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Boat Sailing for Amateurs.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY-FLOTATION-STABILITY

LEEWAY-RESISTANCE.

In the following chapters it is proposed to begin at the beginning with the principles of sailing, and to treat of the practice of it from the management of open one-sailed boats up to a ten-ton yacht. By the time when the amateur can sail his five or ten-ton yacht he will not be content with elementary treatises. We shall assume that our readers are either quite ignorant of the art we hope to teach, or that they have only attained the usual first stage of knowing just sufficient to see how much there is that they do not know.

Boat sailing is a most fascinating pursuit, and when a man has once taken to it he is, if circumstances permit, a sailor to the end of his days. There is one caution we should like to give at the very outset.

Learn to swim before you go sailing. No mere pleasure is worth risking one's life for, and accidents will happen even to the most skilful sailorman. Many a life has been lost for the lack of ability to swim a hundred yards, or to support a lady or comrade for

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be displaced by the additional weight; and a proportionate amount of resistance to the passage of the boat experienced. It does not follow that such increased resistance is prejudicial, as additional weight gives greater stability and sail carrying power, of which we shall treat presently. Generally speaking, greater weight has the advantage of giving greater sail carrying power, which more than counterbalances the extra resistance ; but the calculations which may be entered into on this point alone would fill a volume, and must be passed over here.

The wind has two main effects upon the sails of a vessel, the propelling and the heeling. While the first has to be encouraged, the last has to be resisted. The resistance of a vessel to the heeling or upsetting power of the wind is effected by stability. Of this stability there are two kinds—that which arises from the form of the vessel alone, and that arising from the addition of weight. As an instance of the first or primary stability,

FIG. 1. DEEP YACHT UNBALLASTED. place à flat bottomed box on the table, with a mast in it, to act as an upsetting lever. By its side place one of those toy figures, with a round and leaded base, which, however much you may knock them over, regain their uprightness. This is to show the action of the other or secondary stability. Now push the box over by the mast. You will find it takes a good deal of force to cant it over to a sharp angle with the table, but when it reaches that angle it falls over altogether, and will not right itself. Now try the weighted figure. The slightest touch brings it over on its side, but when the pressure is removed it speedily rights itself. We will now transfer this experiment to the water. Fig. 1 is the

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