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became prevalent, especially to America, Liverpool has said to pass daily, on an average, between Liverpool been one of the chief ports from whence the emigrant and Manchester), it was deemed desirable to provide ships have started. If we could number the aching railway accommodation for this of the most efficient hearts of those who have, from the Liverpool Docks, kind; and this could not be done unless the railway taken a farewell look at their old country, we should extended down near to the water. On the other hand, find it a large one. In one single month, April, 1842, a passenger-station is always inost commodious when no fewer than thirteen thousand emigrants are said to situated in the centre of a town. Coupling these two have embarked from Liverpool! It is sad, when we circumstances together, and remembering how imthink of the features presented by emigration under mense is the cost to purchase up a line of houses for a some peculiar circumstances. The discovery of gold railway above-ground, we have the rationale of the in Australia las added immensely to the number of Liverpool tunnels. Let any one, starting from the emigrant ships which leave the port of Liverpool, and, visible railway at the eastern margin of Liverpool, near by consequence, to the wealth of its merchants, and Edge-hill, go across or through the mass of streets the probable welfare of the emigrants themselves. from thence to Lime-street-Duke-street, King-street,

Crown-street, Brown-street, Copperas-hill, and all the

rest,-he will be walking over the tunnel which conveys The RailwAY AND ITS Trafic.

all the passenger-trains to the central station in LimeThe Liverpool Docks and their associations have street, a distance of a mile and a quarter. Let him taken us long to talk about; and a rambler would find retrace his steps, and find his way in the straightest that they take him long to explore. No wonder at possible line from Edge-hill to Wapping, near the this. Whatever is the first of its kind demands a more King's Dock-passing a mass of streets somewhat to than usually full attention ; and the Liverpool Docks, the south of the passenger-tunnel-he will now be whatever we may say of the metropolis and its multi- walking over the goods' tunnel, which conveys all the farious commerce, or of the past of Bristol, or of the merchandise to and from Edge-hill and Wapping, a present of Hull and Glasgow, or of the future of Bir- distance still greater than that traversed by the paskenhead and Fleetwood and Grimsby — are most senger-tunnel. assuredly the first of their kind.

1 The passenger-station, situated in an open spot in Perhaps, after viewing the ships in the docks, and the centre of Liverpool, is an Italian structure, of conthe merchandise in the warehouses, and the entries insiderable extent and beauty, having a columnar and the Custom-house, and the merchants in the Exchange, pilastered front, and four arches to give entrance to we cannot do better than glance at the Railways, which vehicles, &c. From this station the line of railway place Liverpool at one end of the long commercial ascends by the tunnel to Edge-hill; so that railwaychain that bounds, and binds, and intersects the whole travellers see literally nothing of Liverpool. Large as kingdon. How the cotton, in its millions of bags, and this station may appear, the requirements of modern its hundreds of millions of pounds, is conveyed from commerce are leading to the construction of one of still Liverpool to the spinning and weaving districts, will greater magnitude. So long as the Liverpool and be found in its proper place, under the head of “Man- | Manchester Company remained independent, and even chester;" but we have yet to dive into the recesses after they had amalgamated with the Grand Junction (for they are literally such) at the Liverpool end of and the North Union Companies, the Lime-street the line.

station was found sufficient for the traffic; but since It was a bold act of the Stephensons, at the time the fusion of all those companies, as well as the London when the world knew hardly anything of railways, and and Birmingham, into the vast London and Northwhen incredulity respecting them was the prevailing Western Company, events have occurred which give sentiment-it was a bold act, at such a time, to deter- redoubled energy to the Liverpool operations. The mine on piercing beneath a busy town, from side to Manchester and Leeds, and the East Lancashire Comside, and running an invisible railway beneath houses panies have found a distinct and independent 'entrance and streets, buildings and open places, sewers and into Liverpool, which a sense of self-interest will lead water-pipes,-secure in the conviction that the arching them to make as efficient as possible. The broad over-head would be strong enough to resist all the guage,' too, is showing every year à more and more superincumbent pressure. There is a sort of faith, a northward tendency; and no one can venture to preself-reliance, an abiding confidence, in the power of dict where its giant strides will stop. The proprietors mind over brute matter, which is exhibited in civil of the old line, therefore, are urged to do all that lies engineering more, perhaps, than in most other occupa in their power to anticipate the wants of the town and tions; and the formation of the Liverpool and Man- district, and to leave no grievances which may serve as chester Railway, thirty years ago, may be regarded as an excuse and an encouragement to their rivals. Hence the opening step in the modern exhibition of this arises the expenditure of an immense sum of money, power.

which is being incurred in the purchase of houses, and As the traffic between Liverpool and Manchester in the construction of works, in the immediate vicinity would manifestly include a vast amount of merchan- | of Lime-street. This station, and the superb Assize dise, (no less than two thJusand tons of goods are Courts, will by-and-by give an air of great grandeur to

this part of Liverpool, and will go far to justify Kohl's a new tunnel with Edge-hill, is now in course of remark, that whatever may be our merits or our defi- construction. ciencies in pure matters of art, we know how to wed As engineering boldness has not yet been so daring art to commerce, provided commerce be ranked para- as to propose to span the Mersey with a railway mount, and art subordinate.

opposite Liverpool (although eight years ago several The goods'-station and tunnel illustrate commerce eminent engineers were disposed to favour the idea of in a somewhat rougher point of view than the more a tunnel under the Mersey), as the existing stations polished passenger-station. At Wapping are most well accommodate the central, eastern, and southern extensive warehouses for the deposit of goods, which parts of the town; and as the stations for the Bury have either been brought from Manchester or other and Preston Companies will accommodate the northern, inland parts for shipment, or have been unshipped from —it does not seem probable that Liverpool will have the docks. Beneath these warehouses the lower end many more railway stations. The capital of her merof the tunnel commences; and, by an admirable ar-chants has already done wonders in this respect, and rangement, the railway-wagons are laden and unladen has been well laid out. with great facility and quickness. The tunnel then It is wonderful to see how, in the midst of this commences. It proceeds, for about one-sixth part of a enormous railway traffic, the canals manage to keep up a mile, on a level, and then ascends, for upwards of a mile, trade. Yet they do so. The Liverpool and Leeds Canal, at a uniform gradient of one in forty-eight, to the vast and the water communication with Manchester and with excavated area at Edge-hill, where both the tunnels | the centre of England, still carry their thousands upon meet. The amount of goods that passes through this thousands of tons of goods. The more carrying matunnel must be enormous. Since the amalgamation chinery there is, the more there seems to be to carry. of the Liverpool and Manchester with other companies, | A railway in great part creates that which is to feed it. the accounts have not been published separately; but in 1844, when the company was yet independent, the Here we pause for a while. Liverpool has a mass receipts from goods' traffic, on this line of only thirty of buildings and institutions that call for notice; but miles' length (and a few short branches), amounted the commercial structures and associations have proved to nearly a hundred and twenty thousand pounds. quite enough for the present sheet. These being disStill farther works are in process. A new goods' | posed of, we shall be prepared for a glance at the station near the New North Docks, connected by social features of the town generally.

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Lord Erskine once gave a vivid sketch of Liverpool

Bird's-EYE VIEW OF THE Town. a sketch which probably owed more to what had passed through his mind than to what had met his eye :-" If | The Mersey, opposite Liverpool, flows pretty nearly I were capable of painting in words the impression | northward ; so that this direction has a prevailing in. Liverpool made on my imagination, it would form a | fluence on the course taken by the principal streets. beautiful picture indeed! I had before often been at | Yet is this course by no means a symmetrical one. the principal seaports in this island ; and believing that | The streets twist and twine one about another some. having seen Bristol and those other towns that deserv- | what capriciously : there is not a good, honest, open edly pass for great ones, I had seen everything in this avenue leading from east to west, or from north to great nation of navigators on which a subject should south, and pointing out to you clearly whither you are pride himself, I own I was astonished and astounded, | tending. Dale-street is a good central artery; but its when, after passing a distant ferry, and ascending a eastern outlet splits off into London-road on the one hill, I was told by my guide, 'All you see spread | hand, and Islington-road on the other. Scotland-road out beneath you—that immense plain which stands and Whitechapel give an entrance from the north to the like another Venice upon the waters—which is inter- heart of the town; but near the Custom-house this sected by those numerous docks--which glitters with artery is lost in a maze of small streets. But if we those cheerful habitations of well-protected men—which really wish to obtain something like a theory of the is the busy seat of trade, and the gay scene of elegant streets--the street-ology—of Liverpool, we cannot do amusements, growing out of its prosperity-where there | better, perhaps, than imagine a semicircular space. is the most cheerful face of industry—where there are having the Custom-house and the Exchange near the riches overflowing, and everything that can delight a centre of the straight side, and the various clusters of man who wishes to see the prosperity of a great com- streets having a general tendency to radiate from that munity and a great empire; all this has been created spot as a centre. This is certainly a thoroughly comby the industry and well-disciplined management of a | mercial theory of the streets; for as the Custom-house handful of men since you were a boy.' I must have and the Exchange are the centre of Liverpool combeen a stick or a stone not to be affected by such a merce, and as commerce is the soul of Liverpool, so picture."

nothing can be better than that her streets should point This reads very much like a public dinner' oration; towards those busy haunts of merchants. If we do but it must be owned, that few towns excel Liverpool not interpret this view too literally and stringently, it in those elements of greatness which are associated will be found near enough to the truth to assist us in with the prosperity of a commercial nation. The same a ramble through the town. In the first place, there is orator, when Mr. Erskine, and when advocating on one the water-side range of streets running between the occasion the cause of the corporation in an action at town generally and the vast chain of docks : Waterloolaw, said, that “ This quondam village, now fit to be a road, Bath-street, New Quay, Goree Piazzas, and proud capital for any empire in the world, has started Wapping, all run in an irregular north and south line, up, like an enchanted palace, even in the memory near the middle of which is the Custom-house or of living men.” It is not her dwellings and places Revenue-buildings; and not far from this the Exof amusement; her churches, and colleges, and schools ; | change. Then, bending round from north to east, we her hospitals and houses of industry; her gardens and find that Great Howard-street, Vauxhall-road, Marycemeteries—it is not these that mark out Liverpool for lebone, Scotland-road and Whitechapel, Evertonnotice: other towns equal, nay excel it, in these parti- crescent and Richmond-row, the streets leading from culars. But it is the endless chain of commercial trans- the Zoological Gardens and the Necropolis-all have a actions; the intercourse maintained with all climates general bearing towards the great water-side nucleus. and all nations; the transfer of all the products of in- | Then, again, Dale-street and Islington, London-road dustry from those spots where they are in excess, to and Kensington, the streets leading from Edge-bill and others where they are deficient: these form the true the Botanic Gardens, Mount-pleasant and Oxford claims of Liverpool to admiration.

street, the string of streets from Lord-street and Yet her buildings and institutions generally form a Church-street to Brownlow-hill, Bold-street, Dukemost varied and extensive system; and as we have street, Park-lane--all of these, however indefinite the already noticed the great commercial features, so may relation which they seem to bear to each other, point we now glance round the town generally.

with more or less directness towards the commercial - The history of Liverpool,” says the writer of a buildings and George's Dock, the centre of the dock local handbook, “is one of the most extraordinary system. instances of the rapidity with which some of the empo- Liverpool, then, is a sort of half-wheel, and some riums of the world have risen, as if touched with the of her best streets form the spokes of this half-wheel. magic wand of some mighty magician, from obscurity | Water-street, which was a narrow and inconvenient to the proud position of colossal commercial cities. | avenue until about twenty years ago, is now a street From a mere fishing village has this town progressed of well-built offices from end to end; and at the lower so that, next to London, it possesses greater wealth and end of it a large warehouse points out the site of the splendour than any city of the empire.”

Tower,' which was one of the Liverpool lions in by.

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gone ages. Castle-street, which crosses north and give a name to Liverpool. What is now the site of the south at the top of this Water-street, is spacious and fine Railway-station, and the still finer Assize Courts, attractive; and its glittering shops claim for it a rank in the very centre of the town, was then out in the among the best streets of the town. By pulling down, open field ! and throwing back, and re-adjusting, the street-doctors As we depart, north, east, or south, from the busy have succeeded in making Castle-street a fine avenue knot of thoroughfares just sketched, we come to the of communication from the Exchange and the Town- / brick-and-mortar sameness and plainness of modern hall to the Custom-house. Lord-street, extending streets ; each house like its brother ; types cast in the eastward from Church-street, is perhaps the best street same mould: and a very sorry mould it is, for all that in Liverpool. It is the chief channel of communication concerns picturesqueness of effect. But Londoners down to the docks, and is at all hours crowded with have no right to complain of this ; their own huge mass passers-by. Like most of the other streets near it, it of buildings, in which the suburbs are almost overwas narrow and inconvenient until about twenty years whelming the city' itself, properly so called, is a firstago; since which time great energy has been shown by class example of the kind; Liverpool only comes in the corporation in placing these leading thoroughfares among the secondary specimens. English-like, how. in a condition worthy of the town. On every side we | ever, what we have not in external architecture, we find ourselves in the busy trading streets of Liverpool, | possess in internal comfort; and a little experience of Bold-street, Ranelagh-street, Hanover-street, Church- continental towns would show us that, on the whole, street, Whitechapel, Paradise-street, North and South we have no reason to disparage our own. John-street, Dale-street, Lime-street-all lie within a But the plainness of the Liverpool streets is strikshort distance of Lord-street; all are leading thorough- | ingly relieved by the large number of public buildings fares, and all are studded with beautiful shops. and charitable institutions which are interspersed among

Concerning the transformation of narrow streets of them. In whichever direction we depart from the poor houses, into wide streets of fine buildings, at centre of the town, these buildings meet the eye in Liverpool, it is remarked in the 'Penny Cyclopædia,' unusual numbers, even in reference to the rapidly inthat “ No considerable town in England has received creasing population. Immediately northward of the greater improvement during the past half century than Exchange is a cluster of churches and chapels of various Liverpool. Before that time the streets were narrow denominations; and beyond these the Jail. Farther and inconvenient, and the buildings were wholly devoid east are St. Martin's Market, the New Haymarket, and of architectural beauty ; but successive alterations have another cluster of churches and chapels. More direcily given to the town an amount of commodiousness and in an eastern direction, and starting from the waterelegance not to be met with in any other commercial side, we have the original parish-church of St. Nicholas, port in this country. This altered condition has been the Exchange, and the Town-hall; the Custom-house, produced by the exertions of the corporation, in whomor Revenue-buildings; the two churches of St. George is vested the property of a great proportion of the and St. Peter ; the magnificent 'Sailors' Home,'-only houses. As the leases of these have progressively lately opened for business near the Custom-house; the fallen in, they have been renewed only on the condition three Theatres ; the Blue-coat Hospital ; the splendid of expending the sums necessary for the required em- St. John's Market; then that fine open area, bounded bellishment. The value of the corporation estates is on the east by the Railway-station, and on the west by estimated at three millions of money; and the annual St. John's Church, and having the new Assize Courts income derived from rents and dock dues has of late in the centre; then the School for the Blind; and increased to upwards of £320,000. A great proportion lastly, near the margin of the town, the Collegiate of this income has been devoted to the improvement of Institution, St. Augustine's Church, St. Jude's, the the town, including the building of churches, hospitals, Necropolis, the Union Workhouse, and the Zoological and other charitable and public edifices.”

Gardens—all these meet the eye in a narrow belt leadScarcely anything marks more forcibly the wonderful ing from west to east through the town. Then, fol. growth of Liverpool, than the position of the streets lowing a route more nearly towards the south-east, we that once formed the eastern boundary. Who that sees come in succession to the Royal Institution, the Atheit can now imagine that Whitechapel, in the reign of næum, the Lyceum, the Mechanics' Institution, a very Queen Anne, was at the eastern extremity of Liverpool ? | large number of Churches and Chapels, the Workhouse,

It seems now not merely in the middle of the town, but the Infirmary, the Lunatic Asylum, the Deaf and - even yet nearer to the water-side. Who, again, pass- | Dumb Institution ; and, exterior to all, the Botanic ing from the Custom-house through Paradise-street, Garden. The southern districts of the town are less and towards Shaw's Brow, can picture to himself the supplied with public buildings and institutions than time when the tide flowed up to nearly the eastern the other districts; but among them is St. James's end of what now constitutes Whitechapel ? Yet such Cemetery-one of the finest places of the kind in is said to have been the case. At the angle where England. Whitechapel, Church-street, Paradise-street, and Lord The degree of energy shown in the prosecution of street meet, there was once a ferry, and afterwards a public works in Liverpool is quite remarkable; and bridge, over the ‘Pool' or 'Tide-creek, which helped to could only co-exist with a highly-developed state of

commercial and industrial enterprise. In the Com- ports. While the one is pondering what to do, and panion to the British Almanac' for 1815, the following how to do, and who to do it, the other does the work passage occurs :-“ Most extraordinary is the activity that is wanted : the latter keeps up manfully with the shown here (Liverpool) in building, and in the various | march of the times; the former, if her merchants do public works now in progress, or on the eve of being not bestir themselves, will be a laggard, and will fall undertaken, as will be evident from the bare enumera- | to the rank of a third-rate city. . tion of them, and the estimates of cost (in some instances including the purchase of sites). The follow.

Tie MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS. ing works are now in progress :- Assize Courts (corporation), cost £80,000; New Gaol (corporation), cost After rattling along in a railway-carriage for a hun. £100,000 ; Albert Dock and warehouses (Dock Com- dred or two of miles, one likes to be set down in a spot mittee), £60,000; New North Dock Works, including where something attractive meets the eye ; something land, and junction with Leeds Canal (Dock Committee), to impart good-humour, and a tendency to hope for the £1,500,000 ; Reservoirs, Green-lane, and correspond | best. Some of our railway-termini are unfortunately ing works (Highway Commissioners), £50,000 ; Indus- situated in this respect. They land you either in trial Schools at Kirkdale (Select Vestry), £30,000 ; smoke, or among factories, or among a maze of poor Gas Extension (New Gas Company), £140,000 ; and dirty streets, through which you have to wade Shaw-street Park (private shareholders), £2,500 :-- before getting to the better parts of the town. But inaking a gross total of £2,500,000. All this is inde- Liverpool is a prince of a place in this matter. Arrived pendent of many other works, some in progress, and at the Lime-street station, after threading the dark others in contemplation, with prospects of almost im- | tunnel from Edge-hill, you emerge suddenly in a fine mediate commencement. Amongst those in progress open area, with vistas of good streets to the right and may be reckoned Prince's Park, now forming at the the left, and the magnificent St. George's IIall in front south end of the town; the new Presbyterian Church of you. in Myrtle-street; the Female Orphan Asylum; the This St. George's Hall, or, as it is often called, the Catholic Female Orphan Asylum ; the New Northern Assize Court, is indeed a very striking structure. Until Hospital ; St. Martin's Schools; the Catholic Magda- | a few years ago, the judicial proceedings of Liverpool len Asylum at Much Woolton; and St. Mary's Ca- | were conducted in the Assize Court and Session-house, tholic Church in Edmund-street. Among buildings near the Exchange, where a plain but well-built strucnot yet commenced will be a spacious Concert-hall for ture furnished the requisite accommodation for the the Philharmonic Society. Other works, as yet only business of the borough. But when a re-arrangement in contemplation, are the Daily Courts, on the site of of the assize business was planned, a larger structure Islington Market (now discontinued); the intended became necessary; and hence the projection of the fine additional Railway-tunnel to the north end of the town, building, only lately completed, opposite the railwayby the Liverpool and Manchester Railway Company; station. It is said that no fewer than eighty-six an additional merchandise station for the Grand Junc designs were sent in for the new building: the one tion Company; the enlargement of the Lime-street selected being due to the inventive talent of Mr. Lonsterminus; and some improvements on the Bridgewater dale Elmes. It is a polystylar or many-columned property. These various works altogether will pro structure, in the Corinthian style, of a very sumptuous bably absorb not less than another million. So that, character. The eastern façade, opposite the railwayin the whole, between three and four millions of money station, is more than 400 feet in length, with a range will have to be raised and expended before the various of columns very little short of 50 feet in height. present designs for the promotion of charity, the con There is an advanced colonnade in the centre of the venience of commerce, and the improvement of the front, 200 feet in length, and enclosing an ambulatory town, are completed."

26 feet in width. Behind this, occupying the body of In the interval which has elapsed since the above the building, is St. George's Hall, a noble apartment, was written, some of the new structures have been about 75 feet high, the same in depth, and 160 feet in completed, some then just commenced are now far length. This hall forms a sort of approach or vestiadvanced, and others have been put in course for bule to the two law courts, which are placed at the two execution. But besides these, each subsequent year ends of the building; and it is also made available at has had its story to tell, of new institutions and new other times for meetings, &c. buildings, new docks, and new railways; so that there The architectural character of the building is so is now, at Liverpool, a fresh array of millions sterling, maintained as to make the two law courts part of the which her merchants have undertaken to provide for same structure as St. George's Hall; although, at the the improvement and advancement of the town, its same time, the latter is sufficiently marked by the procommerce, and its social arrangements. The elements | jecting colonnade, and by being carried up higher than of vastness and speed are indeed here brought into the two ends. The southern end displays an octostyle action. The editor of a Bristol newspaper lately drew portico of great depth and height; and as the columns the attention of the merchants of that city in a signi- are placed upon a raised stylobate, to compensate for a ficant manner, to the contrast presented by those two fall in the ground-level at that end of the building,

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