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APPENDIX.

YACHT RACING ASSOCIATION.

SAILING RULES, 1879.

1. Management of Races.--All races, and all yachts sailing therein, shall be under the direction of the flag officers or sailing committee of the club under whose auspices the races are being sailed. All matters shall be subject to their approval and control; and all doubts, questions, and disputes which may arise shall be subject to their decision. Their decision shall be based upon these Rules so far as they will apply ; but as no rules can be devised capable of meeting every incident and accident of sailing, the sailing committee should keep in view the ordinary customs of the sea, and discourage all attempts to win a race by other means than fair sailing and superior speed and skill. The decisions of the sailing committee shall be final, unless they think fit, on the application of the parties interested, or otherwise, to refer the questions at issue for the decision of the council of the Yacht Racing Association. No member of the sailing committee or council shall take part in the decision upon any disputed question in which he is directly interested. The sailing committee, or any officer appointed to take charge for the day, shall award the prizes, subject to Rule 31. If any yacht be disqualified, the next in order shall be awarded the prize.

2. Postponement of Races. The sailing committee or officer in charge for the day shall have power to postpone any race should unfavourable weather render such a course desirable.

3. Measurement for Tonnage.—The tonnage of every yacht entered to sail in a race shall be ascertained in the manner following : The length shall be taken in a straight line from the fore-end to the after-end of the load water line, from which length deduct the breadth, and the remainder shall be esteemed the length to find the tonnage. The breadth shall be taken from outside to outside of the planking in the broadest part of the yacht, and no allowance shall be made for wales, doubling planks, or mouldings of any kind; then, multiplying the length by the breadth, and the product by half the breadth, and dividing the result by 94, the quotient shall be deemed the true tonnage ; provided always that if any part of the stem or stern-post, or other part of the vessel below the load water line project beyond the length taken as mentioned, such projection or projections shall, for the purpose of finding the tonnage, be added to the length taken as stated. Any fraction of a ton shall count as a ton. If, from any peculiarity in the construction of a yacht or other cause, the measurer shall be of opinion that this rule will not measure the yacht fairly, he shall report the circumstances to the council or sailing committee, who, after making such inquiries as they consider necessary, shall award a certificate of tonnage accordingly. The certificate of tonnage of the Yacht Racing Association shall be deemed a yacht's true racing tonnage so long as she remains unaltered.

4. Time Allowance-Shortening Course.-Time shall be allowed on arrival for difference in tonnage according to the annexed scale, * increased or decreased in proportion to the length of different courses.

If it is necessary during a race to shorten the course, the signal flag denoting the race hoisted under the White Peter, or, in case of fog or darkness, two guns fired, shall show that the race is to finish with the round about to be completed, and the time allowance shall be reduced in proportion.

* The scale is too long to quote, and is of no practical use as far as small yachts are concerned.

5. EntriesForm of Entry-Races Re-sailed.—Entries shall be made with the secretary at least forty-eight hours previous to noon of the day appointed for starting each race. In case of a Sunday intervening, twenty-four hours shall be added. Entries may be made by telegram, and it shall be deemed sufficient that the same shall have been despatched before noon of the day on which the entries close, subject to the provisions as to Sundays.

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Form of Entry. [To be signed by the owner or his representative previous to the race.] Please to enter the

yacht for the

Race at Her distinguishing flag is ; her rig is and her tonnage, in accordance with Rule 3, is tons. I undertake that while sailing under this entry she shall not have on board any bags of shot; that all her ballast shall be properly stowed under the platform or in lockers, and shall not be shifted or trimmed in any way whatever ; and that I will obey and be bound by the Sailing Rules of the Yacht Racing Association. Signed this

day of

Should any yacht duly entered for a race not start, or, having started, should she give up or be disabled during the race, such yacht shall, in the event of the race being re-sailed, be entitled to start, but no new entry shall be received under any

circumstances whatever for a postponed race.

6. Ownership.-Each yacht entered for a race must be the bona fide property of the person or persons in whose name or names she is entered, who must be a member or members of a recognised yacht club.

7. Only one Yacht of same Owner. – No owner shall be

allowed to enter more than one yacht in a race, except in cases in which a prize is given for each rig, when one yacht of each rig may be entered; nor shall he be entitled to enter the same yacht under different rigs for any race.

8. One Yacht Entitled to Sail Over.—When a prize has been offered for competition, any yacht duly entered may claim to sail over the course, and shall be entitled to the prize ; subject, however, to Rule 2.

9. Sliding Keels. —No yachts which are fitted to shift keels or to otherwise alter their form shall be permitted to enter.

10. Members on Board-Declaration that Rules have been Observed.—Every yacht sailing in a race shall have on board a member of a recognised yacht club, who, before the prize is awarded, shall sign a declaration that the yacht under his charge has strictly conformed to all the sailing regulations as follow :

Declaration that Rules have been observed.
I hereby declare that the

yacht, whilst sailing in the race this day, has strictly observed the sailing Rules and Regulations.

Signed Date

the race.

11. Distinguishing Flags.-Each yacht must carry at her main topmast head a rectangular distinguishing flag of a suitable size, which must not be hauled down unless she gives up

If the topmast be lowered on deck or carried away, the flag must be re-hoisted in a conspicuous place as soon as possible.

12. Instructions.—Every yacht entered for a race shall, at the time of entry, or as soon after as possible, be supplied with written or printed instructions as to the conditions of the race, the course to be sailed, marks, &c. Nothing shall be considered as a mark in the course unless specially named as such in these instructions.

13. Sails.—There shall be no restrictions as to sails, or the manner of setting and working them; but steam power must not be used for hoisting sail.

14. Crew and Friends. There shall be no limit as to the number of paid hands, and no restrictions as to the number of friends or to their working. No paid hand shall join or leave a yacht after the signal to start. [This rule is not intended to apply to Corinthian matches.]

15. Fittings and Ballast.—All yachts exceeding five tons shall be fitted below deck with the ordinary fittings of a yacht, including two transverse bulkheads of wood, and their platforms shall be kept down and bulkheads standing. No water shall be started from or taken into the tanks after the signal to start has been made. No more than the usual anchors and chains shall be carried during a race, which must not be used as shifting ballast or for altering the trim of the yacht. No bags of shot shall be on board, and all ballast shall be properly stowed under the platform or in lockers, and shall not be shifted or trimmed in any way whatever during a race. No ballast shall be shipped or unshipped after 9 p.m. of the day previous to the race. A race re-sailed shall, so far as regards this rule, be considered a

new race,

16. Boats and Life-buoys.-Every yacht exceeding thirty and under seventy tons shall carry a boat on deck, not less than 10ft. in length and 3ft. 6in. beam, and every yacht of seventy tons and over one of not less than 12ft, in length and 3ft. 6in. beam, with oars lashed in them, ready for immediate use. Each yacht shall carry at least one life-buoy on deck ready for use.

17. StartingSignals to Start-Dragging MooringsCrossing the Lines.—The yachts shall start from moorings, anchors, or under way, as directed by the sailing committee. Half an hour before the time of starting one of the following flags of the Commercial Code shall be hoisted as a preparative flag for the

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