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SAVING CLAUSE Separability provisions, see note set out under section 851 of this title.

§ 869. Positions exempt from chapter.—Nothing contained in this chapter is intended to apply to any position in or under the legislative or judicial branch of the Government or to any position or appointment which by the Congress is required to be confirmed by, or made with, the advice and consent of the United States Senate: Provided, however, That the provisions of this chapter shall apply to appointments under sections 31a, 31b, and 39a of title 39. (June 27, 1944, ch. 287, § 20, 58 Stat. 391.)

SAVING CLAUSE Separability provisions, see note set out under section 851 of this title.

TITLE 6-OFFICIAL AND PENAL BONDS 2. Examination as to sufficiency of sureties. Every officer required by law to take and approve official bonds shall cause the same to be examined at least once every two years for the purpose of ascertaining the sufficiency of the sureties thereon; and every officer having power to fix the amount of an official bond shall examine it to ascertain the sufficiency of the amount thereof and approve or fix said amount at least once in two years and as much oftener as he may deem it necessary. (Mar. 2, 1895, ch. 177, § 5, 28 Stat. 807.)

8 3. Renewal; continuance of liability.-Every officer whose duty it is to take and approve official bonds shall cause all such bonds to be renewed every four years after their dates, but he may require such bonds to be renewed or strengthened oftener if he deem such action necessary. In the discretion of such officer the requirement of a new bond may be waived for the period of service of a bonded officer after the expiration of a four-year term of service pending the appointment and qualification of his successor. The nonperformance of any requirement of the provisions of sections 1-3 of this title, or of that part of section 27 of Title 19 relating to transmitting copies of oaths to the Secretary of the Treasury, on the part of any official of the Government shall not be held to affect in any respect the liability of prinicpal or sureties on any bond made or to be made to the United States. The liability of the principal and sureties on all official bonds shall continue and cover the period of service ensuing until the appointment and qualification of the successor of the principal. Nothing in said sections shall be construed to repeal or modify section 38 of Title 39: Provided, That the payment and acceptance of the annual premium on corporate surety bonds furnished by postal officers and employees, officers and employees of other civilian agencies of the United States and bonded officers and enlisted men of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard shall be a compliance with the requirement for the renewal of such bonds within the meaning of sections 1-3 of this title. (Mar. 2, 1895, ch. 177, § 5, 28 Stat. 807; Mar. 8, 1928, ch. 148, 45 Stat. 247; Mar. 31, 1944, ch. 148, 58 Stat. 135.)

§ 4. Notice of delinquency of principal.—Whenever any deficiency shall be discovered in the accounts of any official of the United States, or of any officer disbursing or chargeable with public money, it shall be the duty of the accounting officers making such discovery to at once notify the head of the

department having control over the affairs of said officer of the nature and amount of said deficiency, and it shall be the immediate duty of said head of department to at once notify all obligors upon the bond or bonds of such official of the nature of such deficiency and the amount thereof. Said notification shall be deemed sufficient if mailed at the post office in the city of Washington, District of Columbia, addressed to said sureties respectively and directed to the respective post offices where said obligors may reside, if known; but a failure to give or mail such notice shall not discharge the surety or sureties upon such bond. (Aug. 8, 1888, ch. 787, § 1, 25 Stat. 387.)

§ 5. Limitation of actions against sureties.—If, upon the statement of the account of any official of the United States, or of any officer disbursing or chargeable with public money, by the accounting officers, it shall thereby appear that he is indebted to the United States, and suit therefor shall not be instituted within five years after such statement of said account, the sureties on his bond shall not be liable for such indebtedness. (Aug. 8, 1888, ch. 787, § 2, 25 Stat. 387; June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 301, 42 Stat. 23.)

§ 6. Surety companies as sureties.—Whenever any recognizance, stipulation, bond, or undertaking conditioned for the faithful performance of any duty, or for doing or refraining from doing anything in such recognizance, stipulation, bond, or undertaking specified, is by the laws of the United States required or permitted to be given with one surety or with two or more sureties, the execution of the same or the guaranteeing of the performance of the condition thereof shall be sufficient when executed or guaranteed solely by a corporation incorporated under the laws of the United States or of any State having power to guarantee the fidelity of persons holding positions of public or private trust, and to execute and guarantee bonds and undertakings in judicial proceedings. Such recognizance, stipulation, bond, or undertaking shall be approved by the head of department, court, judge, officer, board, or body executive, legislative, or judicial required to approve or accept the same. No officer or person having the approval of any bond shall exact that it shall be furnished by a guaranty company or any particular guranty company. (Aug. 13, 1894, ch. 282, § 1, 28 Stat. 279.)

§ 14. Rate of premium on bond; premiums not to be paid by United States.—Until otherwise provided by law no bond shall be accepted from any surety or bonding company for any officer or employee of the United States which shall cost more than 35 per centum in excess of the rate of premium charged for a like bond during the rate of premium charged for a like bondduring the calendar year 1908. The United States shall not pay any part of the premium or other cost of furnishing a bond required by law or otherwise of any officer or employee of the United States. (Aug. 5, 1909, ch. 7, 36 Stat. 125.)

§ 15. Bonds or notes of United States in lieu of recognizance, stipulation, bond, guaranty, or undertaking ; place of deposit; return to depositor; contractors' bonds.—Wherever by the laws of the United States or regulations made pursuant thereto, any person is required to furnish any recognizance, stipulation, bond, guaranty, or undertaking, hereinafter called "penal bond,” with surety or sureties, such person may, in lieu of such surety or sureties, deposit as security with the official having authority to approve such penal bond, United States Liberty bonds or other bonds or notes of the United States in a sum equal at their par value to the amount of such penal bond required to be furnished, together with an agreement authorizing such official to collect or sell such bonds or notes so deposited in case of any default in the performance of any of the conditions or stipulations of such penal bond. The acceptance of such United States bonds or notes in lieu of surety or sureties required by law shall have the same force and effect as individual or corporate sureties, or certified checks, bank drafts, post-office money orders, or cash, for the penalty or amount of such penal bond. The bonds or notes deposited hereunder, and such other United States bonds or notes as may be substituted therefor from time to time as such security, may be deposited with the Treasurer of the United States, a Federal Reserve bank, or other depositary duly designated for that purpose by the Secretary, which shall issue receipt therefor, describing such bonds or notes so deposited. As soon as security for the performance of such penal bond is no longer necessary, such bonds or notes so deposited shall be returned to the depositor. In case a person or persons supplying a contractor with labor or material as provided by section 270 of Title 40 shall file with the obligee, at any time after a default in the performance of any contract subject to said section 270, the application and affidavit therein provided, the obligee shall not deliver to the obligor the deposited bonds or notes nor any surplus proceeds therof until the expiration of the time limited by said section 270 for the institution of suit by such person or persons, and, in case suit shall be instituted within such time, shall hold said bonds or notes or proceeds subject to the order of the court having jurisdiction thereof. Nothing herein contained shall affect or impair the priority of the claim of the United States against the bonds or notes deposited or any right or remedy granted by said section 270 or by this section to the United States for default upon any obligation of said penal bond. All laws inconsistent with this section are hereby so modified as to conform to the provisions hereof. Nothing contained herein shall affect the authority of courts over the security, where such bonds are taken as security in judicial obligations of the United States and any bonds, notes, or other obligations which are unconditionally guaranteed as to both interest and principal by the United States. (Feb. 24, 1919, ch. 18, § 1320, 40 Stat. 1148; Nov. 23, 1921, ch. 136, § 1329, 42 Stat. 318; June 2, 1924, 4:01 p. m., ch. 234, $$ 2, 1029, 43 Stat. 253, 349; Feb. 26, 1926, ch. 27, $$ 2, 1126, 1200, 44 Stat. 9, 122, 125; Feb. 4, 1935, ch. 5 § 7, 49 Stat. 22.)

Title 7-Agriculture

Chapter 1.--COMMODITY EXCHANGES § 1. Short title of chapter.—This chapter may be cited as the "Commodity Exchange Act." (Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, § 1, 42 Stat. 998; June 15, 1936, ch. 545, § 1, 49 Stat. 1491.)

EFFECTIVE DATE Section 13 of act of June 15, 1936, cited to text, provided that amendment to this section by that act should become effective 90 days after June 15, 1936.

§ 2. Definitions.-For the purposes of this chapter “contract of sale” shall be held to include sales, agreements of sale, and agreements to sell. The word “person” shall be construed to import the plural or singular, and shall include individuals, associations, partnerships, corporations, and trusts. The word “commodity" shall mean wheat, cotton, rice, corn, oats, barley, rye, flaxseed, grain sorghums, mill feeds, butter, eggs, Solanum tuberosum (Irish potatoes), wool tops, fats, and oils (including lard, tallow, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, soybean oil and all other fats and oils), cottonseed meal, cottonseed, peanuts, soybeans and soybean meal. The term "future delivery', as used herein, shall not include any sale of any cash commodity for deferred shipment or delivery. The words "board of trade" shall be held to include and mean any exchange or association, whether incorporated or unincorporated, of persons who shall be engaged in the business of buying or selling commodity or receiving the same for sale on consignment. The words “interstate commerce" shall be construed to mean commerce between any State, Territory, or pospession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof; or between points within the same State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, but through any place outside thereof, or within any Territory or possession, or the District of Columbia. The words "cooperative association of producers” shall mean any cooperative association, corporate or otherwise, not less than 75 per centum in good faith owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by producers of agricultural products and otherwise complying with sections 291 and 292 of this title, as now or hereafter amended, including any organization acting for a group of such associations and owned or controlled by such associations, provided that business done for or with the United States of America, or any agency thereof, shall not be considered either member or nonmember business in determining the compliance of any such association with said section. The words "member of a contract market" shall mean and include individuals, associations, partnerships, corporations, and trusts owning or holding membership in, or admitted to membership representation on, a contract market or given members' trading privileges thereon. The words "futures commission merchant" shall mean and include individuals, associations, partnerships, corporations, and trusts engaged in soliciting or in accepting orders for the purchase or sale of any commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any contract market and that, in or in connection with such solicitation or acceptance of orders, accepts any money, securities, or property (or extends credit in lieu thereof) to margin, guarantee, or secure any trades or contracts that result or may result therefrom. The words "floor broker” shall mean any person who, in or surrounding any "pit," "ring,” “post,” or other place provided by a contract market for the meeting of persons similarly engaged, shall engage in executing for others any order for the purchase or sale of any commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any contract market, and who for such services receives or accepts any commission or other compensation. The words "the commission" shall mean the Commodity Exchange Commission, consisting of the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Attorney General. (Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, § 2, (a), 42 Stat. 998; June 15, 1936, ch. 545; $$ 2, 3, 49 Stat. 1491; April 7, 1938, ch. 108, 52 Stat. 205; Oct. 9, 1940, ch. 786, § 1, 54 Stat. 1059.)

EFFECTIVE DATE See note under section 1 of this title.

§ 3. When transaction deemed in interstate commerce; "State” defined.—For the purposes of this chapter (but not in any wise limiting the definition of interstate commerce in section 2 of this title) a transaction in respect to any article shall be considered to be in interstate commerce if such article is part of that current of commerce usual in the commodity trade whereby commodity and commodity products and by-products thereof are sent from one State, with the expectation that they will end their transit, after purchase, in another, including in addition to cases within the above general description, all cases where purchase or sale is either for shipment to another State, or for manufacture within the State and the shipment outside the State of the products resulting from such manufacture. Articles normally in such current of commerce shall not be considered out of such commerce through resort being had to any means or device intended to remove transactions in respect thereto from the provisions of this chapter. For the purpose of this section the word "State" includes Territory, the District of Columbia, possession of the United States, and foreign nation. (Sept. 21 1922, ch. 369, $ 2 (b), 42 Stat. 998; June 15, 1936, ch. 545, § 2, 49 Stat. 1491.)

EFFECTIVE DATE See note under section 1 of this title. § 4. Liability of principal for act of agent.--For the purpose of this chapter the act, omission, or failure of any official, agent, or other person acting for any individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust within the scope of his employment or office shall be deemed the act, omission, or failure of such individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust, as well as of such official, agent, or other person. (Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, § 2 (a), 42 Stat. 998.)

$ 5. Resolution declaring dangerous tendency of dealings in commodity futures.-Transactions in commodities involving the

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