. ton aiona. is translated cternity in Isai. lvii. 15, the only place in which it is, íhus rendered in the Bible. “In Isai. ix. 6, the LXX. (Alex. and Com. plect.) render Astod by pater tou mellontos aionos, father of the fulure age.” Our translation reads, the everlasting father:
The phrase for ever and ever is generally from different combinations of op and 0-00leu, as in the following passages : Isai. xxx. 3, "Now go, write it before them in a table, and vote it in a book, that it may be for the time to come, (LOD OD 0-oolen. Gr. heós eis ton aiona. Lat. in perpetuum usque in seculum,) for ever and ever."?
Jer. vii. 7, Then will I cause you to dwell in the place in the land that I gave to your fatbers, for ever and ever." (lemen .o.oolen oo-op 0-00LEM. Gr. es aionos kai heos aionos, Lat, a seculo et usque in seculum,) literally, from the past age and unto ihe future age. Jer. xxv. 5, Turn ye again pow every one from his evil way, and from the evil of your doings, and dwell in the land that the Lord hath given unto you and to your father (Lemen o-oOLEM 00-0D 0-00Len, Gr. ap' aionos kai heos aionos, Lat. a seculo et usque in seculum, for ever and ever."
“If we were always to read, forever and ever, endless. we should set the scriptures at variance, and no criticism could ever reconcile them. Try, for instance, to reconcile Psalm cii. 25, 28 with Psalm cxlviii. 6, Of old hast thou laid the foundation of the earth : and the heavens are the work of thy bands. They shall perish, but thou shalt endure ; yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment; and as a vesture shall, thou change them, and they shall be changed.
He hath also established them for ever and ever :* he hath made a decree which shall not pass."
WINCHESTER. The passages now produced seem amply sufficient to illustrate the words under consideration. It is evidept the Greek words, in the New Testament, rendered for ever, everlasting, and cternal, has the signification of the same word, in the Old. These words in the Old Testament must bear a meaning agreeable to their corresponding Hebrew words, which are bere given on the authority of eminent lexicographers, and besides the introduction of some ancient translations, they are illustrated by examples. The writer of these remarks is sensible, that he has laid himself open to the severe criticisms of the learned ; but he confesses his fears of the literati on this subject, are much less than his ausiety to open to his brethren, the true nieaning of these indefinite terms. Any corrections from the judicious among them, will be gratefully received and carefully considered. The reader who is unacquainted with the languages, from which he fiods frequent citations in this piece, is requested not to be deterred from a careful perusal, from the confuse ed appearance of so many foreign words ; for by carefully attending to them, he will find them mostly explained. The Hebrew is peculiar in its construction, admitting letters prefixed to a word for prepositions and conjunctions, and postfixed for other uses, Thus, Lo-oolem and MO-OOLem is o-oOLem with L and M prefixed, signifying for and from ; LOD is op with L prefixed; and co-or is op with oo prefixed, signifying and. The single o is pronounced long, like o in tone.
LOD LO COLEM, Gr. eis ton aiona tou aionos.