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ington; and funds should be asked to finance the work of agitation and education which Walsh's committee has begun.

Pamphlets containing the most important parts of the report will be furnished to the central bodies for distribution on Industrial Relations Day. These have been prepared by Basil M. Manly and contain in condensed form the facts that every union man should know. Manly was the author of the Walsh report to Congress and what he wrote in the government report is the result of impartial and scientific investigation. These pamphlets would convince any man or woman not hopelessly prejudiced of the necessity of organizing and acting together. It tells in a nut shell just what is wrong in American industry, just why there is industrial unrest and how it can be removed.

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through bulletins, magazine and newspaper articles to show how and why collective bargaining through strong organizations makes for justice, industrial stability and individual development.

"Second-The maintenance of an organization to urge upon Congress and the state legislatures a definite legislative program designed primarily to remove the obstacles which now prevent effective organization of employes and hamper their negotiations with employers.

"Third-The maintenance of a small staff of experienced investigators to secure the facts regarding labor conditions and industrial disputes, and an effective publicity organization to give the facts the widest possible circulation."

The committee's hope is that labor all over the country will co-operate to clinch the advantage won by the work of the federal commission by aiding the new committee to keep up an aggressive agitation.

on cars what pressure is assumed in the brake cylinder service or emergency application?

Thursday-What is the duty of the slack

adjuster?

Friday-With two brakes in the train, one having 4 and 10 inches, respectively, about what pressure will they equalize at?

Saturday-Under the above conditions (a) which will equalize first? (b) Which will release first?

Series "D," No. 32.

Monday-Does the "K" triple operate any different in emergency than the old triple? Tuesday-How would you distinguish between the slide valve or an emergency valve leaking?

Wednesday-How is the auxiliary reservoir charged when the "K" triple is in full release position?

Thursday-How is the auxiliary reservoir charged when the "K-2" is in retarded release position?

Friday-What effect would a leaky emergency valve have on the operation of the brakes?

Saturday-What position of the triple will a leaky graduating valve effect the brake?

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON PAGES 760 AND 761, DECEMBER ISSUE. Series "D," No. 25.

Monday-Fifty (50) pounds in service. Sixty (60) pounds in emergency with Westinghouse quick action triples.

Tuesday-By making a sudden reduction in train pipe pressure which effects the emergency parts of the triples causing all the triples to operate quick action.

Wednesday-The exhaust slide valve. Thursday-The duties of the slide valve in the N. Y. old style triple are to open and

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release position, and in passenger service, the auxiliary tube is not used.

Thursday-One end of this lever is fastened to the fulcrum bracket, the other end is connected with the live truck lever and the middle to the cylinder lever to which the push rod is connected.

Friday-The same as is used for triple valves, a good grade of mineral oil.

Saturday-The duty of the graduating valve is to graduate the flow of air from the auxiliary to the brake cylinder in service and close the service port on lap.

Series "D," No. 28.

Monday-Because the train pipe, auxiliary and brake cylinder pressure are equal and there is nothing to move the triple back to lap position.

Tuesday-No, it would not interfere with charging, but the brake could not be applied in either service or emergency.

Wednesday-By a lug cast on the top of the triple.

Thursday-In quick service ports "O" and "Q" of the slide valve connects with ports "Y" and "T" in the seat and the cavity in the graduating valve which permits a portion of air from the brake pipe to reach the brake cylinder at the same time auxiliary air is free to flow through port "Z" in the slide valve and port "R" in the seat. In full service position all ports are blanked excepting port "Z" in the slide valve and "R" in the seat which is open full.

Friday-Yes, leaks in brake pipe pressure permit a much heavier reduction being made than was intended by the engineer, therefore stopping the train short of the desired point, causing the engineer to release the brakes while the train is moving slowly causing break-in-twos and damage to equipment.

Saturday-The term "Uniform Re-Charging" means charging all auxiliaries in about the same time.

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LABOR DAY FLOAT AND MEMBERS UNITED FOUR LODGE NO. 218, WICHITA,

KANSAS, LABOR DAY, 1915.

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OBITUARY

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For convenience the following summary

of recommendations contained in the sec-

ond section of this report has been pre-

pared by the Commission:

The second section of the final report of

Director Basil M. Manly, embodying the
findings of fact and conclusions of the

No. 561, Danville, Ill.-Brother G. F. Lane;
died of Bright's disease November 21, 1915.

No. 58, Vancouver, B. C.-Brother Robert
McCracken; died of heart disease December
1, 1915.

No. 161, Pinners, Va.-Brother J. E. Kain,

age 35; died December, 1915.

(Continued From November, 1915, Issue.)

staff of the United States Commission on

Industrial Relations, is here with published.

W

Its principal feature is a vivid portrayal

of living and working conditions that pre-
vail in American industry today. Evidence
is presented at great length in support of
the report's findings to the effect that in-

1.

dustrial unrest is caused by the payment of wages too low to provide a decent standard of living, and in support of the report's further conclusion that this situation is a direct result of the lack of strong labor organizations by which wage earners could force the payment of living wages.

The section made public today also recommends many remedial measures.

Among the recommendations is a strong argument urging equal political rights for women as one of the means by which women in industry may obtain living wages.

Other parts of the report deal with women and children in industry, with conditions of employment in the telephone service, the telegraph service, the Pullman Company, and the railroads.

One of the most striking findings presented concerns the existence of many typical industrial communities that are declared to present every aspect of a state of feudalism, with employers controlling the social and political life and abridging the fundamental rights of citizens.

Past Conditions No Criterion. Discussing the question of whether or not labor conditions in the country's principal industries are satisfactory, the report repudiates the view that these conditions should be judged by comparison with the past. It asserts that conditions should be judged "only by comparing conditions as they actually exist with what knowledge and experience shows that they might easily be made during the immediate future, if proper action were taken to utilize the resources of our nation sufficiently and distribute the products equitably."

"The crux of the question," says the report, "is: have the workers received a fair share of the enormous increase in wealth which has taken place in this country during the past quarter century as a result largely of their labors? The answer is emphatically-No!

"The wealth of the country between 1890 and 1912 increased from 65 to 187 billions, or 188 per cent whereas the aggregate income of wage earners in manufacturing, mining, and transportation has risen between 1889 and 1909 only 95 per cent, from 2,516 millions in 1889 to 4,916 millions in 1909. Furthermore, the wage earners' share of the net product of industry in the case of manufacturers was only 40.2 per cent in 1909, as compared with 44.9 per cent in 1889."

Foreign Conditions Not Pertinent., "Similarly, the attempt to dismiss deplorable labor conditions in the United States by arguments that they are better than in European countries is repugnant. Το say that conditions are better than in Great Britain, for example, is simply to say that somewhat less than one-third of the population are in a state of absolute poverty, for that was the condition reported by the last British Commission. It should be a matter of shame also to boast that the condition of American laborers is better than that of

the laborers in the 'black bread belt' of Germany.

"That they are, as a matter of fact, but little better is proved conclusively by the almost complete cessation of immigration from Germany, England and France. No better proof of the miserable condition of the mass of American workers can be sought than the fact that in recent years laborers in large numbers have come to this country only from Russia, Italy, Austria-Hungary and the backward and impoverished nations of Southern and Eastern Europe.

"With the inexhaustible natural resources of the United States, her tremendous mechanical achievements, and the genius of her people for organization and industry, there can be no natural reason to prevent every able bodied man of our present popu lation from being well fed, well housed, comfortably clothed, and from rearing a family of moderate size in comfort, health and security. How far this ideal is actually achieved is discussed in some detail in the following pages.

"It is evident both from the investigations of this Commission and from the reports of all recent governmental bodies that a large part of our industrial population are, as a result of the combination of low wages and unemployment, living in a condition of actual poverty."

At Least One-third in Poverty. How large this proportion is cannot be exactly determined, but it is certain that at least one-third and possibly one-half of the families of wage earners employed in manufacturing and mining earn in the course of the year less than enough to support them in anything like a comfortable and decent condition. The detailed evidence is presented in a separate report which is submitted for transmittal to Congress. At this point it is sufficient to call attention to the results of the most exhaustive and sweeping official investigation of recent years, that of the Immigration Commission, which reported to Congress in 1909. This investigation secured detailed information regarding the daily or weekly earnings of 619,595 employes of all classes in our basic manufacturing industries and in coal mining, and information regarding income and living conditions for 15,726 families.

"It was found that the annual incomes of almost two-thirds of these families (64 per cent) were less than $750 per year and for almost one-third (31 per cent) were less than $500, the average for all being $721. The average size of these families was 5.6 members. Elaborate studies of the cost of living made in all parts of the country at the same time have shown that the very least that a family of five persons can live upon in anything approaching decency is $700. It is probable that owing to the fact that the families investigated by the Immigration Commission were, to a large extent, foreign born, the incomes are lower than for the average of the entire working population; nevertheless, even when every al

lowance is made for that fact, the figures show conclusively that between one-half and two-thirds of these families were living below the standards of decent subsistence, while about one-third were living in a state which can be described only as abject poverty.

"American society was founded and for a long period existed upon the theory that the family should derive its support from the earnings of the fathers. How far we have departed from this condition is shown by the fact that 78 per cent of the fathers of these families earned less than $700 per year. In brief, only one-fourth of these fathers could have supported their families on the barest subsistence level without the earnings of the other members of the family or income from outside sources.

"Other facts collected in this investigation show conclusively that a very large proportion of these families did not live in decency and comfort. Thirty per cent kept boarders and lodgers, a condition repugnant to every ideal of American family life, especially in the crowded tenements or tiny cottages in which the wage earners of America characteristically live. Furthermore, in 77 per cent of the families 2 or more persons occupied each sleeping room, in 37 per cent 3 or more persons, and in 15 per cent 4 or more persons." Pauper Burials.

"The most striking evidence of poverty is the proportion of pauper burials. The repugnance of all classes of wage earners of all races to pauper burial is such that everything will be sacrificed and heavy debts incurred rather than permit any member of the family to lie in the 'potters' field;' nevertheless in New York City one out of every twelve corpses is buried at the expense of the city or turned over to physicians for dissection.

"The terrible effects of such poverty may be outlined in a few paragraphs, but their far-reaching consequences could not be adequately shown in a volume.

"Children are the basis of the state; as they live or die, as they thrive or are illnourished, as they are intelligent or ignorant, so fares the state. How do the children of American workers fare?

"It has been proved by studies here and abroad that there is a direct relation between poverty and the death rate of babies; but the frightful rate at which poverty kills was not known, at least for this country, until last year, when through a study made by the Federal Children's Bureau in Johnstown, Pa., it was shown that the babies whose fathers earned less than $10 per week died during the first year at the appalling rate of 256 per 1,000. On the other hand, those whose fathers earned $25 per week or more died at the rate of only 84 per 1,000. The babies of the poor died three times as fast as those who were in fairly well-to-do-families. The tremendous significance of these figures will be appreciated when it is known that one-third of

all the adult workmen reported by the Immigration Commission earned less than $10 per week. On the showing of Johnstown these workmen may expect one out of four of their babies to die during the first year of life."

Children Go Hungry.

"The last of the family to go hungry are the children, yet statistics show that in six of our largest cities from 12 to 20 per cent of the children are noticeably underfed and ill-nourished.

"The minimum amount of education which any child should receive is certainly the grammar school course, yet statistics show that only one-third of the children in our public schools complete the grammar school course, and only 10 per cent finish high school. Those who leave are almost entirely the children of the workers, who, as soon as they reach working age, are thrown, immature, ill-trained and with no practical knowledge, into the complexities of industrial life. In four industrial towns studied by the Bureau of Labor Statistics 75 per cent of the children quit school before reaching the seventh grade.

"The great seriousness of this condition is even more acutely realized when it is known that in the families of the workers 37 per cent of the mothers are at work and consequently unable to give the children more than scant attention. Of these mothers 30 per cent keep boarders and lodgers and 7 per cent work outside the home.

"As a picture of American industry, this presentation is undeniably gloomy and depressing, but as a diagnosis of what is wrong with American labor conditions it is true and exact. There are of course many bright spots in American industry, where work. men are well paid and regularly employed under good working conditions in the determination of which they have some share. But, even as the physician pays little attention to the good eyes and sound teeth of a patient whose vital organs are diseased, so impressive is the need for attention to the diseased spots in industry, it is felt unnecessary to waste time in word pictures of conditions which are all right or which may be depended upon to right themselves."

Farm Workers Also.

"In agriculture, there is no array of exact figures which can be quoted to show the condition of labor. But, speaking generally, the available evidence indicates clearly that while in some sections agricultural laborers are well paid and fairly treated, the condition of the mass is very much like that of the industrial workers.

"Moreover, there is a peculiar condition in agriculture, which merits a brief but strong statement at this point as a preface to a more detailed discussion later. The most alarming fact in American agriculture is the rapid growth of tenancy. In 1910 there were 37 tenant-operated farms out of each 100 farms in the United States as compared with 28 in 1890, an increase of 32 per cent

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