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Militia, body of soldiers; men disciplined and trained to arms,

but liable only to service in their own country (Lat., miles,

a soldier). Volunteer, one who of his own free will enters military service

(Lat., voluntarius ; voluntas, choice; volo, to will). Regiment, rule, a body of soldiers ruled by a colonel (Lat., rego,

to rule). Cavalry, horse-soldiers (Lat., caballus ; Gr., kaballes, a horse). Artillery, artificial weapons, as cannon, &c.; men employed to

fire the cannon (Fr., artillerie, artiller, to make by art;

Lat., ars, artis, art). Grenadier, formerly a soldier who threw grenades or small

shells; a number of the first companies in battalions. Fusilier, formerly a soldier armed with a fusil or light

musket. Civilian, a person not engaged in military pursuits (Lat.,

civilis, from civis, a citizen). Mutiny, movement; tumult, insurrection against authority

(Fr., mutine, to riot; old Fr., meute ; Lat., motus, rising,

from moveo, motum, to move). Pension, an allowance weighed out or paid; payments (Lat.,

pendo, pensum, to weigh, to pay). Veterans, old and experienced soldiers (Lat., vetus, veteris, old.) Guard, one who wards or watches over; a man or body of men

appointed to protect (Ang.-Sax., weardian ; Ger., warten ;

Fr., garder, to protect). Smuggler, one who creeps or slips in; to import or export

without paying duty (Dan., smugle; old Ger., smuggeln, to

creep). Ballot, a little ball used in voting (Fr., ballotte ; It., balla ; Lat.,

pila, a ball). Garrison, a provision or supply of soldiers for the purpose of

defence; a fortified place (Fr., garnison, from garnir, to

furnish). Yeomanry, a common man; a husbandman (Ang.-Sax., gemene ;

Ger., germeine, mean or common).

THE CIVIL DEPARTMENT.

“ The Commons thus enriched and powerful grown
Against the Barons weighed.”—THOMSON.

Q. Whom does the Civil Department of the Constitution comprehend ?

A. All orders of men (from the highest peer to the lowest peasant), who are not included in the Clergy, the Army, or the Navy.

Q. Into what two classes is it divided ?
A. The peerage or nobility and the commonalty.
Q. Name the different degrees of nobility now

in use.

A. Dukes, Marquesses, Earls, Viscounts, and Barons. Q. Who creates peers ?

A. The Sovereign of the realm ; it being a branch of the Royal Prerogative to grant titles of honour.

Q. How are they created ?
A. By Writ or by Patent.
Q. What is a creation by Writ?
A. It is a summons by letter from the Sovereign to

attend the House of Lords by the style and title of that barony which the Sovereign is pleased to bestow.

This is the regular mode of creation by Writ; but Mr. Serjeant Stephen says that the dignity may practically be created without connecting it nominally with any particular locality.

Q. What is a creation by Patent?

A. A Royal grant by letters-patent to a subject of any dignity or degree of peerage.

Q. Mention some of the privileges enjoyed by the nobility of the realm, exclusive of their capacity as members of the House of Peers and as hereditary Counsellors of the Crown.

A. In cases of treason and other felony, peers and peeresses may be tried by their equals in the Court of the Lord High Steward.

They cannot be arrested or outlawed in Civil cases. A peer sitting in judgment gives not his verdict upon lis oath like an ordinary juryman, but upon his honour, although this privilege is not extended to him when he is examined as a witness; and all false reports concerning peers and peeresses are punished with greater rigour than the same offences would be if committed against ordinary persons.

" The great,” says Sir William Blackstone, "are always obnoxious to popular envy; were they to be judged by the people they might be in danger from the prejudice of their judges, and would moreover be deprived of the privilege of the meanest subjects, that of being tired by their equals, which is secured to all the realm by Magna Charta."

"The nobility," writes Montesquieu, "ought not to be cited before the ordinary Courts of Judicature, but before that part of the Legislature which is composed of their own body."

Q. Do these privileges extend to foreign peers ?

A. No, foreign peers are regarded as commoners in this country. They extend, however, to all Scotch and Irish peers, with the exception of such Irish peers as are members of the House of Commons.

Q. If a lady marry a peer does she become a peeress ?

A. Yes, she then becomes a peeress by marriage, as distinguished from a peeress in her own right.

Q. If a peeress in her own right marry a commoner does she still remain a peeress?

A. Yes, she does, and she is addressed by her former title, but she communicates no rank to her husband.

Q. If a peeress by marriage marry a commoner, what is the result ?

A. She then loses her dignity, but not her title, for as by marriage it is gained, by marriage it is also lost.

Q. Can a peer surrender or lose his peerage ?

A. He can only do so by death or corruption of blood; he may, however, be degraded by Act of Parliament.

Q. Are the commonalty separable into different degrees?

A. Yes, they are.
Q. Mention some of the chief degrees.

A. First, Knights of the order of St. George or of the Garter; next, after certain official dignities, Knights Bannerets; next, Baronets; next, Knights of the Bath; and next, Knights Bachelors. These are the only dignities among the commonalty.

Q. Are there any titles of worship among the commonalty?

A. Yes, there are Esquires and Gentlemen; but before these rank all Colonels, Serjeants-at-Law, and Doctors of Law, Medicine, and Divinity.

Q. Name the other classes of the commonalty.

A. Yeomen, or persons possessing land worth forty shillings a year, tradesmen, artificers, and labourers.

Q. Have the Commons increased in importance since the old feudal times ?

A. Yes, they have increased immensely.
Q. What are the Poor Laws of England ?

A. Several Statutes or Acts of Parliament which have been passed to provide for those of the poor people who are unable to maintain themselves.

Q. What persons superintend the due execution of the Poor Laws ?

A. A body of commissioners called the Poor Law Board, and consisting of the Lord President of the Council, the Lord Privy Seal, the principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer.

Q. Have these commissioners any local agents ?

A. Yes, they are enabled to appoint a Local Board of Guardians in every parish to administer relief to the poor.

Q. How are houseless paupers protected, and at whose expense?

A. Workhouses or Unions have been instituted to shelter them; they are maintained solely at the expense of the ratepayers of the district.

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