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A. From four to six coroners are appointed for every county, and one for every city.
Q. Who elects them?
A. County coroners are elected by the freeholders, and city coroners by the members of the town council.
Q. How long does the office last ?
A. During the life of the holder, unless he be appointed sheriff before his death.
Q. Is a Coroner remunerated for his trouble?
Q. When a Coroner sits to inquire into any matter within the scope of his jurisdiction, what is the inquiry entitled ?
A. It is called a Coroner's Inquest.
Q. When the inquiry is in reference to sudden death, what is requisite to the validity of the inquest?
A. It must be made on view of the body, for if the body be not found, no inquest can be held; it must also be held at the very place where the death happened, and in the presence of a jury of at least twelve
Q. Who are Justices of the Peace ?
A. Gentlemen of standing, whose duty it is to maintain the public peace by summarily punishing offenders, or in cases of grave offence, by committing them to prison to take their trial at a higher tribunal.
Q. Does the law take special care of the preservation of the peace ?
A. Yes, it does; for peace is the very end and foundation of civil society.
Q. What laws do the Justices of the Peace mostly put into execution ?
A. The laws relating to the highways, the poor, vagrants, riots, and the preservation of game.
Q. How often do the County Justices of the Peace meet together?
A. They meet together once in three months at the county town or some other convenient place.
Q. What is this meeting called ?
A. The Court of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace.
Q. What cases are tried by them at this court ?
A. Such cases as the justices of the peace, when officiating by themselves in their respective districts, considered of too grave a nature to be decided by their single judgments, and which they therefore reserved for the consideration of their brother justices.
Q. Have the Justices of the Peace for cities the benefit of a Court of General Quarter Sessions ?
A. Yes; but as they usually sit together on ordinary occasions, they can derive no benefit from a quarterly meeting; their quarter sessions are therefore presided over by a learned barrister, who is called the Recorder, and who is virtually the sole judge of the court.
Q. What other advantage is attached to these courts ?
A. The justices in the one case and the Recorder in the other are allowed the assistance of a jury.
Q. Who is the Custos Rotulorum?
A. The chief of the county justices and the keeper of the records of the county.
Q. Is any qualification required for the office of a justice of the peace ?
A. Yes; but it is merely an income of one hundred pounds a year.
Q. Are justices of the peace remunerated ?
A. They are not generally remunerated, although in some places barristers act as paid or stipendiary magistrates.
Q. How are justices of the peace appointed ?
A. Constables are of two kinds, high constables and petty constables. There is a high constable chosen for every hundred, whose principal duty is to keep the peace with the assistance of the petty constables. These inferior officers are in every town and parish; they can take any person into custody until brought before a justice, and their office subjects them to execute all warrants directed to them by a justice or other magistrate.
Q. What is a Mittimus?
A. A warrant granted by a justice of the peace to send any person to prison.
Magistrate, a public officer, a justice of the peace (Lat., magister,
a master; Gr., megas, great). Coroner, an officer appointed by the Crown to inquire into the
causes of suspicious deaths (Lat., corona, a crown). Inquest, a search; a judicial inquiry (Lat., inquiro, to inquire,
from in, upon, and quæro, quæsitum, to seek). Warrant, a writ for arrest; a voucher; security (Fr., warrantir,
Q. What is a Corporation ?
A. This term is generally applied to a body of persons which is instituted to carry on some undertaking requiring a greater capital than a single individual could afford. As, however, a corporation may consist of one person and his successors, such corporations as above mentioned are called corporations aggregate.
Q. What is the title given to corporations which consist of a single person and his successors ?
A. They are termed corporations sole.
A. The Sovereign of the realm is a corporation sole; so is a bishop, and so is every parson and vicar; all of whom are incorporated by law in order to give them some legal advantages, particularly that of perpetuity, which they could not have in their natural persons.
Q. Is there any other division of bodies corporate than that of aggregate and sole ?
A. Yes; a corporation may be either ecclesiastical or lay.
Q. What are Ecclesiastical Corporations?
spiritual persons; they may be either aggregate, as in the case of a dean and chapter, or sole, as in the case of a bishop.
Q. What are Lay Corporations ?
A. Corporations composed principally of lay members. They are of two kinds, Civil Corporations, as in the case of the King, or the Mayor and Commonalty of a Borough; and Eleemosynary, as in the case of hospitals for the maintenance of the poor, sick, and impotent.
Q. How are corporations created ?
A. Either by the Sovereign's prerogative exercised by a charter, by prescription or long usage, or by Act of Parliament.
Q. Must every corporation have a name?
A. Yes, and in most cases it is necessary that it should contract under its common seal.
Q. What is the first duty of a corporation ?
A. To act up to the end and design for which it was created by the founder.
Q. How may a corporation be dissolved ?
A. By Act of Parliament, by the death of all its members, by surrender of its corporate right to the Crown, by the forfeiture of its charter, and by bankruptcy or insolvency.
Q. What is a Municipal Corporation ?
A. A body consisting of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of a borough.
The borough is divided into wards or districts, and by the Burgesses in every ward the Common Councillors are elected.
Q. Who is the Mayor of a borough ?