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The following are the dimensions of a typical boat:
Length over all, 18ft.

Head of mainsail, 14ft.
Beam, 5ft. 9in.

Foot of mainsail, 18ft.
Depth, 2ft. 6in.

Leech of mainsail, 21ft.
Draught of centre-board, ift. 6in. Luff of jib, 21ft.
Length of centre-board, 6ft.

Leech of jib, 14ft. 6in.
Weight of centre-board, lịcwt. Foot of jib, 14ft. 6in.
Luff of mainsail, 10ft.

Topsail yard, 16ft. They are heavily ballasted inside, but have none outside save the centre-board.

We like the look of the sloop rig better than any other, but we do not like it for single-handed sailing, unless the boat is a deepkeeled, heavily-ballasted one, when the mainsheet need not be started in a squall, but the jib is eased, and the boat allowed to luff up. Even then there may not be room in river sailing to luff up,

and the mainsheet must be eased. With two sheets to ease, and the helm to look after, the sailor alone will have too much to do. In a shallow boat, especially if it is an open boat, luffing up with the mainsheet fast is better in theory than in practice. More than once we have sailed with the jib sheet in one hand and the main in the other, with one knee across the tiller, in a squally wind, and found there was more to do than could be done with credit to the boat and oneself. In a small boat it is often absolutely necessary to ease the principal sail. In a main and mizen rig you ease off the main, and the mizen

may

be left to take care of itself; in the sloop rig you cannot ease the main without easing the jib, or she will fall away. Hence he who sails alone in centre-board craft should stick to the lug or main and mizen rig, or adopt the Una rig.

CHAPTER VIII.

THE UNA RIG.

THERE is a fashion in boat sailing as well as in everything else, and every two or three years there is a run upon a fresh rig. The Una rig was at one time far more popular than it is now, the balance lug having to a great extent taken its place. Those

who have sailed on the flooded Port Meadow, at Oxford, or up the reaches of the adjacent river, will, however, have a lively idea of the handiness of the Una rig. For river work it is certainly unsurpassed, and, in our opinion, seems to have a greater impudence in going into

the wind's eye than FIG. 23. THE UNA RIG.

even the single balance

lug. Upon a reference to Fig. 23 it will be seen that the boat is a centre-board one, very shallow, in fact, a mere skimming dish, very wide in proportion to its length, and displacing but very little water. The mast is stepped right in the bows, and carries one sail fitted with a boom and gaff. There is but one halyard. One end of this is fast to the gaff, then passes through a double block on the mast, down through a single block on the gaff near the jaws, up through the double block, and then down the mast, where it generally passes through a block or sheave, and leads aft to be belayed to some convenient cleat. When you haul upon this halyard the gaff goes up at right angles to the mast until the throat is as high as it can go, and then the peak asserts its dignity. This plan of halyard is in use on the Norfolk wherries, and sets their enormous yards to perfection. Of course the Una sail can be lowered with the same ease, but a down haul should be bent to the yard, as it is not an agreeable job for the finger nails if they have to claw at the body of a sail while attempting to pull it down. There will not be much difficulty, however, if the mast is occasionally touched with a little grease in order that the hoops may slide easily up and down. These hoops will sometimes jam, particularly in hoisting sail, and an ingenious plan is figured in Vanderdecken's “ Yachts and Yachting.” It consists of a line fastened from the fore side of the top hoop, opposite to the sail, and to every hoop down to the bottom one; thus, when the sail is hoisted the fore sides of the hoops also feel the lift, and go up parallel with the aft sides. The plan looks satisfactory, and will be tried on board the writer's boat this next season.

We have often wondered why the Una plan of halyard is not adopted in small sloops, for it would dispense with one rope, the peak halyards, which would be an advantage.

A Una boat should have a topping lift, otherwise the long boom will be a nuisance. This should pass through a sheave at the other side of the foot of the mast, and lead aft, like the halyard. The boom can then be topped without leaving the tiller, and this may be an advantage when running dead before a stiff &

breeze with the boom right out. Top it up a little, and it will not be in any danger of dipping in the water when she rolls after a jibe.

The mainsheet is also peculiarly fitted. One end is fast to a ring on the stern close to the gunwale, passes through a block on the boom, through a block on the other side of the stern, and then leads forward (Fig. 24).

We do not much like this plan, for-owing, perhaps, to our awkwardness — we have got rather entangled in the sheet

when with a companion we have been changing sides as we tacked. These boats come about with such marvellous quickness that in a breeze you must pop over with great rapidity, or you will

find that you are lee baliast. Then, if FIG. 24. MAINSHEET

your friend is not a sailor, he gets the FITTING OF UNA.

sheet round his body or his head, and there is a jam. We like to have the fall of the sheet leading down from the boom, then it is clear of everything, and we can get a hard pull upon it when necessary.

The Una boat is essentially a smooth-water boat. In disturbed water her shallow build exposes her to a merciless thrashing, and her crew to a wetting, Then she sticks her sharp nose, impelled by the momentum of her too forward mast, into the green side

and
you

think she doesn't mean to come up again—SO that she is not exactly suited for salt-water work. On rivers where, according to our experience, whichever way you particularly want to go the wind will be dead against you, the Una rig is perfection.

Put the helm down gently, or you will stop their way, and in a moment they are round and off on the other tack. We have known a small open Una boat beat a four-ton Norfolk yacht easily, either running or beating; and with the faintest breath

of a wave,

of wind they seem to glide off at an astonishing pace. They have one very bad fault-worse, indeed, than other centre-board boats, which all have it more or less, – that of broaching to, or slewing round when they are sailing before a wind. This is not of much consequence in smooth water, but among waves it is a terrible fault. We were once caught in a heavy north-easter on the north-east coast, and ran for shelter through a tumble of short curling waves of great height. We were in a centre-board main and mizen boat which would do anything but speak, but the way she yawed about on the top of the waves made us exceedingly glad when we got within the shelter of the haven. A Una boat would in all probability have broached to, taken the next wave broadside on, and been swamped. Hence we cannot recommend Una boats for sea work, that is, real open sea.

There is another peculiarity about Una boats, and that is, that up to a certain point they are very stiff indeed, but when the water sweeps along the waterways they are having enough of it, and very little more may overturn them. At all events, this is the generally received idea, and it is theoretically right, for the reasons given in the chapter on stability. We have never seen a Una boat upset, however, while twice in one season we knew of deep keeled yachts, with large open cockpits, upset and sunk.

The Una is an American idea, and the rig is there called the cat-rig. From Mr. Dixon Kemp's book we extract some of the measurements of the original Una brought to England :

Length, 16ft.
Beam, 6ft. 6in.
Mast deck to hounds, 16ft.
Boom, 18ft.
Gaff, 9ft. 3in.

Luff of sail, 12ft.
Foot of sail, 17ft. 6in.
Head, 9ft.
Leech, 19ft.
Mast from stem, 2ft.

The draught of water, exclusive of the centre-board, is about

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