were annihilated, with the Jewish state. The great sanhedrin assembled at Paris, in 1806, by Napoleon, was only an occasional expedient, in order to regulate the civil relations of the Jews in the French empire. Sa> Marino. (See Marino.) Sa.n Martin, Jose de, is a native of the Missions, on the banks of the river Parana. He made his first campaigns in the service of Spain, in the peninsula, holding the rank of captain; but he left Spain in 1811, and returned to his own country, where he rapidly rose to distinction. He received from the revolutionary government of Buenos Ayres the command of a division of the patriot army, with the commission of colonel. His firet object was to improve the organization and discipline of the cavalry, in which he succeeded so well as to gain a victory over a small detachment of royalist troojis at San Lorenzo, in 1813. This affair made him so conspicuous that he was appointed to the chief command in the province of Tucuman, in the hope that he might restore the patriot cause in that quarter, which was almost prostrated by the successive defeats of Belgrouo. San Martin found only 570 men in Tucuman, the remnants of the patriot force. In the couree of a few months, he had contrived to raise an army of 4000 men, from such slender beginnings. In 1814, he was obliged to resign his command by reason of bad health. When he resumed active service, he obtained the command in the province of Cuyo, contiguous to Chile, and devoted himself to the task of recruiting and equipping an expeditionary army, railed the "army of the Andes," having for its object the liberation of Chile from the Spanish authority. The plan of the expedition was arranged in concert with O'Higgins and other Chilean exiles, who had taken refuge in Mendoza, the capital of Cuyo. Two years were consumed in the preparations necessary for this important movement. At length, at the very beginning of 1817, the patriot army of 4000 men broke up its cantonments at Mendoza, and entered the gorges of the Andes, to cross into Chile. San Martin effected the dangerous and difficult passage of the Andes in safety, and, February 12, encountering the Spanish forces posted at Chacabuco to resist his march, gained i complete and brilliant victory. Chile resumed its independence upon this event, CHiggins becoming supreme director. Meanwhile, it was known that the viceroy of Peru was fitting out an expedition against the Chilean patriots; andprepara

tions were made to receive it. The opposing armies met at Maypu (April 5, 1818), and again San Martin gained a complete victory, which finally accom

Clished the deliverance of Chile. Emoldened by these successes, he now conceived the plan of carrying his liberating arms into Peru itself, the only remaining possession of Spain in South America. Meanwhile, the republic of Buenos Ayres was distracted by one of the numberless domestic botdeversemens which have rendered its public administration a satire on the name of government. The faction, which happened to possess an ephemeral ascendency in the capital, called on San Martin to relinquish his splendid enterprise of liberating Peru, and to recross the Andes with his army, for the purpose of wasting its energies in the provincial broils of the republic. San Martin, and the other officers of the expeditionary army, unanimously refused obedience to the order; in consequence of which he was denounced by the government at Buenos Ayres. Hereupon he resigned his commission into the hands of the officers, and was unanimously reelected by them, thus holding his authority independent of the government. The liberating army sailed from Valparaiso Aug. 21,1820, the land forces, under San Martin, being supported by a squadron under lord Cochrane. They landed at Pisco, and, being sustained by the Peruvians, gained possession of Lima and of most of the country, a revolutionary government being installed in the capital, and San Martin declared protector of Peru, Aug. 3, 1821. Various measures were adopted, under his auspices, for giving firmness to the new order of things, although the royalists continued in force in the interior, and still held the castles of Callao. A congress was convened at Lima, Sept. 20, 1822, by virtue of the decrees of the protector; and he immediately resigned all his authority into their hands, accepting in return only the honorary titles of generalissimo and founder of the liberty of Peru, with a pension of $20,000 per annum. He withdrew from Peru, first to Chile, and afterwards to Europe, finding little inducement, it is to be presumed, to enter into public life in Buenos Ayres, and perhaps doubting of his personal security in that country. In leaving Peru, he gave evidence of the purity and disinterestedness of his purposes, and seems entitled to the praise of good intention, if not of brilliant ability. He is still living. (Miller's Mem., v. i.)

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Sannazako, Jacopo, a distinguished Italian poet, who wrote both in Latin ami Italian, was bom at Naples, in \4'v*. He received his education in the school of Giuniano Maggo, and the academy of Pontanus, in which, acconling to the custo:n in the Italian academies, he adopted the name of Attius Siucenis. An early passion tor Carinosina Bonifacia, whose praises he sung under the names of Hartu'vina and Phillis, unfolded his poetical talents. Iu the hope of conquering his love by separation, he went abroad, but, yielding to tho impatience of his passion, returned to Naples, where he found his mistress dead. During his absence, ho wrote his Arcadia, a series of idyls, which, although, like his other Italian poems, the work of his youth, still retains its reputation. His poetry attracted the notice of King Ferdinand" and his sons Alphonso and Frederic, who made him the comimuiou of their journeys and campaigns. Frederic, who ascended the throne in

I l!V>, gave him the delightful villa Mcrgvllitin, with n jicnsion of 000 ducats. Hut, in 1.10!, his henefiictor was obliged to abdicate the throne, and flee to France; and Siuiua/iiro was too faithful to desert bun in his reverses. After the death of Frederic, lie returned to Naples, and died item in I KM. He was buried in the Phtirch Hiintn Maria del Parto, which he bnd built at his villa. Saunazaro wrote minuets and ranxoni in Italian, several Latin poems, elegies, eclogues, epigrams, and a lunger poem, He Partu Virginia, in three books. His elegance of evpieoioii, no less tlian the poetical h.wih of his tiiouglitr, give him a disIiukmuihhi place among tho modern Latin poel •.

M\>tiiui', "r fAMseaiT (that is, the i>iilirt), ill'"' I»i:v»-nah,\ba (that is, the ,/,,.,,„)': a llrnhminieiil laiiguago (because

II H understood n»w by the Brahmins

„l )t the pie-tent dead language of the

Iiiimio'm', in which the books of their ,,,|,;moii and laws, besides many other ft,ak> uf different sorts, are written. Tin;

, .„|,able laiuilaiity between th(! San

,., Hi and the Greek la-iguages reminds ,,!,<> ol' (i'llibi'ii's opinion, "that some, ..eiliniM lunch, of the knowledge pos,„.«.,,! by Ihn liidiatiH, originated from the (W l.« of lliictriaiia." rmncis Bopp has ■ mlillolieil n I'onililete System of the Sanscrit I.hiik''"k'' (»',rli"' l*^ qMarto). Al.iilitflois, also, In his MonummU littermrcs dt I'h'lf, mi /Wiling" iir lAUfrature San

lh, hi'. (Paris, |H«7), has presented a «U vlfW of tho Sanscrit literature.

(See also Indian Languages, and Oriented Literature.)

Sans-culottes (i. c. without breeches); the name given in derision to th*popular party, by the aristocratical, in tbr heginning of the French revolution of 17«>. Like the epithet gueux (q. v.), bestowed on the patriot [tarty in the Netherlands, and like that of Methodists, bestowea! on the friends of Wesley, it was <uk»pti-<! by those to whom it was first applied by way of contempt. At the time when thV most exaggerated principles of democracy prevailed, sans-culotHsm became a term of honor. In the French republican calendar, the iours eompUmentaires were at first called jours sans-cviottides. (See Calendar.)

San Sf.bastiano, or Rio Jajvf.iro. (See Rio JaneiroA

Sans-souci (French, trithout rare): n ]ialace near Potsdam, where Frederic the Great was fond of residing; hence he is sometimes called the philosopher of Sanssouci.

Santa Ana, Antonio Lopez de, a Mexican general, of signal military abilities. and greatly distinguished in the political affairs of the republic, first became known extensively at the time of the second revolution (so called), when Iturbide promulgated the plan of Iguala (Feb. 24, 1821v. At the head of the desultory forces of the country, Santa Ana succeeded, by a coupde-main, in driving the royalists out of Vera Cruz, and in obtaining possession of that city, of which Iturbide appointed him governor. The castle of San Juan 6V VI ua, which commanded the harborof Vera Cruz, continued to be held by the Spaniards; and in November, 1822, the emperor came to Xalapa, in the hope of etFecting an accommodation with the S[»anr«h governor of the castle. Meanwhile .Imputes had arisen between Santa Aiia and general Echavarri, whom Iturbide ha.1 placed iu command of the southern division, including Vera Cniz. The emperor summoned Santa Aiia to Xalapa. n» answer to the complaints made ajainx him; and he, confident in the supposed good-will of Iturbide, whose cause he had zealously maintained, readily obeyed tb«summons. On his arrival, to his urea: surprise, he was treated harshly bv Iturbide, and deprived of his command, Kn raged by this unexpected treatment, Santa Ana hurried back to Vera Cruz, ridinc/ day and night, so as to reach the city in anticipation of the tidings of his disjrrker Instantly assembling his own regiment, he exhorted them to take up arms against Uio

odious usurpation of Iturbide, and found them all ripe lor the project, they having, indeed, supported the emperor only out uf attachment ft) their immediate chief. Santa Alia accordingly unfurled the standard of the republic at Vera Cruz, and commenced hostilities against the forces of Iturbide. In this state of things, Guadalupe Viltoria left his hiding-place in the mountains, to join Santa Aim, and, being declared commander-in-chief of the insurgents, soon drew to his standard the old republican champions of independence. The (all of Iturbide, and the adoption of the federal constitution, were the wellknown consequences of this movement. In the political arrangements that ensued, Santa Alia, not being duly considered, sailed from Vera Cruz (March, 1823) with six hundred men, and, landing at Tampico, advanced through the country to San Luis Potosi, where he took up his headquarters, and declared himself protector of the federal republic. But he failed to inspire the people with confidence in his intentions, and was compelled to submit to a force sent against him from the capital. He was discharged, however, and for several years took but little part in public affairs, living the chief part of the time in seclusion on his estate near Xalapa. In 1825, an expedition against Culm was contemplated, to be conducted by him, but was never prosecuted. Hut, in Ifi8, he again appeared on the stage, and with as decisive effects on the condition of public affairs as i:i 1822. When the news of Pedraza's election to the presiil'.nrv, as the successor of Vittoria, reached Xalapa, Santa Ana raised his flag in favor °f Guerrero; and such was his charaeteri-tic decision of purpose and execution, that the news of his rising, and of his investment and capture of the castle of Perote, reached the government almost simultaneously. Here he intrenched himself, and published a plan, having for its leading articles the annulment of the election of Pedraza, the declaring of Guerrero to lie elected instead of him, and the popular object of the expulsion of the Spaniards. At length, however, Santa Aiia was compelled to yield to the government troops, and fled for refuge into the mountains of Oaxaco, under sentence of outlawry, and apparently n broken and ruined man. But, in die mean time, the movement had been followed up in other pans of the republic with better success. I'wlraza was compelled to flee his country, and Guerrero was recognised as president elect. Santa Aiia was immediately

appointed to the command of the very army sent against him, and to the government of Vera Cruz; and, on die inauguration of Guerrero into office, was made secretary of war, and commander-in-chief of the army (April, 1829). These political events a little preceded the foolish invasion of Mexico by the Spaniards, under Barradas, which afforded Santa Afia the opportunity of acquiring new laurels. Barradas landed near Tanipico, July 27, 1829, and took up a position at Tamaulipas, separated from Tanipico only by the river of the same name. Here, or at Altamira, in the same neighborhood, Barradas remained for about two months, when, after various engagements, he capitulated to the Mexicans under Santa Afia, who had assumed the command of the troops of the republic. Scarcely had Guerrero's administration time to enjoy this triumph, when the events of December, 1829, occurred, in consequence of which Guerrero was driven from office, with his particular friends, and the vice-president Bustamente, assumed the direction of the government. Santa Afia was then consigned, for a while, to comparative obscurity; but is now once more in arms, and engaged in a third attempt to revolutionize the government, by driving Bustamente from power. His military talents, his activity and enterprise, and his reputation for successful intrigue, render him a dangerous enemy to the government. Santa Cruz. (See Cruz, Santa.) Santa Fe; capital of New Mexico; a territory of the Mexican republic, in the northern part of which it is situated, not far from the Rio del Norte ; lat. 3ii° 12' N.; Ion. 109° 33' W.; 1500 miles north-northwest of the city of Mexico. The population is between 3000 and 4000. It is the centre of a considerable overland trade between the northern part of Mexico and the western states of this Union. (See Mexico, New, and Texas.)

Santa Fe He Bogota. (See Bogolu.) Santa Fe De Guanaxuato. (See G»anaxuato.)

Santa Hermanoad. (Sec Herntarulad.) Santa Martha. (See Martha, Santa.) Santa Maura. (See Leucadia.) Santanoer, New. (See Mexico.) Santa.nder (S. Andero); a small province of Spain (Las montanas de Santander e de Burgos), on the soudiern coast of die bay of Biscay, consisting of steep mountains and deep valleys. It is rich iu iron of the best quality, and diere are cannon founderies and manufactories of cast steel established in the mountain villages L» <^avada and Liergams. The coast lias some excellent harbors. The principal town, Santander (10,000 inhabitants), has » safe and commodious and easily accessible harbor, and was formerly one of the privileged ports (puertos habilitados) which were allowed a free trade with South America. Its commerce with the north of Europe, to which it exports much wool, is considerable. It is the see of a bishop.

Santander, Francisco de Paula, was born at Rosario de Cucuta, in New Grenada, April 2, 1792, and received the best education which his country afforded. He commenced his studies in the place of his birth, and completed them at the college of Bogota. During his course of study in philosophy and law, he was distinguished for his application, industry, and aptness in acquiring whatever he undertook. He received his degree in 1809, at the very time when the revolution began to agitate the country; and, like most other young men of spirit and talent, immediately embarked in the cause of independence. At first, he was merely an ensign in the militia of New Grenada; mi afterwards selected as an aid by Manuel Castillo, military commandant and political chief of the province of Mariquita, .■mil soon Ixjcame attached, in the same capacity, to general Baraya. When Bolivar projected his first invasion of Venezuela, Castillo was employed to drive the Spaniards, under Correa, from the defiles of I.a Grita; and Santander, with two coiri|»anies, was ordered to turn the defile by ascending the neighboring heights. He was successful, and, in consequence, Correa was obliged to destroy his baggage and retreat in disorder. Santander was next commissioned to defend the vulley of Cucuta. He had but three hundred men. The Spaniards poured, in a force leu times stronger than his own, and com|H'lled him to evacuate Rosario, where tlipy afterwards committed the most horrible atrocities, and succeeded in destroying Hiintander's little army. MacGregor was then sent to the succor of the provilu'fl; and Santander commanded his vanguard. They recovered the province; mid Hmitander, being made a colonel, was again charged with its defence. He was all.irkcd, but repulsed the assailants; and Wiii mibw-quently appointed to the more Important |xist of Ocana. Having scarcely live hundred men under his command, he was about to lie attacked by a greatly subody of troops, but, by a bold and iiuiiKi'iivre, rejoined Urdaneta Ira, and the relics of the patriot

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divisions. He was now made second m command under general Serviez, who wv posted at Puente ReuL But the force of Murillo was overwhelming; and New Grenada became the prey of the Spaniards. Santander retired into Venezuela and prepared to second the efforts of Bolivar. He was employed to organize the militia of the province of Casanare. To prevent this, the viceroy Saniano despatched a force, under Barreiro, of 2500 men, who were harassed by the few troops under Santander, until the latter was joined by Bolivar. An engagement at Bojaca terminated in the total defeat of Barreiro. This campaign restored Bogota to the patriots, and Santander was immediately appointed, by Bolivar, vice-president of Cundinamarca. He contributed more than any other person, to the assembling of the congress of Cucuta; and tha: body elected him vice-president of Colombia. He took the oaths of office October 3, 1821. From that period, be is to be considered as the actual head of the executive; because Bolivar, the titular president, being engaged in prosecuting tinwar in Quito and Peru, left the administration of affairs entirely to the vice-president. Like Bolivar, he was elected to a second term of office, to commence January 1, 1827. He seems to have acted. all things considered, with judgment, prudence and ability, in the arduous task ol lialancing factions, giving effect to a new system, and healing the wounds of s country bleeding from a long war of the most terrible character. Until the insurrection of Paez in Venezuela, whirl; broke out in May, 1826, Santandcr's success corres|)onded to his patriotism. During the residue of that year, he becanK extensively known as the great champion of that republican constitution which he was sworn to support, and, of course, became the object of unmitigated abuse. from the disorganizers and insurrection ists of Venezuela. He ended actual hostilities with Paez, and left the insurrection to l>e quieted by Bolivar, to whom tbe disaffected appealed. In 1827, Santander entered upon his second term of office. and from that time was opposed to Bolivar, and was the rallying |>oint of the con stitutional aud republican party". In September, 1827, Bolivar entered upon the duties of the office of president, and, of course, the executive authority ceased ii. be vested in Santander, who was now regarded as the personal enemy of Bolivar . but, in fact, was hostile only "to the denier of the liberator to suspend or subvert the

constitution, and assume the dictatorship of Colombia. This object he constantly and firmly resisted. After the dissolution of the convention of Ocaiiu in 1828, when the suffrages of the army placed Bolivar above the constitution, Santander sought to leave the country, but was unable to do it. At length, he was accused as an accomplice in an attempt to assassinate Bolivar. Although nothing was proved against him, except the general fact that he was the head of the republican party; and although his character and standing alone were enough to negative the presumption of his guilt; yet he was pronounced guilty, and sentenced to be banel led. A fresh charge of correspondence with malcontents in Popayan occasioned his confinement in the prison of Boca Chica; but, at length, he regained his liberty, and departed from his country. After spending some lime in Europe, he came to the United States in 1831, preparatory to returning to South America, where the death of Bolivar and the respect of his co-patriots have removed the obstacles to his influence. {Revue Amir., No. 3, p. 450.) In May, 1832, commissioners arrived in Philadelphia to inform him that he had been elected president of Colombia.

Sajttee; a river of South Carolina, formed by the union of the Congaree and Wateree. It Sows into the Atlantic by two mouths, twenty miles below Georgetown. It affords good navigation, at some seasons, nearly three hundred miles, to Morgamovrn, in North Carolina. It is connected with Cooper river by a canal. The main branch in North Carolina is called Catawba.

Santiago, the capital of Chile, is situated in a pleasant plain on the Mapocho, thirty leagues distant from the Pacific, seven from the Andes, fifty-five miles -outh-east of Valparaiso; lat. 33° 26' S.; loo. 70° 44' W. The population of the city and environs is about 40,000. Among the principal buildings are the mint, the cabildo, government-house, cathedral, and other churches, and several convents. The private houses arc mostly built of clay baked in the sun; the churches and other principal buildings of brick or ttone. The streets are straight and regular, and the city contains a number of handsome squares. (See Chile.) Santiago, or St. Jago. (See Jago, St.) Sap. (See Plants.) Sap Greek. This pigment is prepared by mixing the juice of the ripe berries of the buckthorn (rhamnvs catharticus) with

alum. The juice of the unripe berries has the color of saffron, and is used for staining maps or paper; and if the berries be gathered late in the autumn, the juice is purple. The buckthorn is a large shrub, with inconspicuous greenish flowers, somewhat resembling the privet when in fruit, which grows wild throughout Europe, and is naturalized in some parts of the U. States. The bark affords a beautiful yellow dye. The berries are small, globular and black, and possess purgative properties, but are chiefly employed in color-making, and sometimes in dyeing: they enter into commerce under the name of French berries.

Sappare (cyanite; disthene; rfuetizite). The primary form of this mineral iB a doubly-oblique prism, of which the terminations are nearly rhombs. The angles of the prism are 106° 15- and 73° 45*; of the terminal plane on the prism, in one direction 100° 5C and 79° W, and in the other 93° 15- and 86° 4a7. It ordinarily occurs in four or eight sided prisms of considerable length, and destitute of regular terminations. The cleavage is highly perfect, parallel with the broader faces of the prism, but less distinct in the direction of the narrower lateral face, and that of the terminal plane. Lustre vitreous; color generally some shade of blue, occasionally very intense berlin-blue; it is also green, gray and white; streak white, transparent or translucent; hardness not inferior to that of feldspar; on the solid angles, equal to quartz; specific gravity 3.6. The massive varieties consist of large, broad, columnar individuals; sometimes straight lamellar, often curved, variously aggregated; having their faces of composition, in most cases, irregularly streaked. Three varieties of the present species, analyzed, the first by Saussure, the second by Laugier, the third by Klaproth, have yielded,

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