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1ft. or 14in. Comparatively little ballast is used, as the boats are intended to skim over the water rather than through it.

Against the above measurements we append those of a design which the writer made. The boat rigged according to it is now afloat and answers remarkably well. She has an iron keel, with a slot for the centre-plate, which is of galvanized iron, to work through. The keel weighs about 5cwt., and she has about 9cwt. of ballast inside :

Length of keel, 18ft.

Boom, 19ft. Length over all, 20ft.

Gaff, 10ft. 6in. Beam, 7ft. 9in.

Luff of sail, 17ft. Mast deck to hounds, 19ft. Centre of mast from stem, 2ft. 6in.

The mast is more inboard than the real Upas, and the sail is loftier and concentrated more in the middle of the boat. She has a cabin 6ft. long, and raised 1ft. 2in above the deck. She is easily managed under sail by one hand, and with her plate up is not at all difficult to row.

She has a forestay, and in order to give it more effect, particularly when lowering the mast, it is set out on a very short bowsprit. She has also shrouds, as her mast is very tall; and as her nose is fine, the channels, to which the shrouds are fastened, are out-rigged, thus giving them more spread.

The mainsheet works upon a short horse on the counter, and if the wind is at all strong leads through two or three eyes along the boom to a block just over the aft-end of the cabin, so that it is in front of the helmisman, and can be belayed to a row of cleats on either side of the cabin doorway.

Inside the cabin there are no side benches, but there are movable stools to sit upon, which gives one a greater freedom of stretching one's legs. Hammocks can be suspended on either side, and form luxurious sleeping places for two, while the centreplate case forms a support for a movable table. The great beam

of Una boats gives so much room in the well or cockpit that we wonder why a small cabin is not more often added, as no boat could be better than these for river cruising, and sleeping on board is better than camping on the bank.

The following rules, from an American paper, called Forest and Stream, are chiefly applicable to Una boats, and may be usefully quoted here :

1. Know, before you leave your anchorage or wharf, that everything is in order, especially your tack and pennant for reefing.

2. Always carry a compass. A whaleboat's compass answers nicely in & small sailboat.

3. Boats of any considerable dranght, 1}ft. and more, sh carry a lead-line, the first fathom marked off legibly in feet. This will prove to be very valuable in finding channels in the night and fogs.

4. Never make your halyards nor sheets fast by hitching or knotting. They should be made fast either by sufficient turns around the cleat, or by a simple drawknot, which any boatman can show you.

5. When the wind is very strong and puffy, pass the sheet once round the cleat and hold the end in

your

hand. 6. Always keep the halyards and sheets in order by carefully coiling them, so that they will render from the top of the coil.

7. Never sit to the leeward of your helm, nor allow anyone else to sit where their position will interfere with the free play of your tiller.

8. Never gybe a sail when the wind is blowing freshly unless it be a necessity. If you must gybe, do so with your peak settled.

9. Never gybe a sail with a sheet wide off. Trim in your sheet rapidly as you press up your helm, take a turn around the cleat and ease the strain when the sail passes over by letting go your sheet as your direction from the wind may require. As a rule, it is better to go about.

10. When, from a heavy sea, a boat refuses to mind her helm and misses stays, to get her on the other tack you must perform what is called wearing. This is done by settling the peak of your sail and following the directions above for gybing. Once gybed, haul up your peak, trim in your sheet, and bring her on her course.

11. In heavy winds and high waves a boat will sail better and be safer with the sheet started a little. Very few boats sail well at any time when the sheet is trimmed down flat.

12. Never luff a small boat in rough water and high wind so as to stop her way. When a puff of wind is too strong for your safety hold the boat on her course and ease off the sheet. The danger of stopping a boat under the above circumstances is that they are liable to upset when you put up your helm, and keep away fill the sail again. If your boat has lost way, slack off your sheet, put down your helm, and let her fall off. When she has fallen off sufficiently to get a good full on the sail, up helm and trim in rapidly.

13. Always keep an eye to windward, watching the surface of the water for the approach of puffs of wind.

14. Being overtaken by a squall, settle your sail and tie up snugly, waiting to make sail, until you have felt the weight of the squall, and know how much sail to make. If the squall promises to be very severe you had better come to an anchor.

15. In reefing take in all sail ; trim in your sheet perfectly flat, and make secure. Then haul out your clew with your pennant, and make fast. Next tie down your tack, then tie in your nettles or reef points with square knots, commencing at either end. In shaking out a reef, the sail being down, reverse this process, commencing to untie your reef joints at the middle and working to the end. Keep to the windward of

your sail.

16. In running off dead before the wind, be careful not to jibe. If the wind is heavy it is safer to run with peak settled. In rough water, running off, look out that your boom, striking in the crest of a sea, does not trail aft and jibe your sail. This is called tripping. To prevent this bring her more on the wind by putting your helm down. If seas are liable to comb over on your quarter or stern, they can be broken by trailing a buoy or basket, or two oars lashed together, about five fathoms astern. This drag will also steady the motion of your boat.

17. Never carry sail for the sake of carrying it.

18. Never sail strange waters without a chart, or, what is better, without a pilot.

19. As a stranger to them avoid tide-rips and whirls.

20. Be cool in emergencies. If sailing with company, do not let them distract your attention from the management of your boat.

21. Remember that on the wind the starboard tack has the right of way over the port, and that a vessel sailing on the wind has the right of way over one that has her sheet off.

The Una boats should be kept well down by the stern, as, if they are at all down by the head, they gripe or fly to windward, and no amount of weather helm will keep them away.

It is an awkward thing to have your boat hang up in the wind and refuse to pay off one way or another, or do anything but drift astern. This is often called "weathercocking,” and is a serious fault when it exists. Largely increasing the size of the rudder is an excellent remedy.

CHAPTER IX.

NORFOLK SLOOPS-WINDERMERE YACHTS..

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The Norfolk sloops are celebrated boats, and cannot be beaten on their own waters. The Norfolk rivers afford the most perfect sailing ground for small craft imaginable. The length of the navigable reaches, the many lakes or “broads

which are connected with them, the slight rise and fall of the tide, and the flatness of the surrounding country, with nothing to obstruct the wind, constitute advantages rarely to be met with. To anyone who wished to see the perfection of small yacht sailing on smooth water, and at the same time enjoy the utmost wildness and remoteness from town life, good fishing and shooting, and healthy recreation, we would say spend a season among the Norfolk broads. Secondhand yachts, in fairly good condition, may be had cheap, or can be hired at reasonable rates, and will give plenty of sleeping accommodation. We cannot do better than quote from an article supplied to the Field some time ago by Mr. L. E. Bolingbroke, whose permission we have to use his words :

In the construction of yachts for these waters, the first thing to be thought of (on account of the shallowness and narrowness of the rivers in some parts), is to get stability with a small draught of water, and also handiness and quickness in tacking and coming about. The following are the dimensions of a 10-tonner :

Length between forepart of stem and afterpart of main stern post, 25ft.; counter, 9ft., making a total length on deck of 34ft.; extreme beam, 10ft. ; draught of water amidships, 4ft. 6in. ; freeboard, 1ft. 10in.; with mast stepped 10ft. 6in. from fore part of stem. From the above it

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