camp to Washington, and, in this capacity, at the battles of Brandywine and Germantown. On the surrender of Charleston, he was taken prisoner, and remained so till all opportunity of gaining fresh reputation in the field had passed. He was a member of the Convention which formed the federal constitution, and, in 1796, was appointed minister to France. When preparations were making for war on account of the expected French invasion, Mr. Pinckney was nominated a major-general; but he soon had an opportunity of retiring to the quiet of private life. He was afterwards president of the Cincinnati Society of the United States. He died in 1825.

PUTNAM, ISRAEL, an officer in the army of the American revolution, was born in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1718. He received but a meagre education, and, removing to Connecticut, engaged in agriculture. In the French war, he commanded a company, and was engaged in several contests with the enemy. In 1756, he fell into an ambuscade of savages, and was exposed to the most cruel tortures. He obtained his release in 1759, and returned to his farm. Soon after the battle at Lexington, he joined the army at Cambridge, was appointed majorgeneral, and distinguished himself at Bunker's Hill. In 1776, he was sent to complete the fortifications at New York, and afterwards to fortify Philadelphia. In the winter of 1777, he was stationed with a small body at Princeton, and in the spring appointed to a command in the Highlands, where he remained most of the time till the close of 1779, when he was disabled by an attack of paralysis. He died in 1790. He was brave, energetic, and one of the most efficient officers of the revolution.

POCAHONTAS, daughter of an Indian chief, and much celebrated in the early history of Virginia, was born about the year 1595. She became warmly attached to the English, and rendered them important services on various occasions. She married an Englishman, and, in 1616, accompanied her husband to his native country, where she was presented at court. She soon after died at Gravesend, when about to return to Virginia. She left one son. PARKER, ISAAC, an eminent lawyer, was born in Boston, and graduated at Harvard College, in 1786.


studied law in the office of Judge Tudor, and commenced practice at Castine, in Maine, then an integral part of Massachusetts. Removing to Portland, he was sent, for one term, to Congress, as a representative from Cumberland county. He also held, for a short time, the office of United States marshal for that district. In 1806, he was appointed, by Governor Strong, associate judge of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, and soon after took up his residence at Boston. In 1814, he was appointed chief justice of the Supreme Court, and held that office till his sudden death in July, 1830, at the age of sixty-three years. He was distinguished for urbanity, and his legal opinions are very highly respected.

PULASKI, count, a celebrated soldier, was a native of Poland, and made brave though unsuccessful efforts to restore his country to independence. He came to the United States during the revolutionary war, and was appointed a brigadier-general in the American army. He was mortally wounded in the attack on Savannah, in 1779. Congress voted to erect a monument to his memory.

QUINCY, JOSIAH, a distinguished lawyer and patriot, was born. in Boston, in 1743, and was graduated at Harvard College. He soon became eminent in the practice of law, and distinguished by his active exertions in the popular cause. His powers of eloquence were of a very high order. In 1774, he took a voyage to Europe for the benefit of his health, and to advance the interests of the colonies. He died on his return, on the 25th of April, 1775, the day the vessel reached the harbor of Cape Ann.

REED, JOSEPH, a patriot of the American revolution, was graduated at the college in New Jersey, in 1757. While a member of Congress, in 1778, the British commissioner endeavored to procure his influence to bring about a reconciliation between the colonies and the mother country; he rejected their offers with the reply, "That he was not worth purchasing; but, such as he was, the king of Great Britain was not rich enough to buy him." In 1778, he was chosen president of Pennsylvania, and retained that office till his death, in 1781.

RITTENHOUSE, DAVID, a celebrated mathemati

cian, was born in Pennsylvania, in 1732. During his early life, he was employed in agriculture; but, as his constitution was feeble, he became a clock and mathematical instrument maker. In 1770, he removed to Philadelphia, and practised his trade. He was elected a member, and for some time president, of the Philosophical Society, and one of the commissioners employed to determine the boundary line between Pennsylvania and Virginia, and between New York and Massachusetts. He was treasurer of Pennsylvania from 1777 to 1789, and from 1792 to 1795, director of the United States mint. His death took place in 1796. His mathematical talents were of the highest order.

RAMSAY, DAVID, an American historian, was born in Pennsylvania, in 1749, was educated at Princeton College, and commenced the study of medicine. After practising a short time in Maryland, he removed to Charleston, South Carolina, in 1773, and soon rose to an extensive practice. He took an active and early part in the cause of the colonies, and was for some time a surgeon in the revolutionary army. In 1782, he was chosen to a seat in Congress. He wrote a History of the Revolution in South Carolina; a History of the American Revolution; a Life of Washington; a History of South Carolina; and a History of the United States. He died in 1815.

REEVE, TAPPING, an eminent lawyer, was born at Brook Haven, in 1744, and was graduated at Princeton College. He established himself as a lawyer in Litchfield, Connecticut, where he founded the law school, of which, for nearly thirty years, he was the principal instructor. He was for many years judge of the Supreme Court of that state, and some time chief justice. His legal attainments were of a high order, and, as a man, he possessed the esteem and respect of the community.

STRONG, CALEB, governor of Massachusetts, was born at Northampton, in 1744, and graduated at Harvard College. He pursued the profession of the law, and established himself in his native town. Taking an early and active part in the revolutionary movements, he was appointed, in 1775, one of the committee of safety, and, in the following year, a member of the state legislature. He

was a member of the Convention which formed the constitution of the state, and of that which formed the constitution of the United States. Subsequently he was a senator to Congress, and for eleven years, at different periods, chief magistrate of Massachusetts. He died in 1820.

SEDGWICK, THEODORE, was born at Hartford, in 1746, was educated at Yale College, and, removing to Massachusetts, pursued the study of the law. He embarked with spirit in the cause of the popular party before the revolution, held a seat several years in the state legislature, and was a member of Congress under the old confederation. He was a member of the Massachusetts Convention to decide on the adoption of the federal constitution, was a representative and senator to Congress, and, in 1802, was appointed judge of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts. In this office he remained till his death, in 1813.

SMITH, JOHN, one of the early settlers of Virginia, was born in Lincolnshire, in 1579. After passing through a variety of wonderful adventures, he resolved to visit North America; and having, with a number of other persons, procured a charter of South Virginia, he came over thither in 1607. Being taken prisoner by the Indians, and condemned to death, his life was saved by the daughter of the savage chief, the celebrated Pocahontas. He published an account of several of his voyages to Virginia, a history of that colony, and an account of his own life. He died at London, in 1631.

SULLIVAN, JOHN, an officer in the army of the American revolution, was born in Maine, and established himself in the profession of law in New Hampshire. Turning his attention to military affairs, he received, in 1772, the commission of major, and, in 1775, that of brigadier-general. The next year, he was sent to Canada, and, on the death of General Thomas, the command of the army devolved on him. In this year, he was promoted to the rank of major-general, and was soon after captured by the British in the battle on Long Island. He commanded a division of the army at the battles of Trenton, Brandywine, and Germantown, and was the sole commander of an expedition to the Island of Newport, which failed

through want of coöperation from the French fleet. In 1779, he commanded an expedition against the Indians. He was afterwards a member of Congress, and for three years president of New Hampshire. In 1789, he was appointed a judge of the District Court, and continued in that office till his death, in 1795.

SULLIVAN, JAMES, was born at Berwick, Maine, in 1744, and, after passing the early part of his life in agricultural pursuits, adopted the profession of the law. He took an early part in the revolutionary struggle, and in 1775 was chosen a member of the Provincial Congress. In 1776, he was appointed a judge of the Superior Court. He was subsequently a member of Congress, a member of the executive council, judge of probate, and, in 1790, was appointed attorney-general. In 1807, he was elected governor of Massachusetts, and again in the following year, in the December of which he died. He was the author of a History of Land Titles, a History of the District of Maine, and an Essay on Banks. His rank at the bar was in the very first class, and in his private character he was distinguished for piety, patriotism, and integrity.

STARK, JOHN, a general in the army of the American revolution, was born in Londonderry, New Hampshire, in 1728. During the French war, he was captain of a company of rangers in the provincial service, in 1755, and was with Lord Howe when that general was killed, in storming the French lines at Ticonderoga, in 1758. On receiving the report of the battle of Lexington, he was engaged at work in his saw-mill; and, fired with indignation, seized his musket, and immediately proceeded to Cambridge. He was at the battles of Bunker's Hill and of Trenton, and achieved a glorious victory at Bennington. He rose to the rank of brigadier-general, and was distinguished throughout the war for enterprise and courage. He died in 1822.

STEUBEN, FREDERICK WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, baron de, was a Prussian officer, aid-de-camp to Frederick the Great, and lieutenant-general in the army of that distinguished commander. He arrived in America in 1777, and immediately offered his services to the Continental Congress. In 1778, he was appointed inspector

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