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the former, so that when the gun is fired you can, by holding on to the quarter spring, as it is called, cant the yacht's head the way you require.

In a river where there is not width enough to have the buoys in a line, the yachts are stationed opposite flags on the bank at equal distances apart, with sufficient space between for the yachts to clear each other. Of course each yacht completes her round at her own flag, and the times are taken accordingly.

Another way of starting is to make a flying start. The yachts have all sail set and are under weigh, but have to keep behind the starting line. When the gun is fired they cross the line, and the time of each one doing so is taken down and accounted for at the end of the race.

You will see in the rules that certain things have to be rigidly observed. Thus, if two yachts are going towards the shore close hauled and the leeward one cannot go about without fouling the other, but has to tack to prevent grounding or fouling a ship, she must hail the windward one to go about, and she herself must go about at the same time. Then, in cross-tacking, the vessel on the port tack must make way for the one on the starboard tack; the one running free must make way for one close hauled; then the regulations as to overlapping along a weather shore, or when rounding a buoy; all these must be studied and enforced. In racing, people are naturally reluctant to give way until the last minute, and often succeed in making the steersman of an opposing yacht give way through nervousness when he ought not to do so. Never allow yourself to be bullied in this way, but strive to get the reputation of one who adheres to the rales himself and compels others to do so likewise. In rounding a buoy mind

you do not foul it, or carry it away on the end of your bowsprit, as we once saw done. In a narrow river smart. ness in rounding buoys counts for a good deal.

If you have to come round to windward mind the mainsheet is rallied in quickly, and begin to do it before the helm is put down. If you have to wear round it, let the sheet go out as freely as she takes it.

If the wind is light, be very quiet and still, so as to keep the sails sleeping. A jar on the boat, or hasty moving about, or even a loudly spoken sentence seems, at times, to shake out of the sail the light air which may be filling it. Keep a good look out, not only for squalls, but for those belts of calm which sometimes lie on the water. We have seen a yacht sail into a circle of calm while yachts on either side of her have held their way with a light air.

We will assume that you yourself will not give cause for a protest to be made against you; but if your opponent should wrongfully put you about or foul you, or disobey any of the rules, you can—and in most cases ought to—hoist a flag in your rigging as a signal of protest, and state the ground of your protest to the proper officer at the end of the race, when the committee will decide upon it, and if the yacht is in fault she will be disqualified.

The crew for racing purposes should be double that necessary for cruising only. If you have professionals you will have to pay them extra for the hard work of the race. The custom of the locality will determine whether you should pay there alike, win or lose, or so much if you lose and so much more if you

win. We think that in a craft which has a chance of winning the sailors prefer the latter course, as it bears with it greater excitement.

It is of great importance to get smart active men to form your crew, and it is no good getting a number of men if they are not thoroughly effective. A clumsy fellow will only hamper the

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others, and if they are doing something which requires great smartness—such as shifting a spinnaker-he will probably do something which will create a mess. If you have inadvertently shipped such a man use him as shifting ballast only.

CHAPTER XXVI.

DINGHIES-COLLAPSIBLE BOATS-AIR-TIGHT

COMPARTMENTS TO PREVENT SINKING.

A NECESSITY, yet to a small yacht a nuisance, is the dinghy. One must have some means of getting ashore, and if you have a deep keel yacht, or a large centre-boarder which you cannot easily row, you must have a small jolly-boat in which to get to and fro. Then if you have an ordinary wooden boat she becomes a serious drag to a small yacht when she is towed behind in light airs, and in a disturbed sea she may be swamped or be used by the waves as a battering ram against you. Then there is not room to get a dinghy on board on a five-ton yacht, and on a ten-ton boat she is desperately in the way. Many have been the

. plans to make a boat capable of being folded up or taken to pieces, or otherwise collapsed, so as to stow away in the cabin when under way.

A flat punt, with the sides folding down on the bottom, and the joints made watertight by painted canvas or oiled leather, is the simplest plan, but the craft is unsightly and not easy to tow, while among waves she would be “ nowhere." Then we have heard of a plan adopted by Mr. Biffin, the boatbuilder, of making a boat in two longitudinal sections, the partitions coming above the water-line, and secured by thumb screws, but we do not know whether it is useful or not. We have never seen it in use.

Then there is Admiral M‘Donald's plan, the “Per Mare per Terras " boats, advertised in the Field and other papers. The principle of these is most ingenious, and if well made the boats should be useful. They are made of longitudinal sections of thin wood, which are hinged together by oiled leather. These sections fold together like the letter W. The reader will the better understand the principle if he takes four pieces of cardboard, say 7in. long and lin. wide in the middle, one side of each curving gently to nothing at the ends. Then place two together with the straight edges touching, and fasten them together with a strip of calico, or linen, glued along, then place the other two pieces so that their curved lines coincide with the curves of the first two, and fasten the curved edges together in the same way. When the glue is dry you will find on opening it that the bottom bends up to the curve of the sides, and the sides bend in to the curve of the bottom, and a rigid and sightly boat or canoe is formed. The sides are kept apart by the seats, and when these are removed the boat collapses and folds up into small compass. Unfortunately the price is high (£10, and upwards), and this places them rather beyond the reach of small yacht owners. If the price were half that, at least a quadruple number would be sold, and the expense of making them cannot be so very great.

The same remark as to cost applies to the Berthon boats, which, however, are the most popular of any of the collapsible kind, and of which we have had satisfactory experience. Here there is a keel and stem and stern post, and to the latter are hinged curved longitudinal ribs, which support a double skin of canvas. When in use, they are expanded by struts and the seats, and when these are removed the ribs fall down against the keel. Both these and the last named boats shut up into a space of bin, in thickness. The double skin in the Berthon is for the purpose of safety in case one skin is pierced, but this is not a likely contingency, and we think that a lighter framed boat with a single

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