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Words “appointive office, or place," were omitted in three places. This phrase was impliedly repealed by the expression “appointive office" appearing in sections 214 and 215 of this title as originally enacted in 1926. Section 4 of act Dec. 11, 1926, ch. 3, 44 Stat. 918, repealed all inconsistent provisions. This view is further strengthened by the act that since 1926 prosecutions have been instituted under sections 214 and 215 of this title rather than under this section. (See Love v. United States, C. C. A. Cal. 1935, 74 F. 2d 988, and Hoeppel v. United States, App. D. C. 1936, 85 F. 2d 237, certiorari denied, 57 S. Ct. 123, 299 U. S. 540, 81 L. ed. 420.)

Word "agency” was inserted to avoid ambiguity as to scope of section. (See definition of department and agency in section 6 of this title.)

Word "employee" was inserted after “oficer" also for the purpose of clarifying scope of section.

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative. (See reviser's note under sec. 201 of this title.). Changes in phraseology were also made.

CROSS REFERENCES Contracts by member of Congress, see section 431 of this title.

Disqualification from holding any office of honor, trust, or profit, additional grounds for, see sections 202, 205, 206, 207, 281, 282, 592, 593, 1901, 2071, 2381, 2385, 2387 of this title.

Reindictment as affected by limitations, see sections 3288 and 3289 of this title.

Term “or place" was inserted after words "appointive otice" in order to give broader scope to the section and also to follow the phraseology used in similar provisions of section 202 of title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., now section 216 of this title. (See section 216 of this title and reviser's note under it. See also 46 Corpus Juris 924, where it is explained that the word "places" is used in a less technical sense than the word "offices".)

The punishment provision, added at the end of this section and section 215 of this title to secure uniformity of style throughout this chapter, was originally enacted as a separate section, incorporating the other two by reference. $ 215. Acceptance or solicitation to obtain appointive

public office. Whoever solicits or receives, either as a political contribution, or for personal emolument, any money or thing of value, in consideration of the promise of support or use of influence in obtaining for any person any appointive office or place under the United States, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

Whoever solicits or receives any thing of value in consideration of aiding a person to obtain employment under the United States either by referring his name to an executive department or agency of the United States or by requiring the payment of a fee because such person has secured such employment shall be fined not more than $1,000, or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. This section shall not apply to such services rendered by an employment agency pursuant to the written request of an executive department or agency of the United States. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 694; Sept. 13, 1951, ch. 380, 65 Stat. 319.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $$150 and 151 (Dec. 11, 1926, ch. 3, $$ 2, 3, 44 Stat. 918).

Same changes of style and substance were made in this section as in section 214 of this title. (See reviser's note thereunder.)

AMENDMENTS 1951—Act Sept. 13, 1951, amended section by adding second paragraph. 8 216. Procurement of contract by officer or Member

of Congress. Whoever, being a Member of or Delegate to Congress, or a Resident Commissioner, either before or after he has qualified, or being an officer, employee, or agent of the United States, directly or indirectly takes, receives, or agrees to receive, any money or thing of value, for giving, procuring or aiding to procure to or for any person, any contract from the United States or from any officer, department or agency thereof; or

Whoever, directly or indirectly, offers, gives, or agrees to give any money or thing of value for procuring or aiding to procure, any such contract

Shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both; and be disqualified from holding any office of honor, profit, or trust under the United States.

The President may declare void any such contract or agreement. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 694.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $ 202 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 112, 35 Stat. 1108).

8217. Offer of loan or gratuity to bank examiner.

Whoever, being an officer, director or employee of a bank which is a member of the Federal Reserve System or the deposits of which are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or of any National Agricultural Credit Corporation, or of any land bank, national farm loan association or other institution subject to examination by a farm credit examiner, makes or grants any loan or gratuity, to any examiner or assistant examiner who examines or has authority to examine such bank, corporation, or institution, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both; and may be fined a further sum equal to the money so loaned or gratuity given.

The provisions of this section and section 218 of this title shall apply to all public examiners and assistant examiners who examine member banks of the Federal Reserve System or insured banks, or National Agricultural Credit Corporations, whether appointed by the Comptroller of the Currency, by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, by a Federal Reserve Agent, by a Federal Reserve bank or by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or appointed or elected under the laws of any state; but shall not apply to private examiners or assistant examiners employed only by a clearinghouse association or by the directors of a bank. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 694.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on sections 593 and 1245 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking (Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, § 22, 38 Stat. 272; Sept. 26, 1918, ch. 177, § 5, 40 Stat. 970; Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 252, title II, $ 209 (e), 42 Stat. 1468; Feb. 25, 1927, ch. 191, § 15, 44 Stat. 1232; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, § 326 (a), 49 Stat. 715).

Section 593 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, was divided into three sections: this section and sections 218 and 655 of this title.

Words "shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and" were omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of misdemeanor in section 1 of this title,

This section was expanded to include "National Agricultural Credit Corporations" by including this term in each paragraph, upon authority of section 1245 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking.

No penalty was provided for offering a bribe to farm credit examiners. The words “or of any land bank, national farm loan association, or other institution subject to examination by a farm credit examiner," were added upon the authority of section 952 of said title 12.

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of "principal” in section 2 of this title. Changes in phraseology were also made.

EXCEPTION AS TO TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS Functions vested by any provision of law in the Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, were not included in the transfer of functions of officers, agencies and employees of the Department of the Treasury to the Secretary of the Treasury, made by 1950 Reorg. Plan No. 26, § 1, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F. R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, set out in note under section 241 of Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees.

CROSS REFERENCES Civil Ilability of officers or directors of member banks of the Federal Reserve System, for violating or permitting violation of this section, see section 503 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Other provisions of said sections 593, 962, 981, 1124, 1243 and 1314 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 217, 655, 1014, 1908, and 1909 of this title.

CROSS REFERENCES Civil liability of officers or directors of member banks of the Federal Reserve System, for violating or permitting violation of this section, see section 503 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Examiners to which this section applies, see section 217 of this title.

Secret Service, detection, arrest and delivery into custody of any person violating this section in so far as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Federal land banks, joint-stock land banks, and national farm loan associations are concerned, see section 3056 of this title.

8 218. Acceptance of loan or gratuity by bank examiner.

Whoever, being an examiner or assistant examiner of member banks of the Federal Reserve System or banks the deposits of which are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or a farm credit examiner or examiner of National Agricultural Credit Corporations, accepts a loan or gratuity from any bank, corporation, association or organization examined by him or from any person connected therewith, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both; and may be fined a further sum equal to the money so loaned or gratuity given, and shall be disqualified from holding office as such examiner. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 695.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on sections 593, 952, 981, 1124, 1243, 1314 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking (Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, § 22, 38 Stat. 272; July 17, 1916, ch. 245, $ $ 28, 31, 39 Stat. 381, 382, and $ 211 (d) as added Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 252, $ 2, 42 Stat. 1460; Sept. 26, 1918, ch. 177, 95, 40 Stat. 970; Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 252, title II, $ 209 (e), 216 (d), 42 Stat. 1468, 1471; Feb. 25, 1927, ch. 191, § 15, 44 Stat. 1232; Ex. Ord. No. 6084, Mar. 27, 1933; June 16, 1933, ch. 98, $ 80 (a), 48 Stat. 273; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, § 326 (a), 49 Stat. 715; Aug. 19, 1937, ch, 704, $ 20, 50 Stat. 710).

This section is derived primarily from second paragraph of section 593 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, and consolidates provisions from sections 952, 981, 1124, 1243, and 1314 of said title 12.

Words "shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor" were omitted in view of definition of misdemeanor in section 1 of this title. (See also reviser's note under section 212 of this title.)

The bribery provisions of such sections were alike and indeed were patterned after section 593 of said title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, incorporated in this section and section 217 of this title. Therefore, and in the light of sections 952 and 1243 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, this section was written as a consolidated section without change of substance or effect and with only such changes of phraseology as were necessary to effect the consolidation and secure uniformity of style.

8 219. Offer for procurement of Federal Reserve bank

loan and discount of commercial paper. Whoever stipulates for or gives or receives, or consents or agrees to give or receive, any fee, commission, bonus, or thing of value for procuring or endeavoring to procure from any Federal Reserve bank any advance, loan, or extension of credit or discount or purchase of any obligation or commitment with respect thereto, either directly from such Federal Reserve bank or indirectly through any financing institution, unless such fee, commission, bonus, or thing of value and all material facts with respect to the arrangement or understanding therefor shall be disclosed in writing in the application or request for such advance, loan, extension of credit, discount, purchase, or commitment, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 695.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note. Based on section 599 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking (Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6. $ 22 (k), as added by act June 19, 1934, ch. 653, § 3, 48 Stat. 1108).

Final sentence of said section 599, imposing civil llability on violators, was omitted as unnecessary, being merely a declaration of that rule of common law which in the absence of statute fixes civil liability on the wrongdoer.

Minor changes were made in phraseology. 8220. Receipt of commissions or gifts for procuring

loans. Whoever, being an officer, director, employee, agent, or attorney of any bank, the deposits Of which are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, of a Federal intermediate credit bank, or of a National Agricultural Credit Corporation, except as provided by law, stipulates for or receives or consents or agrees to receive any fee, commission, gift, or thing of value, from any person, firm, or corporation, for procuring or endeavoring to procure for such person, firm, or corporation, or for any other person, firm, or corporation, from any such bank or corporation, any loan or extension or renewal of loan or substitution of security, or the purchase or discount or acceptance of any paper, note, draft, check, or bill of exchange by any such bank or corporation, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than one year or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 695; Sept. 21, 1950, ch. 967, § 4, 64 Stat, 894.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on sections 595, 1125, and 1815 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking (Dec. information by examiners, was separated and transferred to the chapter "Public Oficers and Employees" in this title, where it was consolidated with similar provisions taken from section 1124 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, to constitute section 1907 of this title, the punishment provisions of both sections, insofar as relating to such disclosure, being identical.

CROSS REFERENCES Secret service, detection, arrest, and delivery into custody of any person violating this section, see section 3056 of this title.

23, 1913, ch. 6, § 22, first sentence of second paragraph, 38 Stat. 272; July 17, 1916, ch. 245, $ 211 (e), as added Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 252, § 2, 42 Stat. 1460; June 21, 1917, ch. 32, $ 11, 40 Stat, 240; Sept. 26, 1918, ch. 177, § 5, part 22 (c), 40 Stat. 970; Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 252, title II, § 216 (e), 42 Stat. 1472).

The punishment provisions of the three sections were identical, and all other provisions thereof were similar, except that section 595 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, relating to officers, directors, employees, or attorneys of member banks of the Federal Reserve System, did not include the terms "agent" and "acceptance" and did not include the phrase "or extension or renewal of loan or substitution of security".

Words "shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor" were omitted because of definition of misdemeanor in section 1 of this title. (See also reviser's note under section 212 of this title.)

Words "and upon conviction" and "and shall upon conviction thereof” were omitted as surplusage because punishment cannot be imposed until after conviction. Verbal changes were made for style purposes.

AMENDMENTS 1950—Act Sept. 21, 1950, amended section to prohibit any officer, director, or employee of, or attorney or agent for, an insured bank from receiving fees or gifts for procuring loans.

CROSS REFERENCES Civil liability of officers or directors of member banks of the Federal Reserve System, for violating or permitting violation of this section, see section 503 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

$221. Receipt or charge of commissions or gifts for

farm loan or land bank transactions. Whoever, being an officer, director, attorney, or employee of a national farm loan association, a Federal land bank, or a joint-stock land bank, organized or acting under authority of any law of the United States, is a beneficiary of or receives, directly or indirectly, any fee, commission, gift, or other consideration for or in connection with any transaction or business of such association or bank, other than the usual salary or director's fee paid to such oficer,

$ 222. Acceptance of consideration for adjustment of

farm indebtedness. Whoever, being an officer or employee of, or person acting for the United States or any agency thereof, accepts any fee, commission, gift, or other consideration in connection with the compromise, adjustment, or cancellation of any farm indebtedness as provided by sections 1150, 1150a, and 1150b of Title 12, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 696.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note. Based on section 1150c (b) of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking (Dec. 20, 1944, ch. 623, 84 (b), 58 Stat. 837).

Words "upon conviction thereof" were omitted as surplusage, since punishment cannot be imposed until after conviction,

Other changes were made in phraseology without change of substance. 8 223. Home Owners' Loan Corporation transactions.

Whoever, whether a person, partnership, association, or corporation, directly or indirectly solicits, contracts for, charges, or receives, or attempts to solicit, contract for, charge, or receive, from any person applying to the Home Owners' Loan Corporation for a loan. (1) any fee, charge, or other consideration, whether bond or cash, except ordinary fees authorized and required by the said Corporation for services actually rendered for examination and perfection of title, appraisal, and like necessary services, or (2) any moneys, check, note, or other form of obligation, representing payment of any difference which may exist between the market value and the par value of the bonds of the Home Owners' Loan Corporation, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 696.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on section 1467 (e) of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking (June 13, 1933, ch. 64, $8 (e), 48 Stat. 135; Apr. 27, 1934, ch. 168, § 12, 48 Stat. 647; May 28, 1935, ch. 150, $ 21, 49 Stat. 298).

Minor changes were made in phraseology and words "upon conviction thereof" which preceded the punishment provisions, were omitted as surplusage, because punishment cannot be imposed until after conviction.

REFERENCES IN TEXT Home Owners' Loan Corporation, referred to in the text, is in the process of liquidation.

Chapter 13.-CIVIL RIGHTS Sec. 241. Conspiracy against rights of citizens. 242. Deprivation of rights under color of law. 243. Exclusion of jurors on account of race or color. 244. Discrimination against person wearing uniform of

armed forces.

paid by such association or bank to such oficer, director, attorney, or employee for services rendered, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

Whoever causes or procures any Federal land bank, joint-stock land bank or national farm loan association, organized under any Act of Congress, to charge or receive any fee, commission, bonus, gift, or other consideration not specifically authorized, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 695.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on section 983 of title 12, U.S.O., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking (July 17, 1916, ch. 245, § 31, 39 Stat. 382).

Section was formed from the first, second, and fourth sentences of said section 983 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking. No change was made other than the usual verbal changes for style purposes, and some transposition of phrases incident to separation and consolidation of these particular sentences.

Words "organized or acting under authority of any law of the United States" were substituted for “organized under this chapter" because of the transfer.

The third sentence of said section 983 of title 12, U.S. C. 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, relating to disclosure of

§ 241. Conspiracy against rights of citizens.

If two or more persons conspire to injure, oppress, threaten, or intimidate any citizen in the free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege secured to him by the Constitution or laws of the United States, or because of his having so exercised the same; or

If two or more persons go in disguise on the highway, or on the premises of another, with intent to prevent or hinder his free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege so secured

They shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 696.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note. Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $ 51 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 19, 35 Stat. 1092).

Clause making conspirator ineligible to hold office was omitted as incongruous because it attaches ineligibility to hold office to a person who may be a private citizen and who was convicted of conspiracy to violate a specific statute. There seems to be no reason for imposing such a penalty in the case of one individual crime, in view of the fact that other crimes do not carry such a severe consequence. The experience of the Department of Justice is that this unusual penalty has been an obstacle to successful prosecutions for violations of the act.

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative. (See reviser's note under section 201 of this title.) Minor changes in phraseology were made.

CROSS REFERENCES Action for neglect to prevent, see section 48 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Conspiracy to commit offense or to defraud United States, see section 371 of this title.

Conspiracy to interfere with civil rights, see section 47 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Proceedings in vindication of civil rights, see section 49a of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

for service as grand or petit juror in any court of the United States, or of any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude; and whoever, being an officer or other person charged with any duty in the selection or summoning of jurors, excludes or fails to summon any citizen for such cause, shall be fined not more than $5,000. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 696.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on section 44 of title 8, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Aliens and Nationality (Mar. 1, 1875, ch. 114, $4, 18 Stat. 336).

Words "be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and" were deleted as unnecessary in view of definition of misdemeanor in section 1 of this title. (See reviser's note under sec. 212 of this title.)

Words "on conviction thereof” were omitted as unnecessary, since punishment follows only after conviction.

Minimum punishment provisions were omitted. (See reviser's note under section 203 of this title.) Minor changes in phraseology were made.

CROSS REFERENCES Bribery and graft

Acceptance or solicitation by Judicial officer, see section 208 of this title.

Bribes to judicial officers, see section 206 of this title. Civil rights generally, see section 41 et seq. of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Exclusion or excuse from jury service, see section 1863 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Grand jurors, number of and summoning additional jurors, see section 3321 of this title.

Juries generally, see section 1861 et seq. of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Manner of drawing jurors, see section 1864 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Qualifications of jurors, see section 1861 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Summoning jurors, see section 1867 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE Jurors, see rule 47, following section 2071 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

FEDERAL RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE Grand jury, see rule 6, following section 3771 of this title

Trial jurors, see rule 24. $ 244. Discrimination against person wearing uniform

of armed forces. Whoever, being a proprietor, manager, or employee of a theater or other public place of entertainment or amusement in the District of Columbia, or in any Territory, or Possession of the United States, causes any person wearing the uniform of any of the armed forces of the United States to be discriminated against because of that uniform, shall be fined not more than $500. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 8 1. 62 Stat. 697; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, § 5, 63 Stat. 90.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $ 523 (Mar. 1, 1911, ch. 187, 36 Stat. 963; Aug. 24, 1912, ch. 387, § 1, 37 Stat. 512; Jan. 28, 1915, ch. 20, § 1, 38 Stat. 800).

Words "guilty of a misdemeanor", following "shall be", were omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of "misdemeanor" in section 1 of this title. (See reviser's note under section 212 of this title.)

Changes were made in phraseology.

§ 242. Deprivation of rights under color of law.

Whoever, under color of any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, or custom, willfully subjects any inhabitant of any State, Territory, or District to the deprivation of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States, or to different punishments, pains, or penalties, on account of such inhabitant being an alien, or by reason of his color, or race, than are prescribed for the punishment of citizens, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 696.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note. Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $ 52 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 20, 35 Stat, 1092).

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of "principal” in section 2 of this title. A minor change was made in phraseology.

CROSS REFERENCES Civil action for deprivation of rights, see section 43 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Equal rights under the law, see section 41 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Proceedings in vindication of civil rights, see section 49a of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. § 243. Exclusion of jurors on account of race or color.

No citizen possessing all other qualifications which are or may be prescribed by law shall be disqualified

AMENDMENTS 1949—Act May 24, 1949, amended section by substituting "any of the armed forces of the United States” in lieu of the enumeration of the specific branches.

CROSS REFERENCES Uniforms, wearing without authority, see section 702 of this title.

Chapter 15.-CLAIMS AND SERVICES IN MATTERS

AFFECTING GOVERNMENT Sec. 281. Compensation to Members of Congress, Officers, and

others in matters affecting the Government. 282. Practice in Court of Claims by Members of Congress. 283. Officers or employees interested in claims against

the Government. 284. Disqualification of former officers and employees in

matters connected with former duties. 285. Taking or using papers relating to claims. 286. Conspiracy to defraud the Government with re

spect to claims. 287. False, fictitious or fraudulent claims. 288. False claims for postal losses. 289. False claims for pensions. 290. Discharge papers withheld by claim agent. 291. Purchase of claims for fees by court officials.

8 281. Compensation to Members of Congress, officers

and others in matters affecting the Government. Whoever, being a Member of or Delegate to Congress, or a Resident Commissioner, either before or after he has qualified, or the head of a department, or other officer or employee of the United States or any department or agency thereof, directly or indirectly receives or agrees to receive, any compensation for any services rendered or to be rendered, either by himself or another, in relation to any proceeding, contract, claim, controversy, charge, accusation, arrest, or other matter in which the United States is a party or directly or indirectly interested, before any department, agency, court martial, officer, or any civil, military, or naval commission, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both; and shall be incapable of holding any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States.

Retired officers of the armed forces of the United States, while not on active duty, shall not by reason of their status as such be subject to the provisions of this section. Nothing herein shall be construed to allow any retired officer to represent any person in the sale of anything to the Government through the department in whose service he holds a retired status.

This section shall not apply to any person because of his membership in the National Guard of the District of Columbia nor to any person specially excepted by Act of Congress. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 697; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, § 6, 63 Stat. 90.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $ 203 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 113, 85 Stat. 1109; Oct. 8, 1940, ch. 762, 54 Stat. 1021).

Words "or any department or agency thereof" were inserted and word "agency" was substituted for "bureau" to clarify scope of section. (See definition of "department" and "agency” in section 6 of this title.)

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative. (See reviser's note under section 201 of this title.)

Last paragraph was added to this section since the same reason which made it appropriate in section 283 of this title is equally applicable here. (See reviser's note under section 283 of this title.) Changes were made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS 1949—Act May 24, 1949, amended section by substituting “armed forces" for “Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard" in the second par.

CROSS REFERENCES Bribery and graft,

Acceptance by Member of Congress, see section 205 of this title.

Acceptance or solicitation by officer of other person, see section 202 of this title.

Officer to Member of Congress, see section 204 of this title.

Offer to officer or other person, see section 201 of this title.

Procurement of contract by officer or Member of Congress, see section 216 of this title. Compensation of government officials and employees, penalty for receiving from source other than government, see section 1914 of this title.

Disqualification from holding any office of honor, trust, or profit, additional grounds for, see sectiuns 202, 205, 206, 207, 216, 282, 592, 593, 1901, 2071, 2381, 2385, 2387 of this title.

Extortion by government officers or employees, see section 872 of this title.

Lobbying with appropriated moneys, see section 1913 of this title.

Political contributions, solicitation of, see section 602 of this title.

Renegotiation of contracts, persons authorized to prosecute claims, see section 1191 (1) of Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense. $282. Practice in Court of Claims by Members of

Congress. Whoever, being a Member of or Delegate to Congress, or a Resident Commissioner, either before or after he has qualified, practices in the Court of Claims, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both; and shall be incapable of holding any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 697.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on section 249 of title 28, U. 8. C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, $ 144, 36 Stat. 1136).

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative. (See reviser's note under section 201 of this title.) Changes in phraseology were made.

CROSS REFERENCES Disqualification from holding any office of honor, trust, or profit, additional grounds for, see sections 202, 205, 206, 207, 216, 281, 592, 593, 1901, 2071, 2381, 2385, 2387 of this title. $ 283. Officers or employees interested in claims

against the Government. Whoever, being an oficer or employee of the United States or any department or agency thereof, or of the Senate or House of Representatives, acts as an agent or attorney for prosecuting any claim against the United States, or aids or assists in the prosecution or support of any such claim otherwise than in the proper discharge of his official duties, or receives any gratuity, or any share of or interest in any such claim in consideration of assistance in the prosecution of such claim, shall be fined not

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