Crystals and largo cleavablc varieties are found at St. Got hard in Switzerland, the Zillcrthal in the Tyrol, the Sail Alps inCarinthia,at Chesterfield in Massachusetts^nd Litchfield, Connecticut, in the U. States. The variety of a white color in fine, interlaciiifr prisms, called rhrtlizile, comes only t'rom I'litsoh in the Tyrol. Thin laminae of sappare are sometimes employed as a .support in blow-pipe experiments with minerals. Blue transparent varieties are cut and polished, and then sometimes sold as an interior kind of sapphire. Sapphire. (See Corundum.) Sappho, a distinguished Greek j>oetess, was born at Mityleue, on the island of Lesbos, and flourished alxmt t!00 U. C Alcteus, like her, a lyric poet, and a native of the same island, is said to have loved her; but his inssion was not returned. The brilliant fame which she enjoyed seems to have subjected her to calumny, and even to persecution, on account of which she left Lesbos. She is particularly accused of unnatural love to her own sex; hence the expression Sapphic love. She must not be confounded with a later Sappho, also a native of Lesbos, the place of whose birth was Eresus, famous for having thrown herself from the Lcncadian rock, in despair, on account of her unrequited love for a youth named Pbaon. Ovid, however, confounds the two.—See Welker's Sappho vindicated against a prevailing Prejudice (Gottingen, 181(i). The ancients ascribe various poems to the elder Sappho,—hymns, odes, elegies, epigrams.—of which only fragments have come down to us: these display deep feeling, glowing imagination, and a high finish. She is said to have invented several metres; at least one still bears her name, and has l>een used by ancient and modern poets:—

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West), which indicated their geographical situation in Asia, was improper is Europe.

Saragossa (in Spanish, Zaragoza): t citv of Spain, capital of Arragon, lying it. a fertile plain on the Ebro, one hundred and seventv-five miles north-east of Madrid; Ion. "l° 42- W.; lat. 41° 3# N. Ii i« an old town, built on the site of the ancient Roman colony Caesar Augustus, of which the present name is a corruption. The streets, with the exception of the long and wide Cozo, and a few other*, are narrow and crooked. There is a ntf stone bridge, six hundred feet long, over the Ebro. Previous to 1808, it had 55.0W' inhabitants, eighteen churches, and forty monasteries. Among the churches, that of Our Lady of the Pillar (.Wuttra &nora del Pilar) is celebrated for its miraculous image of the virgin, to which pilgrimages are made from different parts "I Spain. The canal of Arragon, nearly a hundred miles in length, which affur!Ji'avarre and Arragon a cominunicaii<i with the Mediterranean, approaches tj> city. The present population of the chy is 45,000. Saragossa has gained celebrity by the two sieges which it sustained in 1808 and 18011. The adjoining province? of Catalonia and Navarre were overrun by the French troops; Saragossa c< •: tained not more than two hundred an.; twenty regulars, and was unfortified : anthe public treasury was eniptv. Whet, the people were seeking for a leader, the rank of Palafox, and the favor which be was known to have enjoyed with Ferdinand, directed their choice to him, and. accordingly, May 25, 1808, he was proclaimed by them governor of Saragom. and of all the kingdom of Arragon. H." was then in his eight and twentieth year and had but a scanty portion of military knowledge. He immediately called int. service all the half-pay officers, forme. 1 several corps, composed, in part, of tin students of the university, took Ouv-t measures to sustain a siege, ami, May 31. declared war against the French, in • proclamation remarkable for its enersj This paper was hardly issued, before J French corps of t'OOO men marched !• attack Saragossa. The French genen' was, however, met bv the Spaui&nk and, after a hard struggle, was compel!"! to retire. Palafox took advantage of this to quit the city for a while, in order to collect troops and organize the defence of the rest of the province. IIreturned with about 1500 men, who hut retreated from Madrid, and was soon inv«ed by the French, who had received powerful reinforcements, and a train of jrtUkry. The besiegers carried the post fTorrero and some other exterior works, not without great loss, pushed forward their isacks against the gates of El Carmen and Ki Portiuo, began to bombard the city, July 22, and, August 4, forced their way ia:o the place, by the gate of Santa Enzraria, and, at length, made themselves masters of nearly half of Saragossa. The French general now summoned 1'alafox ;■> surrender. His summons was contained in the following laconic sentence: - Head-Quarters, St. Engracia, capitulation." With equal laconism, Palaibx in■sandy replied, "Head-Quarters, Sarap*iea. War at the point of the knife." August 5, the brother of Palafox had opened a passage into the city, with 3000 rf-pilar troops. A council of war was aow held, in which it was resolved that '.he remaining quarters of the city should bf contested inch by inch, and that, should they be lost, the |>eople should retire across the Ebro into the suburbs, destroy the tiridge, and defend the suburbs to the last man. This resolution was unanimously ipplauded by the Saragossaus. They did wx. however, content themselves with resting ou the defensive. They fell upon ;he besiegers with unequalled and irre**ible fury. The struggle continued for eleven days, almost without intermission. Every day the people gained ground, till, it last, the enemy held only a narrow fpace within the walls. Convinced that there was no longer any hope of success, the French general abandoned the siege, which had lasted sixty-one days, and cos* him several thousand men. Palafox availed himself of the-breathing-time thus obtained to increase his force, and construct additional works. He was not albwed a long respite. To reduce Sarasossa to submission was, on many accounts an object of great importance to the French. In November, therefore, a large army, under marshals Mortier and Monc*y, marched to recommence the •iege. Palafox was defeated at Tudela, and again under the walls of Saragossa, and the place was invested. Being summoned to surrender, he replied and acted with the same energy as before. The approaches were vigorously carried on by the French, and a furious bombardment was incessantly kept up. Almost hourly nombats took place between the besiegers and the besieged, in which the latter displayed a desperate valor. At length, January 27, a general assault was made, and

the French established themselves on the breaches. Once more they penetrated, by degrees, into the city, and once more they met with the most obstinate and sanguinary resistance. Old men, women and children, all took a part in endeavoring to stop the progress of the besiegers. Not only street by street, but house by house, and even room by room, was contended for, like the outworks of a fortress, and frequently lost and recovered. The besiegers finally resorted to mining to win their way, their progress by open force being bought at too dear a rate. In this way they became masters of about one fourth of the surface of the city. Saragossa, however, would long have resisted all their efforts, had it not been assailed by a force more terrible tlian the besiegers. An epidemic fever raged in the place, and spread destruction among the ranks of the Saragossans, there being neither hospitals, nor medicines, nor even shelter for the sick. Palafox himself was attacked by it, and, February 20, was obliged to give up the command to general St. Marc, by whom the capitulation was signed on the following day. The garrison was reduced to less than 12,000 men, who, when they marched out of the city, had more the api>earance of spectres than of human beings. During this second siege, 54,000 of the besieged perished, of whom a fourth were soldiers. (See Spain.)

Sar Louis. (See Soar Louis.) Saratoga; a post-township of NewYork, in Saratoga county, on the west side of the Hudson, thirty miles north-byeast from Albany; population in 1830, 2461. Saratoga is memorable as the place where general Burgoyne surrendered the British armv, consisting of 5791 meu, to general Gates, October 17, 1777. In 1819, Saratoga townsliip was divided, and the western part was named Saratoga Springs. Saratoga Springs is an incorporated village, containing celebrated mineral waters, and is situated seven miles north-east of Ballston Spa, and thirty-two north of Albany; population in 18.'J0, 2204. Here are extensive establishments for the accommodation of the numerous invalids and people of fashion, who resort hither during the summer season. The surrounding country has very few charms. The springs are very numerous, and several of them are very large. The Congress Spring is the most celebrated, and great quantities of the water are bottled and sent to all parts of the union. (For the ingredients of this water, see Congress Spring.)

Sarcolatrs. (See .Ipoilinarians.) Sarcophagus (from mpt, flesh, and <i,ayv, I eat); originally a species of limestone, found in the neighborhood of Assor, in Mysm, which, according to Pliny {Hist. .Yatur. ii, 96, and xxxvi, 17], had the power of destroying, within forty days, the corpses put into it, so that nothing remained entire except the teeth. Hence the name. This quality brought the stone into use for coffins, and thus the name came to be applied to all coffins of stone, though often used for a contrary purpose to that which the name expresses. The ancients, who embellished every thing, soon adorned die sarcophagi and often placed them upon the monuments which were originally erected over graves, to protect them against violence {monumenturn, i. e. mum'men/um). Under the Roman emperors, this custom became more general, and rare species of stone were used. The Egyptian coffins of granite and alabaster served as models. Of the great number of sarcophagi which have come down to us, several are known by particular names; thus the sarcophagus of Homer, in die Besborodko gardens at St. Petersburg, and Uiat of Alexander, in the British museum, once in the mosque of St. Athanosius at Alexandria, taken by the British from the French, during their campaign in Egypt. English archaeologists have labored to prove its genuineness, and it is known that the body of Alexander was removed from the temple of Jupiter Amnion to Memphis, and afterwards to Alexandria, where Augustus and Septimius Severus (202 A. D.) saw it. The tomb, it is supposed, was so magnificent that the Christian destroyers spared it (diough not the liody), and changed it into a church of St. Athanasius. The sarcophagus, it is said, was used as a cistern. The statement of Chrysostom (Optra x, 625, ed. Montfaucon) seems to be inconsistent with diis opinion, which,however, derives some support from an Oriental tradition. Clarke describes diis sarcophagus, which is covered widi hieroglyphics, in his Tomb of Alexander (Cambridge, 1805, 4to.). The form of these sarcophagi was ordinarily a parallelopipedon, or an oblong square, similar to our coffins. Sometimes the angles were rounded, thus assuming an elliptical shape. Some sarcophagi were not intended to contain die whole body, but only an urn.

Sard, or Sardoim; a variety of cariwlian, which exhibits, by reflected light, a dull reddish-brown color, but by trans

mitted light appears of a rich blood-red color.

Sardanapalus, or Tonoskoxkoleio^ (supposed to be the Esar-Haddon of Scripture), whose name proverbially denotes effeminate softness and wantonness, was the last king of Assyria. He is said to baitbeen a prince of great power and inunec* wealth, who, according to an inscription on his tombstone, built the cities of Tarsus and Anchiale in one day. Immersed in sensual gratification, he lived inactively and ingloriously, in women's clothes, ainun? his concubines, and thereby excited against him the discontent of his subject-. Arbaccs, a Median satrap, and Belesis, a Babylonian priest, together raised an annt against him; whereupon Sardaiutpalu* marched out to meet them, and overcame them in three battles. In the belief that he was perfectly secure, he returned anew to his pleasures, and prepared a splendid banquet for his victorious army. But Arbaces, aided by the Bactrians, attacked his camp by night, gained a great victor). and pursued the fugitives to the very gat» of Nineveh. Here Sardanapalus defended himself for two years, while nil heprovinces in the mean time revolted. An inundation of die Euphrates at length destroyed a part of the city walk, and thereby rendered it impossible to continue the defence of Nineveh. In this desperate state of affairs, Sardanapalus set hi* palace on fire, and consumed himself, together widi all his wives, servants and treasures, in the twenty-first year of his reign. His destruction is usually considered as having token place in the year 888 B. C, but, according to Yolney, it should be placed in die year 717.

Sardes, or Sardis; the ancient capital of Lydia, on the river Pactolus, not far from the mount Tmolus. Under the Persians, it was a magnificent city, and a great market for slaves, on the couunercial route from Asia to Europe. The Greeks conquered and burned it 500 R C. An earthquake again destroyed it, but Tiberius rebuilt it. A small village stand* at present on its site, and considerable ruins still attest its ancient grandeur.

Sardinia; an island in the Mediterranean sea, having the title of kingdom, with a superficial area of 9100 square miles, and a population of 490,050. It contains nine towns, fifteen villages, and 377 hamlets, and is separated from Cornea on the north by the straits of Bonifacio. The soil is fruitful, yielding com, wine, oil, figs, and other southern fruits. There is an abundance of wood on the mountains. but, on account of the want of good roads, the sea|tort towns are supplied from Corsica; on the same account Sardinia has no posts. The horses, which, in some pans, run wild, and the horned cattle, are mail, but well made. The fisheries are important. Large quantities of salt and •.■hees*: are manufactured, and the latter is '■sported. The causes of the small population of this fertile islnnd are to he referretl to the accumulation of the landed property in a few hands, and the absence of the great proprietors (there are in Sar■unia 376 fiefs, half of which belong to Spanish families), the privileges of the nobility and clergy, and the practice of private revenge (1000 murders have been committed in the space of one month). The interior exhibits an astonishing degree of barbarism; the peasants are clothed m leather or undressed skins, and the mountains are infested with banditti. The ;rrinripal towns are the capital, Cagliari iq. v.V and Sassari (20,000 inhabitants). Sardinia was probably settled by Pelaseian colonies, in the time of the Heraclides, as the noraghs, or ancient monuments, found in the island, indicate. The number of these monuments is about 600: those which are entire are fifty feet high, with a diameter of ninety feet at base, and terminating at the summit in a cone. They are built on little hills, in a plain, of 'iifferent sorts of stones,, ami in some case? are surrounded by a wall. The island then belonged successively to the Carthaginians, Romans,Vandals, Saracens, the popes, the German emperors, to Pisa, Genoa, and Spain. In 1720, it was ceded to the duke of Savov, as an indemnification lor the loss of Sicily. (See Sardinian Monarchy.) The island was mildly governed by a viceroy, and the inhabitants allowed to retain their old usages. Some dissatisfaction, however, arose towards the close of the century, and, in 1703, a rebellion broke out, which was terminated by the concessions of the government in 1796. The revenue from the island is inconsiderable. The inhabitants an: Catholics, and speak several different dialects, some of which are a mixture of Spanish and Italian. The better classes spakpure Italian.—See Marmora's Voyagern Sardaigne, dt 181<>—1825 (Paris, 1826); M imam's Histoire de Sardaigne 11825): Smyth's Present State of Sardinia lLond.,182c'');and Petit-Radel'sjVbftcas sur la JWiraghes de la Sardaigne (Paris, 1820').

Sardinian Monarchy; a kingdom of the south of Europe, composed of the island of Sardinia, and of several coun

Tol. w. 18

tries of the continent It comprises in the whole an extent of 28,000 square miles, with a population (in 1829) of 4,165,277 (300,000 French in Savoy, 3,865,077 Italians, and 3200 Jews). The population, with the exception of the Jews, and 21,900 Waldenses, is entirely Catholic. The continental parts of which the monarchy is composed are as follows: The duchy of Savoy; the duchy of Piedmont; the county of Nice or Nizza, with the principality of Monaco; the duchies of Montferrat and (Sardinian) Milan; and the duchy of Genoa (see the separate articles); which are divided, for administrative purposes, into eight provinces ; Savoy, Turin, Coni, Alessandria, Novara, Aosta, Nizza and Genoa. The revenue amounts to $900,000; the expenditure to $1,050,000; debt to $2,500,000; army, 28,000 men, exclusive of 40,000 militia, on the island of Sardinia. The power of the crown is unlimited: the administration is conducted by three secretaries of state: the succession to the throne is confined to die male line. In the island of Sardinia there are estates, and in Genoa the assent of the estates is necessary for the imposition of new taxes. The nobility is numerous, but not exempt from taxation. The clergy (39 archbishops and bishops, 3990 parish priests, 293 male and 144 female convents) is not very wealthy. The papal power is limited by a concordate. There are four universities, at Turin, Genoa, Cagliari and Sassari, but education is in a low state. The reigning prince, the first of the house of Savoy Carignan, is Charles Emanuel, born 18C0, married Theresa, sister of the grand-duke of Tuscany, in 1817, succeeded his uncle Charles Felix, May, 1831. He has two sons, Victor Emanuel (bom in 1820), and Ferdinand (born in 1822). The royal title is king of Sardinia, Cyprus and Jerusalem, and duke of Savoy. The crownprince is styled prince of Piedmont. Former sovereigns, Victor Amadeus II, 1713—30; Charles Emanuel III, to 1773; Victor Amadous III, 1796; Charles Emanuel IV, abdicated 1802; Victor Emanuel I, abdicated 1821 ; Charles Felix, died 1831. The nucleus of this monarchy was Savoy, a fragment of several states that had crumbled to pieces (the old kingdom of Burgundy, the Frankish monarchy, the Carlovingian kingdom of Italy, and the kingdom of Aries), which became independent in the beginning of the eleventh century. Rodolph III, lost king of Aries, created Berthold count of Savoy in 1016. He was probably the ancestor of the subsequent counts and dukes of Savoy. The counts of Savoy gradually extended their territories, partly by marriages, partly by their adherence to the German emperors, in the disputes between the Guelfs and Gibelines, partly by purchase, and partly by an artful policy in their connexions with the Spanish, French and Austrian courts. By the marriage of the duke Louis with Anne of Lusignan, daughter of James, king of Cyprus, and the will of the queen-dowager of Cyprus (1482), the house of Savoy obtained claims to the kingdom of Cyprus, which caused the kings of Sardinia, at a later period, to assume the title of kings of Cyprus and Jerusalem. In the history of the state we may distinguish two periods. —I. From the first settlement of the succession (1383) by the will of count Amadeus VI, which established the indivisibility of the dominions, and the descent in order of primogeniture, until the admission of the Sardinian monarchy into the European family of states, by the peace of Utrecht. In this period, among other acquisitions, the house of Savoy gained possession of the county of Nizza (1399), and count Amadeus VIII received the ducal title from the emperor Sigismund in 1416; but in the wars between the emperor Charles V and Francis I of France, it lost, in the middle of the sixteenth century, the Valais and Geneva, which put themselves under the protection of Switzerland, and the Pays de Vaud, which was taken possession of by Berne. Philibert Emanuel, who had been driven from his territories by the French, served with so much distinction as the general of Philip II of Spain, in the war against Franco, that by the peace of Chateau Cambresi9 (1559), Savoy and Piedmont were restored to him. Meanwhile Protestantism had crept into the country. At the exhortation of the i>ope, Philibert determined to convert the Protestants, among whom were many Waldenses, by force; but ho was several times defeated by them in the mount/tins; on one of which occasions he lost 7000 men, and was obliged to grant them freedom of religious worship. This prince encouraged manufactures among his subjects, and laid the foundation for the present extensive culture of silk by the introduction of mulberry trees. He also began the construction of several fortresses, and built the citadel of Turin. In 1476, he acquired the principality of Oneglia by exchange, and the county of Tenda by purchase. In the war for the Spanish succession,

duke Victor Amadeus II acquired possession of a part of Milan (Alessandria. Val di Sesia, &c.) as an imperial 6e£, and of the duchy of Momferrut, which had been originally (twelfth century) a German morquisatc, and which should have devolved to Piedmont by descent in 1631. The peace of Utrecht (1713) added Sicily, Willi the royal title; but, in 1720, the new king was obliged to receive Sardinia in lieu of that island.—II. The second period, from 1720 to the present time, embraces three distinct divisions in Sardinian history. 1. The foriy-tkret Years' Reign of King Charles Emanuel III (1730—73\ who was equally distinguished as a general and a ruler. By die peace of Vienna (1735), as the ally of France and Spain against Austria, he obtained a second fragment of Milan (Tortona and Novara), as an imperial fief, and by the treaty of Worms (1743), during the war tor the Austrian succession, a third fragment (Anghiero, Vigevano, &c), likewise as fiefs of the empire. In 1762, he was the mediator of the peace between France and England. By the wisdom of his government, tii ■ country was placed in a most prosperous condition; and the new code of laws (Corpus Carolinum), promulgated in 1770, is an honorable monument of his reign. In his disputes with the pope, Charles Emanuel maintained the rights of the state, as acknowledged by the concordate of 1726 (confirmed by Benedict XIV, in 1742), made all ecclesiastical appointments, subjected the clergy to taxation, and made his sanction requisite to give validity to the pa|wl hulk. 2. The unfortunate Reigns of Victor Amadeus III (died 1796), and of Charles Emanuel IV (abdicated 1802J. The former joined Austria against France, July 25, 1692, and was stripped of Savoy and Nizza in September of the same year. The latter entered into an alliance with France against Austria (April 5, 1797); but his territory was, nevertheless, invaded by the French directory, which mode the complaints of the Sardinian people against the burden of taxes and the privileges of thr nobility a pretext, and he was compelled to cede all his continental dominions (Dec. 9,1798) to France. He retained only the island of Sardinia, whither he was obliged to retire with his family. June 4, 1802, he abdicated in favor of his brother, Victor Emanuel I, and lived as a private individual at Rome, where he died in 1819, having entered the order of Jesuits in 1817. From 1806, Piedmont with Genoa was incorporated with the French empire.—

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