permitted to slumber; railroads already graded or partially so were not completed and ironed. The road from Aberdeen to Bismarck, nearly all graded, remained in the incompleted state, notwithstanding the prediction made by some that cars would be run over the line from Bismarck to Boston. The grade from Bowdle to Forestburg remains unironed. A few surveys were made by the people and some right of way obtained as an inducement to the railroads to take hold of them, but the inducements were not sufficient. Surveys were made from Rapid City, in the Black Hills, to the Northern Pacific, at Mandan. Taxes were voted in aid of local enterprises, but it seemed hard work to infuse real life into any new enterprises.

The Midland Pacific, from Sioux Falls, west, in connection with the South Sioux Falls & Rapid Transit Company, seems to be about the only new railroad enterprise of magnitude inaugurated that has actual life. The Deadwood Central and Watertown & Lake Kampeska have each built short lines, but are not extending them. They are only local enterprises. But we confidently expect that with the opening of the reservation and the influx of a new and strong tide of immigration that the railroad building will take a new life, and that the next two years will see a very large addition to our mileage. But there is more than merely immigration; more than merely the question of whether the projected railroad runs through a good country or not that effects the question of its building. The railroad business has grown to such mammoth proportions, involving as it does do many, many millions of dollars and affecting every interest in the United States; the cost of building having materially changed and supervisory control by states, and the United States, having become part of the recognized law of the land, and to properly and equitably adjust the old order of things to the new, is perhaps the most momentous question that is before the American people. Capital should not be confiscated. The rights of the laborer must be preserved, and labor is the largest element that enters into the operation of a railroad. The shipper and producer must be protected at such rates that will not amount to an embargo upon moving the products of the country so as to leave a reasonable compensation for labor and capital involved. In the efforts by some states to solve the question, serious differences amounting to open hostility between the conflicting interests have arisen. We believe there is a golden mean of equity to all that may be reached. The right to control includes the right to judge;

but harsh judgment is tyranny and always abhorred by a liberty loving people. But justice and equity command respect and enforces obedience. The Dakotas have become two grand young states. All the states around her have railroad commissions; the United States has its interstate commission. Above all things to protect her interests Dakota should have hers. North Dakota has incorporated it in her constitution; South Dakota should preserve hers by the most careful and painstaking legislation, enlarging the powers of the commission, strengthening the law and establishing beyond question the motto, "Equal and exact justice to all." Give the railroads fully and fairly to understand that we hold the reins of government, but that the power shall be exercised with a due regard to their rights.


We are glad to note that with over 4,000 miles of railway in North and South Dakota that there has been only eighteen fatal casualties, and that none were passengers and only nine employes. The life of an employe, however, is just as important as a passensenger, but the fact that no passengers were killed shows how faithfully the employes have done their work, and while no doubt accidents to employes are often the result of their own carelessness by reason of becoming used to danger, yet we cannot but believe that the question of the use of air-brakes, thus preventing brakemen from the necessity of running from car to car in the dark, rainy, snowy and sleety weather, and also the use of improved couplers is not receiving the attention from the railroads that the necessities of the case demand, and we recommend that an amendment to our law be made authorizing the railroad commission to investigate this question, with authority to make such order as to the use of air-brakes and improved couplers, after due notice of not less than three months to the railroad companies for time to make the changes ordered, as in the wisdom of the railroad commissioners they may deem best to the interest and welfare of all.

The Milwaukee and Northern Pacific alone report as injured in Dakota of their own employes, ninety-six, thirty-five of whom the cause stated is coupling cars. The injury of one hundred and fifty men a year of the honest toiling portion of our citizens is of too much importance to escape the most serious and wise attention at the command of our legislature. It is not alone a matter of life and injury to person. We believe it is also a matter of economy.

A study of the statistics in other states is much more serious than our own, there being but few fast trains and a much less number of trains here than on roads further east. The railroad commissioner's report from Iowa in 1888 show 180 killed and 723 injured; of Minnesota, 124 killed and 552 injured.

The ratio as to passengers and employes showing something of the same state of affairs as in Dakota. The list since 1878 in

Iowa show 159 persons killed and 1,339 injured from coupling cars alone. Out of 844 train men employed on the roads in Dakotaexclusive of the Manitoba system, which is not reported-122 received serious injuries in accidents last year, nine of which proved fatal.

The preservation of passengers is all important, but the error is common that the serious nature of the accident is relieved, because only railway employes were killed or injured. Common justice demands the preservation of these as much as any if within our power.


The following tabulation shows the passenger and freight business done by the railroads of Dakota in the years 1888 and 1889:

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The following table shows the amount of taxes paid by each railroad company for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1888 and 1889, in Dakota:

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