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His victories

ceeded Gallienus had already restored in the Roman camps. The ministers of the Great King trembled and retired.

The threats of Carus were not without effect. He ravaged Mesopotamia, cut in pieces whatever opposed his passage, made himself master of the great cities of Seleucia and Ctesiphon and extraor

dinary death. (which seem to have surrendered without resistance), and carried his victorious arms beyond the Tigris.74 He had seized the favourable moment for an invasion. The Persian councils were distracted by domestic factions, and the greater part of their forces were detained on the frontiers of India. Rome and the East received with transport the news of such important advantages. Flattery and hope painted in the most lively colours the fall of Persia, the conquest of Arabia, the submission of Egypt, and a lasting deliverance from the inroads of the Scythian nations." But the reign of Carus was destined to expose the vanity of predictions. They were scarcely uttered before they were contradicted by his death ; an event attended 10. 283. with such anbiguous circumstances that it may be related Dec. 25, in a letter from his own secretary to the præfect of the city. “ Carus," says he, “our dearest emperor, was confined by sickness to “ his bed, when a furious tempest arose in the camp. The darkness “ which overspread the sky was so thick that we could no longer dis“ tinguish each other; and the incessant flashes of lightning took “ from us the knowledge of all that passed in the general confusion. “ Immediately after the most violent clap of thunder we heard a “ sudden cry that the emperor was dead ; and it soon appeared that “ his chamberlains, in a rage of grief, had set fire to the royal “ pavilion, a circumstance which gave rise to the report that Carus “ was killed by lightning. But, as far as we have been able to

** Vopiscus in Hist. August. p. 250. [Vopisc. Carus, c. 8.) Eutropius, ix. 18 [12]. The two Victors.

75 To the Persian victory of Carus, I refer the dialogue of the Philopatris, which has so long been an object of dispute among the learned. But to explain and justify my opinion would require a dissertation."

• Niebuhr, in the new edition of the prevalent. The argument, adopted from Byzantine Historians (vol. xi.), has boldly Solanus, concerning the formula of tho assigned the Philopatris to the tenth cen procession of the Holy Ghost, is utterly tury, and to the reign of Nicephorus Pho- worthless, as it is a mere quotation in the car. An opinion so decisively pronounced words of the Gospel of St. John, xv. 26. by Niebuhr, and favourably received by The only argument of any value is the Hase, the learned editor of Leo Diaconus, historic one, from the allusion to the recent commands respectful consideration. But violation of many virgins in the island of the whole tone of the work appears to me Crete. But neither is the language of Nio. altogether inconsistent with any period in buhr quite accurate, nor his reference to which philosophy did not stand, as it were, the Acroases of Theodosius satisfactory. on some ground of equality with Chris. When then could this occurrence take tianity. The doctrine of the Trinity is place? Why not in the devastation of the srcastically introduced rather as the island by the Gothic pirates, during the strange doctrine of a new religion than reign of Claudius ? Trebell. Pollio, Claud. the established tenet of a faith universally c. 12.

ACCESSION OF CARINUS AND NUMERIAN.

CLAP. XII.

He is suc

his two sons,

Xumerian,

“ investigate the truth, his death was the natural effect of his “ disorder." 76 The vacancy of the throne was not productive of any disturbance

The ambition of the aspiring generals was checked by their ceeded by mutual fears; and young Numerian, with his absent broCarinns and ther Carinus, were unanimously acknowledged as Roman

de emperors. The public expected that the successor of Carus would pursue his father's footsteps, and, without allowing the Persians to recover from their consternation, would advance sword in hand to the palaces of Susa and Ecbatana. 77 But the legions, however strong in numbers and discipline, were dismayed by the most abject superstition. Notwithstanding all the arts that were practised to disguise the manner of the late emperor's death, it was found impossible to remove the opinion of the multitude, and the power of opinion is irresistible. Places or persons struck with lightning were considered by the ancients with pious horror, as singularly devoted to the wrath of Heaven, 78 An oracle was remembered which marked the river Tigris as the fatal boundary of the Roman arms. The troops, terrified with the fate of Carus and with their own danger, called aloud on young Numerian to obey the will of the gods, and to lead them away from this inauspicious scene of war. The feeble emperor was unable to subdue their obstinate prejudice, and the Persians wondered at the unexpected retreat of a victorious enemy.79

The intelligence of the mysterious fate of the late emperor was A.D. 284. soon carried from the frontiers of Persia to Rome; and the Carinus. senate, as well as the provinces, congratulated the accession of the sons of Carus. These fortunate youths were strangers, however, to that conscious superiority, either of birth or of merit, which can alone render the possession of a throne easy, and as it were natural. Born and educated in a private station, the election of their father raised them at once to the rank of princes; and his death, which happened about sixteen months afterwards, left them the unexpected legacy of a vast empire. To sustain with temper this rapid elevation, an uncommon share of virtue and prudence was requisite; and Carinus, the elder of the brothers, was more than commonly deficient in those qualities. In the Gallic war he discovered some degree of personal courage ;80 but from the moment of

Vices of

76 Hist. August. p. 250. (Vopisc. Carus, c. 8.) Yet Eutropius, Festus, Rufus, the two Victors, Jerome, Sidonius Apollinaris, Syncellus, and Zonaras, all ascribe the death of Carus to lightning.

77 See Nemesian. Cynegeticon, v. 71, &e. 78 See Festus and his commentators, on the word Scribonianum. Places struck by lightning were surrounded with a wall; things were buried with mysterious ceremony.

79 Vopiscus in Hist. August. p. 250. [Carus, c. 9.] Aurelius Victor seems to beta lieve the prediction, and to approve the retreat.

Nemesian. Cynegeticon, v. 69. He was a contemporary, but a poet.

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his arrival at Rome he abandoned himself to the luxury of the capital, and to the abuse of his fortune. He was soft, yet cruel; devoted to pleasure, but destitute of taste; and, though exquisitely susceptible of vanity, indifferent to the public esteem. In the course of a few months he successively married and divorced nine wives, most of whom he left pregnant; and, notwithstanding this legal inconstancy, found time to indulge such a variety of irregular appetites as brought dishonour on himself and on the noblest houses of Rome. He beheld with inveterate hatred all those who might remember his former obscurity, or censure his present conduct. He banished or put to death the friends and counsellors whom his father had placed about him to guide his inexperienced youth ; and he persecuted with the meanest revenge his schoolfellows and companions who had not sufficiently respected the latent majesty of the emperor. With the senators Carinus affected a lofty and regal demeanour, frequently declaring that he designed to distribute their estates among the populace of Rome. From the dregs of that populace he selected his favourites, and even his ministers. The palace, and even the Imperial table, was filled with singers, dancers, prostitutes, and all the various retinue of vice and folly. One of his doorkeepers81 he intrusted with the government of the city. In the room of the Prætorian præfect, whom he put to death, Carinus substituted one of the ministers of his looser pleasures. Another, who possessed the same or even a more infamoue title to favour, was invested with the consulship. A confidentia. secretary, who had acquired uncommon skill in the art of forgery, delivered the indolent emperor, with his own consent, from the irksome duty of signing his name.

When the emperor Carus undertook the Persian war, he was induced, by motives of affection as well as policy, to secure the fortunes of his family by leaving in the hands of his eldest son the armies and provinces of the West. The intelligence which he soon received of the conduct of Carinus filled him with shame and regret; nor had he concealed his resolution of satisfying the republic by a severe act of justice, and of adopting, in the place of an unworthy son, the brave and virtuous Constantius, who at that time was governor of Dalmatia. But the elevation of Constantius was for a while deferred; and as soon as the father's death had released Carinus from the control of fear or decency, he displayed to the Romans the extravagancies of Elagabalus, aggravated by the cruelty of Domitian. 82

# Cancellarius. This word, so humble in its origin, has by a singular fortune risen into the title of the first great office of state in the monarchies of Europe. See Casau. bon and Salmasius, ad Hist. August. p. 253. [Vopisc. Carinus, c. 15.)

Vopiscus in Hist. August. p. 253, 254, [id. ib. c. 15, 16.) Eutropius, ix, 19 (13). Victor Junior. The reign of Diocletian indeed was so long and prosperous, chat it must bave boen very unfavourable to the reputation of Carinus.

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The only merit of the administration of Carinus that history could

record, oi poetry celebrate, was the uncommon splendour brates the with which, in his own and his brother's name, he exhibited games. the Roman games of the theatre, the circus, and the amphitheatre. More than twenty years afterwards, when the courtiers of Diocletian represented to their frugal sovereign the fame and popularity of his munificent predecessor, he acknowledged that the reign of Carinus had indeed been a reign of pleasure.83 But this vain prodigality, which the prudence of Diocletian might justly despise, was enjoyed with surprise and transport by the Roman people. The oldest of the citizens, recollecting the spectacles of former days, the triumphal pomp of Probus or Aurelian, and the secular games of the emperor Philip, acknowledged that they were all surpassed by the superior magnificence of Carinus.84

The spectacles of Carinus may therefore be best illustrated by the Spectacles observation of some particulars which history has condeof Rome. scended to relate concerning those of his predecessors. If we confine ourselves solely to the hunting of wild beasts, however we may censure the vanity of the design or the cruelty of the execution, we are obliged to confess that neither before nor since the time of the Romans so much art and expense have ever been lavished for the amusement of the people.85 By the order of Probus, a great quantity of large trees, torn up by the roots, were transplanted into the midst of the circus. The spacious and shady forest was immediately filled with a thousand ostriches, a thousand stags, a thousand fallow-deer, and a thousand wild boars; and all this variety of game was abandoned to the riotous impetuosity of the multitude. The tragedy of the succeeding day consisted in the massacre of an hundred lions, an equal number of lionesses, two hundred leopards, and three hundred bears.86 The collection prepared by the younger Gordian for his triumph, and which his successor exhibited in the secular games, was less remarkable by the number than by the singularity of the animals. Twenty zebras displayed their elegant forms and variegated beauty to the eyes of the Roman people.87 Ten elks, and as many camelopards, the loftiest and most harmless creatures that wander over the plains of Sarmatia and Æthiopia, were contrasted with thirty African

83 Vopiscus in Hist. August. p. 254 [in Carino, 19). He calls him Carus, but the sense is sufficiently obvious, and the words were often confounded,

64 See Calpurnius, Eclog. vii. 43. We may observe that the spectacles of Probus were still recent, and that the poet is seconded by the historian.

85 The philosopher Montaigne (Essais, 1. iii. 6) gives a very just and lively view of Roman magnificence in these spectacles.

* Vopiscus in Hist. August. p. 240. [Probus, c. 19.]

87 They are called Onagri; but the number is too inconsiderable for mere wild asses. Cuper (de Elephantis Exercitat, ii. 7) has proved from Oppian, Dion, and an anonymous Greek, that zebras had been seen at Rome. They were brought from some island of the ocean, perhaps Madagascar.

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hyænas and ten Indian tigers, the most implacable savages of the torrid zone. The unoffending strength with which Nature has endowed the greater quadrupeds was admired in the rhinoceros, the hippopotamus of the Nile,88 and a majestic troop of thirty-two elephants. While the populace gazed with stupid wonder on the splendid show, the naturalist might indeed observe the figure and properties of so many different species, transported from every part of the ancient world into the amphitheatre of Rome. But this accidental benefit which science might derive from folly is surely insufficient to justify such a wanton abuse of the public riches. There occurs, however, a single instance in the first Punic war in which the senate wisely connected this amusement of the multitude with the interest of the state. A considerable number of elephants, taken in the defeat of the Carthaginian army, were driven through the circus by a few slaves, armned only with blunt javelins. The useful spectacle served to impress the Roman soldier with a just contempt for those unwieldy animals; and he no longer dreaded to encounter them in the ranks of war.

The hunting or exhibition of wild beasts was conducted with a magnificence suitable to a people who styled themselves the The amphimasters of the world; nor was the edifice appropriated to theatre. that entertainment less expressive of Roman greatness. Posterity admires, and will long admire, the awful remains of the amphitheatre of Titus, which so well deserved the epithet of Colossal. 91 It was a building of an elliptic figure, five hundred and sixty-four feet in length, and four hundred and sixty-seven in breadth, founded on fourscore arches, and rising, with four successive orders of architecture, to the height of one hundred and forty feet. 92 The outside of the edifice was encrusted with marble and decorated with statues. The slopes of the vast concave, which formed the inside, were filled and surrounded with sixty or eighty rows of seats, of marble likewise, covered with cushions, and capable of receiving with ease above fourscore thousand spectators.93 Sixty-four vomitories (for by that name

• Carinus gave an hippopotainus (see Calpurn. Eclog. vii. 66). In the latter spectacles I do not recollect any crocodiles, of which Augustus once exhibited thirtysir. Dion Cassius, 1. lv. [c. 10] p. 781.

Capitolin, in Hist. August. p. 164, 165. [Gordian. III. c. 33.) We are not acquainted with the animals which he calls archeleontes ; some read argoleontes, others agrioleontes : both corrections are very nugatory. ** Plin. Hist. Natur. viii. 6, from the annals of Piso. * See Maffei, Verona Illustrata, p. iv. I. i. c. 2.

» Maffei, 1. i. c. 2. The height was very much exaggerated by the ancients. It reached almost to the heavens, according to Calpurnius (Eclog. vii. 23); and surpassed the ken of human sight, according to Ammianus Marcellinus (xvi. 10). Yet how trilling to the great pyramid of Egypt, which rises 500 feet perpendicular! (The height was 157 feet. See Smith's Dict. of Antiq. p. 86.-S.)

According to different copies of Victor, we read 77,000 or 87,000 spectators; but

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