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borough for the time being; he is elected annually by the Common Councillors over whom he presides, and he becomes Deputy-Mayor for the year subsequent to that of his mayoralty.

Q. What are Boards of Health and Improvement Commissioners ?

A. Officers elected by the ratepayers of certain populous towns to conduct useful works and to manage local business.

Q. What is the National Debt ?

A. The money which the Government has borrowed from time to time of the public to defray the expenditure of war.

Q. What is another name for it?

A. It is called “The Funds," and sometimes “Government Stock."

Q. Does the Government pay interest to those who lend this money ?

A. Yes, and the public in general are taxed to furnish this interest.

Q. Does the Government still receive loans of money from the public ?

A. Yes, any one may invest money in the funds, and will obtain the current rate of interest.

Q. What is the Sinking Fund ?

A. The surplus revenue of the kingdom beyond the actual expenditure, which is applied towards the reduction of the National Debt.

Q. What is the amount of the National Debt?

A. About seven hundred and ninety-seven millions of pounds.

Q. What is the amount of the Sinking Fund ?
A. About five millions of pounds.
Q. What is meant by the Liberty of the Press ?

A. The right which every subject of the British Empire enjoys of laying his opinions and complaints before his fellow-subjects by means of an open press, or, in other words, through the medium of printed papers.

Q. Does the English nation value this privilege ?

A Yes, it does ; for in addition to the opportunity it gives every one of publicly expressing his sentiments on any matter of interest, it daily acquaints him with the passing events of the time, and is moreover a powerful engine for the diffusion of general knowledge.

“What calamities are the people saved from by having public communication left open to them !”Curran.

“The Liberty of the Press is the palladium of all the civil, political, and religious rights of an Englishman."-Junius.

Corporation, a body or society authorized by law to act as an

individual (Lat., corpus, corporis, the body). Aggregate, an assemblage of collected individuals (Lat., ad, to

and grex, gregis, a flock). Eleemosynary, relating to almsgiving or charity (Gr., eleemosynē,

compassionateness). Insolvency, the state of not being able to pay one's debts (Lat.,

in, not, and solvens, from solvo, to loosen or pay). Borough, a place of strength, a corporate town (Anglo-Saxon,

burg, burh, a city). Fund, a sum of money laid as a foundation (Fr., fond; Lat.,

fundus, the bottom). Stock, something fixed, fixed capital (Ger., stock, a stick; stocken, CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE,

to become fixed).

INDICATING THE PERIOD WHEN MANY OF THE LEADING FEATURES

OF THE ENGLISH CONSTITUTION ORIGINATED.

Act of Parliament, the first...
Acts of Parliament first printed
Admiralty Court founded
Affirmation of Quakers instituted ...
Aldermen of London appointed
Archbishop of Canterbury, first

York, first
Army, first standing, in England ...
Articles of Religion reduced to thirty-nine
Bankruptcy Court established
Bannerets first created in England
Baronets first created
Barons created
Barristers first appointed
Bath, Knights of, instituted
Bill of Rights passed

Settlement passed
Bishops first created in England
Board of Trade established ...
Books first printed in England
Canon, Ecclesiastical, first

A. D. 1215 1483 1357 1696 1242 598 627 1638 1563 1831 1360 1611 1387 1291 1399 1628 1701

180 1655 1474 380

...

...

...

...

... ...

Canonization instituted
Canterbury See created

made superior to York
Central Criminal Court established
Chancellor, Lord High, created
Chancery Court instituted ...

re-established
Channel Isles appended to England
Charta, Magna, signed
Charters first granted to corporate towns
Church of England established
Churchwardens first appointed
Churchyards first consecrated
Cinque Ports introduced
Circuits appointed
Cities first incorporated
Civil Law introduced into England
Coldstream Guards established
Common Law digested into a code

Prayer published ...
Commons, House of, first

present edifice begun
Confirmatio Chartarum
Coronation chair brought to England
Coroners appointed ...

for each county Corporation, first, in England Counties, England divided into

first send members to Parliament County Courts instituted

Sheriffs appointed ...
Court of Admiralty (see " Admiralty ").

Chancery (see " Chancery ”).
Common Pleas
Exchequer
Exchequer Chamber

A.D. 800 596 1073 1834 1067

605 1067 1066 1215 1132 1534 1127

217 1078 1176 1079 1138

1660 1042-1066

1548 1258 1840 1297 1296

925 1275 1100

896 1265

896 1079

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1215 1079 1357

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Deacons first appointed
Dedication of churches begun
Dioceses first known
Duke, first English
Earl, first English

Marshal of England created ...
Ecclesiastical Courts established
Elections made void by bribery
Episcopacy established

abolished in Scotland ...
abolished in England ...
restored in England

disestablished in Ireland
Esquires first in England ...
Gentleman, term first used ...
Great Seal of England, first

present
Grenadiers established in England
Habeas Corpus Act passed ...
Heretics, Law against, repealed
Horse Guards instituted
Hundreds of England adopted
Imperial Parliament, first
Insolvency Act, first...
Ireland conquered
Isle of Man annexed to England
Knights of the Shire first summoned to Parliament

Garter created ?
Land Tax first exacted
Law Terms fixed
Letters first sent by post

the penny post
Licences first granted
Life Guard's instituted

Great Chamberlain appointed
High Admiral ...

A. D.

31 331 323 1337 1069 1397 1066 1696

33 1638 1645 1660 1869 1345 1430 1048 1832 1685 1679 1534 1550

897 1801 1649 1172 1765 1254 1349

991 1079 1635 1840 1190 1660 1101 1385

...

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