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(c.) A fishing vessel when employed in drift net fishing shall carry
on one of her masts two red lights in a vertical line, one over the
other, not less than 3ft. apart. (a.) A trawler at work shall carry on one of her masts two lights in
a vertical line one over the other, not less than 3ft. apart, the apper light red, and the lower green, and shall also either carry the side lights required for other vessels, or, if the side lights cannot be carried, have ready at hand the coloured lights as provided in Article 7, or a lantern with a red and a green glass as
described in paragraph (a) of this Article. Article 11. A ship which is being overtaken by another, shall show from her stern to such last-mentioned ship a white light or a flare up light.
SOUND SIGNALS FOR Fog, &c. Article 12. A steamship shall be provided with a steam whistle or other sufficient steam-sound signal, so placed that the sound may not be intercepted by any obstructions, and with an efficient foghorn to be sounded by a bellows or other mechanical means, and also with an efficient bell.
In fog, mist, or falling snow, whether by day or night, the signals described in this Article shall be used as follows ; that is to say ;
(a.) A steamship under way shall make with her steam whistle or
other steam-sound signal at intervals of not more than two
minutes a prolonged blast. (6.) A sailing ship ander way shall make with her foghorn at
intervals of not more than two minutes, when on the starboard tack one blast, when on the port tack two blasts in succession,
and when with the wind abaft the beam three blasts in succession. (c.) A steamship and a sailing ship when not under way shall, at
intervals of not more than two minutes, ring the bell.
SPEED OF SHIPS TO BE MODERATE IN FOG, &c. Article 13. Every ship, whether a sailing ship or steamship shall in a fog, mist, or falling snow, go at a moderate speed.
STEERING AND SAILING RULES. Article 14. When two sailing ships are approaching one another, so as to involve risk of collision, one of them shall keep out of the way of the other as follows, viz. :
(a.) A ship which is running free shall keep out of the way of a (6) A ship which is close-hauled on the port tack shall keep out of
ship which is close-hauled.
the way of a ship which is close-hauled on the starboard tack. (c) When both are running free with the wind on different sides,
the ship which has the wind on the port side shall keep out of the
way of the other. (d) When both are running free with the wind on the same side the
ship which is to windward shall keep out of the way of the ship
which is to leeward. (e) A ship which has the wind aft shall keep out of the way of the
other ship. Article 19. In taking any course authorised or required by these regulations a steam-ship under way may indicate that course to any other ship which she has in sight by the following signals on her steam whistle, viz. :
One short blast to mean “I am directing my course to starboard."
Three short blasts to mean “ I am going full speed astern." The use of these signals is optional; but if they are used, the course of the ship must be in accordance with the signal made.
Article 20. Notwithstanding anything contained in any preceding article, every ship, whether a sailing-ship or a steamship, overtaking any other, shall keep out of the way of the overtaken ship.
Article 21. In narrow channels every steamship shall, when it is safe and practicable, keep to that side of the fairway or mid-channel which lies on the starboard side of such ship.
Article 22. Where by the above rules one of two ships is to keep out of the way the other shall keep her course.
SAILING RULES-SAILING IN A ROUGH SEA
LYING-TO-FLOATING ANCHOR-RULES FOR OPEN SAILING BOATS.
SIDE and masthead lights are a great bother in a small yacht, and the three required are sometimes combined in one lamp. The lamp is inclosed in a clear glass globe, and this again in a case with a red glass on one side and a green one on the other. When at anchor the lamp slides up and exposes the white light only. These useful tricolour lamps may be obtained at Wilson's Nautical Warehouse, 157, Leadenhall-street, E.O., and vary in price from £1 to £2 10s.
One great thing to remember when meeting steam vessels is that they go much faster than from their size they appear to be going. Hence it frequently happens that while you are tacking across the bows of a steamer, and think she will clear you by a hundred yards, she barely clears you by ten. Also, do not misjudge your own speed, and remember that the huge bulk of a steamer will sometimes keep the wind from you, and you are becalmed and your way stopped just at the most critical moment. Also, remember that the tide may be swiftly bearing you or the steamer one way or another.
We have had so many narrow shaves from these silent deaths, as the North Sea fishermen call the screw steamers—particularly on the crowded Tyne—that we are particular in calling attention to the dangers connected with them. Remember, also, that from their great length they are slow in answering their helms, and, further, that they cannot make way for you in a river unless they have sufficient depth of water to enable them to do so without grounding. So, if there is any doubt whatever as to the expediency of crossing the bows of a steamer, do not do it, but hang up in the wind or make a short tack back to get out of her way; but do it in time, so that those on board her may know your intentions, or they will be uncertain what to do.
This rule that the Vessel on the Port Tack is to give way is a very important one to remember, and its application most frequently arises in cross tacking. Suppose two yachts are beating to windward up a river or any narrow fairway, they will frequently meet each other on opposite tacks, and would come into collision with each other if one of them did not give way. Now the yacht which is on the port tack must bear away so as to pass astern of the other, and the one on the starboard tack must never bear away or alter her helm unless a collision is imminent through the other yacht holding on; then she must luff up. If any damage ensues through the default of the yacht on the port tack she is responsible.
Now the amateur will probably find it very difficult to recollect which tack he is on, and will get flurried and hesitate what to do ; and in boat sailing it is very true that the man who hesitates is lost. He should recollect that when the wind is blowing on the right hand side and the tiller is over to the right hand side he is on the starboard tack, and must hold his own. When the wind blows on the left hand side, and the tiller is over that side he is on the port tack, and must give way.
RIGHT STARBOARD, LEFT PORT. Not only amateurs but sailors often forget which tack is which, and accidents happen.
Sailing in a Rough Sea.-When the waves are at all lively there must be corresponding increase in the skill of the sailorman. To begin with, he must not carry so much canvas as he could
carry with the same strength of wind in smooth water. It does not do to drive a small vessel too hard through the sea. She must ride over the waves and not through them, and if there is much sea on, particularly if the waves have now and then white curling crests, the steersman must carefully watch each wave as it comes, and determine how to meet it. A wave which is big enough to break on the deck if not properly treated, must be treated like a squall. If it comes on the bow the yacht must luff up to it so that the bows may divide the wave first. If it is on the quarter, bear away a little for it. Do not sail beam on to a heavy sea if you can help it, and remember that a vessel takes a sea best bows on, and a sea breaking over her forward does not do much harm, while if it poops you it fills the cockpit, or may burst up something and fill you. A short chopping curling sea is the worst one can encounter.
It may be necessary to lie to during heavy weather. In a cutter or yawl this is easily done, and the way of doing it has already been explained. But in luggers, Una boats, or others with no headsails, lying to is impossible. They may be kept head to wind by a constant use of the rudder in checking any tendency to fall off, but this does not always succeed, and is as much trouble as making short tacks backward and forward. All small vessels which are sailed at sea should be provided with a floating anchor, which is a contrivance to throw overboard at the end of a long rope belayed to the bows. This resists being dragged through the water and keeps the boat head to wind and sea.
It is constructed in many different ways, but our own plan is, we think, as good as any. Get a stout iron ring (sáy 3ft, in diameter for a three-ton boat). This may be jointed so as to fold into two for